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Full text of "Barr's Buffon. Buffon's Natural history, containing a theory of the earth, a general history of man, of the brute creation, and of vegetables, minerals, &c. From the French. With notes by the translator. In ten volumes. .."

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The gift of 

Miss Emma F. I. Dunston 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^a/rrd c^uffon. 

BiifFon's Natural Hiftory. 



^ OP THl 





With Notes by the TRANSLATOR. 

VOL. V. 


. :^- ■ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





Hiftory of the Brute Creation. 
Chap, L Of ihe Nature of Animals 

• 1 

Chap. IL Of Domejiic Animals - 

- 88 

i:he Horfe - - 

- 93 

The Afs ^ 

- 179 

TheO>c -. - 


The Sheep 

- 243 

The Goat - 

- 264 

The Swiney the Hog of Siam^ 

and the Wild Boar - 278 
The Dog ^ - - - 302 

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DireffitHsftr-Fhicitig the Plates. 

Page 9J Fig. iS^-J^. 
218 Fig. 20, 21. 
243 Fig. 22, 23. 
263 Fig. fch 25. 
272 Fig. 26, 27. 
290 Fig..28, 29. 
320 Fig. 30, 31. 
3^1 Fig. 32, 13, 34, 35. • 
322: Fig. 36, 37, 38, 39, 4a, 4r. 

323 FJg- 42T 43- 

333 Fig- 44i 45. 

334 Fig- 46, 47- 

335 Fig. 48, 49- 

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AS all our knowledge turns upon the re- 
lations by which one objeft differs from : 
another, if there exified no. brute animsjs . 
the nature of the human being would be ftill : 
more incomprehenfible. Having confidered. 
man in himfelf, ought we not to derive every 
affiftance^by comparing him with the other , 
parts of the atumal creation ? We will proceed . 
VOL. v. -. B then 

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a buffon's 

then to examine the nature of animals, to 
compare their /jr^anization, to ftudy their 
general economy/dQ-eiylo^Jice particular 
applications, to mark refemblances, to reconcile 

the djffe^^e^ rfl fc 9''}'f^W ""^ 
thole combmations, to diftrnguflh^^ejithittpal 
eiFe£ts of the living mechanifm, and to make a 
farfhpr rrp^(yp^|| 'yi that impor tant knowle dge of 
which mgn is the objedl ? 

We will begin by reducing within its pro- 
per Jjmits a fubjeS which, at firft view, appears 
to *t)V Immerile/' * The* prbjfie Ates "^ of matter 
which animals pofTefs in ^ common with inani- 
maite bMflgS CO t lTe W winMuurprLleht Lui t^ 
jfideration, and which we have already fully 
treated upon. *^6t ihh %,fhe^ r^afon we Ihall 
rejeft feh iflH^^ties as^ar£,fpupd^eq.ually to 
belong to the vegetable and to the animal. As 

in the clafs of anifiiriB"^»PFC9fftprehend a num- 
ber of animated beings, whofe organization 
is-tigMy diilinreiiti fi;)on»<bftU>fr<(iaf^^$:well A 
fi»m*more pef&A' ammal^. to A/ifefliadlw^^ 
tht cdiifideratibH .of- them^ 'Xnixdxilinfi.diU^. 
H^vts t6 thofe ^mmab which have efvidend|rr:tbd 
gfreatcft affitii^ td ai. ..> .".. -rcr:; st rr 

VButaS'thenAttiifr* <rf-niAQ is fuperior to that 
cFanimdS^ ffii'of thatfi^riorlty wttih^Addy 
td cTemoaftrdt^t^ Cs^^^kk^ igfkiJitU:wB.naj i 

/ • •• - ii diftiagui&/ 

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a)qfn<|Is. ; ,; ■,> -r, ,< :;'.„ ^y[x)d slsmincni n:. ni « 

<fefeEif tiflii jififsgSBfts, juorijiw ttifi ,x'l^i""5n 

^eisrtrij'.; 4sfejh«^feiraie''^fi41l(jMffrHfll§s>fiCi 

as well.whJiH |&qjaia«l^B!s*^#fl8eB,^^i^^, ^ 
is '^iwajsfit .*94t » v^rf%e "fefttef^y -Pece^ 

jflterJtHptionj tji? Q^eriifi H M ff'i^ffi U ^^^k 
a^ but by intervals. ;. 

. The ,$rft 4iyifi9n, .jC^F ,^^ ,Miii)?l ^i;pnfpny 
afiRWr? general apd KeV,jr(Ju^d.„i^.Jjn»PWj 
iKfiexi .afleq>, is more ep;^ jjp^^jjfpfliune^ thajj 
B 2 ' when 

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4 BUrF0N*8 

when awake and in motion. This difFerence 
is eflendal, and not a fimple change of fituatlon 
as in an inanimate body, which may be equally 
and indifierendy at reft or in motion ; for in 
cither of thefe ftates it would perpetually re- 
main, unlefs conftrained to quit it by fome 
external power or refiftance. By its own 
powers the animal changes its condition ; and 
naturally, and without conftraint, it pafTes 
from repofe to aAion, and from adion tore- 
pofe. The period for awaking returns as 
necelTarily as that for fleep, and both arrive 
independent of any foreign caufe ; fince in 
either ftate the animal cannot exift but fori 
certain time, and an uninterrupted continuity 
of either would be equally fatal to life. 

In the animal economy, therefore, we 
may diftinguifh two parts ; the one afts per- 
petually without interruption, and the ether 
afts only by intervals. The aftion of the 
heart and lungs in animals that breathe, and 
of the heart in the foetus, fecm to conftitute 
the former, as does the adion of the fenfcs, and 
.and the movements of the members of the 

If we imagine beings endowed by nature 
with on|[y the firft part of this animal econo- 
my, ihotjgh deprived of^enfe and progreffive 


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KATUKatanSmORY. ^ 

fl«t|xngiai»Q^,-i(iin4pib3^iipriI,fiei09ry .tirgaio 
nicutt D bQUigvi:fkftttilteIaBfin^lifer:«n4^cfin9tiltei 

^ateji 9^P^i^n#jl.;lbjrotbtel«»rfifiWi^^^ 

air a .ba^i m -t&eixafiitBiId)fi«QQiS^y. .i*jb (Np 
tinually^Land cbeinftfit israrfouhofttta ifle^ ^hftA 

the contrary, that which a lufiflgu^wttdi^rift 
«ifp^eaDesr 1^ iirijchBx^bmjE) foii»b«k>nl of 

"iifefi ;: 1 . 3nf!t : iv/ n.-i'rr n lo ^bod Siij ! ":; i •• • .> 
:^;A»i$igdAlWyjtte<«a4r|)ait)JwWdh a&rfiPfV 

*> *fibofiittttotlH)forfi)^Dgs tQ!«r*cb::jw^[ig#9 

ttelb-nai Miaian$idt2Wo^4rberl^))l iv^di 

^tei3ifi»Ai& «i^an(!ridliQb <i£i«ni|E)ii(^j|9^ i«gf 
ai B 3 tables 

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6 bvffom's 

tables may be, the inferences wiH be the fame. 
They each receive nourifliment, grow, expand, 
have external motions, and a vegetating life. 
But of progreffive motion, action, and fenti- 
ment, they will be equally deftkute; nor be 
endowed with any interior or apparent cha* 
ra£):er, by which animal life may be difttn- 
guifbed. . Invefting however, this internal 
part with fenfes, and members, animal life 
will (M-efently manifeft itfdf $ and the more 
this cover fhall contain of fenfe and members, 
the more will the animal life be pcrfcS:, It 
is by this inveftment that animals differ from 
each other. The internal part belongs, with- 
out exception, to all animals ; and is nearly the 
fame in all which ' have flefli and blood, l^he 
external cover, however, is widely different ; 
and, it is at its extremities that the greateft 
differences fubiifl:. 

In order to ducidate this argun^ient, let us 
compare the body of a man with that of a horfe 
•or an ox. In each the heart Mid lungs, or the 
organs of circulation, and of refpiration, are 
iKsarly the 6me j but the external cover is 
highly diffet^e^, The materials of the animal 
•body, tim^ "th<i parts are iimiliar to thoie 
of the f:t»ma% vary greatly as to number, fize^ 
-and pofitioni and thereby the diffimilitudei 


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in their refpeftlve forms are rendered very 
wide. Beiides we (hall fiiid that the greated 
differences are at the extremities ; for in di- 
viding the body into three principal parts^ the 
trunk, the head, and the members ; we find> 
that in the head and members, which are the 
extremities of the body, confifts the moft ma- 
terial difference between man and other ani- 
mals. We difcover, that the greateft diffe- 
rence in the trunk is at the two extremities ; 
fince in men there are calviclcs at the upper 
extremity, which in animals are wanting ; and 
the under extremity of animals is terminated 
by a tail, confifting of a certain number of ex- 
terlor vertebrae, which the human body is ivith- 
out. The inferior extremity of the head, alfo, 
as the jaw-bones, and the upper extremity, as 
the bones of the forehead, differ prodigioufly in 
man and beaft. Finally by comparing the mem- 
bers of a man, with thofe of other animals, we 
plainly perceive it is at the extremities they 
differ ixioft, as no two things bear left refem- 
blance to each other, than the human hand with 
the foot of a horle, or an ox. 

Taking Ae heart then for the centre of the 
animal machine, We find in that and other ad- 
jacent parts, there is. a perfeft refemblance be- 
tween man and olher animals^ but the more 


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we ren*ye; from oij^isrr^f^r^v ]^. >npiT *efj 
become diffcr^n^i :»rtf tt^l*i:il> lllt'l^i^Otrc Ut.- 
fclf there: is £oi*iti'«^ 4iffer!«n«,:jdjten'dife«tini 
iD4l is: : tffifiAitely more diftaoti frCwarj int»i^.«ii&4lf 
pftfffjTe^ vnpthi^T-illr Qonw<i«a ^tfei Adfe^iini-r* 

tl<t$' pruHjipal: pvtrof thje ^ntuwiT cc^ctmyi) 
Lifted; of heart aiid^j|ing§, thc^y bSAffe pktstr 
Vhi<?bf i>eip& fubfervientt^o Ah^iyk»\Juf^^ns^i 
hskvefeeenicwfilfec^^ a$ analogous tQ.rihfifetvift 
<tera,^but,whicbiiairedity widely \4ip5br ffom? 
ijlitfimsibotb in {ttM&iirc andxe^UIjiicf ii<Skm9 amik 
ihercfoneiMrqfinfoafit to the k^.itegcoe rfii&rewtf 
fr/tovraanand o^^r ^nimAk, v-, j$^ ijaMw^ 4iffe-5 
j|;eii^c ^n the centrical 4)aytj ia : rffertiyj*. acconoffi 
ffm\^ wi* an infinitely gtm^m^ the ^xterior. 
pflrtsU: The tortoife, yrhofe heayKMpf:* 
Ua,f ftfU(9bui-e, is a »very exOT^rcJft^apy Laoifioal? 
^ ^.not th^JSaalkft refen^l^p^fft^raj^^otheit 
;^«umal^<J being. ; , ^ ::: gi 3I :./i.oio. v:. • q 
^. la . I CQofidpri^g ;nifi9, v/f i»4r«p^femWj'd$t 

€St^^H«s^ 9«ttm^ /i&^ ,f:^^^£3SeooaivlKiif 
prodigious variety d«o TrtK -An^lki the tigM0i»i4i 
WfiPWt«3fti9^ Itei^chq^i^ ^3di«rfpi§B*>^j['Bnd 
p^gti9nt^fShsir:>JMei^iS iwt^.ifUkift^il£»iii9£ 
tli«frt,ft?ftt'#tffei?«>#Biiq ei^4«Jf(fd^:hft>5^n»fct 

^H 'live 

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Hve in another element, and though their mode 
of generation is fimiliar to that of quadrupeds, 
yet they difFer greatly from them in form, 
having no inferior extremities j birds differ ftill 
more by their beaks,^ feathers, wings, and their 
propagation by eggs; iifhes and amphibious 
animals are yet farther removed from the human 
form, and reptiles have no members. In the 
whole exterior covering there is the greateft 
diverfity, the intbrior conformation being near- 
ly the fame ; tJiey have all a heart, a liver, a 
ftomach, inteftines, and organs for generation ; 
thefe ought to be confidered as parts the moft 
^ntial to the animal economy, fince they 
aVe the. moft fixed, and Icaft fubjeded to va- 
riation. ' ' 

But it is to be obferved that, even in the 
cover, there are' fome partis more fixed than 
others. Of all the fenfes none of thefe ani- 
mals are diveftcd. We have already explained 
what may be their fenfation of feeling. What? 
may be the nature of their fmelling and tafte we- 
know not, but we are affured they all enjoy the 
fenfe of feeing, and perhaps that of hearing alfo^ 
The fenfes may be confidered, then, as another 
cflentia! part cf the animal economy, as well 
as the brain, from which, fenftion derives its 
origin. Even infe(3£» which differ fo much in 


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ibc:,i^vfixe^<)l theanJnid econqmyi h^ye ^ part- 
^^j^qus tp the br^,,.and pits jfun^ions. re- 
{f^W ^^<f oi Qd)ef./fnimal$>, and ft^ch^ tW 
<7yifte'8 >?bicb feepis tp be 4f pi;iyed, of a br^^in, h,^ coaiider^d a$ Qnly,h^f:^imated,, 
^4 ds /filling up a» intermediate, Jgpa^^betweei^* 

i,:;A^ilhe,,^r4; isr t)jp j^««rfbifi^i|iq.iWterW?n 

timate and reciprocal, and though of thef^^ji^^ 

<8«Rfi ^,4^^^^. ar^.'^^<5}y'i#5fW^ 
Jffi5fil%:ifian,.wyei: bp, %?W^4. ^^9^^. tb^ 
iiSftai^itfi^tfeoj^ tijf ^m^. ^j : . ^o .ri'::.i 

Q^l^tjqualljj,.: wjthpu^, iutprjpiijpjtjppyj.ia^d. i^de^ 

a^ .^^tq-iqr.,part> ^^ :Oi)ly .t^y.j^}tern;^tean-:( 
t^ryaU, when ?,fie<aed byjCXter^l caufes* . Ob- 
jfj^f? ,1aa, .upoa. ^e fcirfi^ the fg?fes n?o4iiy 
l^i^.aAioni and qarry^tl^e iiTipx^pifion modified 
^tq>4^be bra^ .wh§re J t bccop^ief wi^at we tern^. 
^p^ipn. In coftfeqjwnte . of th^ ijnpreffi^jt 
J. , the 

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ttkB:liKi3nr]fiarf (ki'th^-iiePv'esyafidoDmnidi&del 
jrfas vU^ratioh jfc has!receivcU;i aaadihikwifafatioft 
ifinsHwhiciinpfn^cds' pBogreffion,y iaai(i;idl'' tko 

^tddio!^ fi£bnii|BDik^iao|ib^!Jwr^4iiybnr^th8e ^tbc 
body alfo afis upon the caafe.*^ TboB "objedli 

llMhsate! alb iipoii^^iJiV ofc»)69r by itis czteridt 
iAt^emi:ht«; flW>g0net^-'a£lio» is^ the ^mlh) 
8ft*]re^^Jofc^eieflfe6fc ^^^^ >.:.^ni 

^^ittftay^^eTfeiditbatriiT-'folid bbdiefe, wbtcl| 
folYov^ihd'Uiks hf tnealxi&lCm; ^tbe re-a^ioti^ii 
M#^^^^^^^d^Ai^^ bm fha^ in^th^ aivii 
mkl-bodyii ap^aYStharthi^'re^aidiSdntls'grener 
tb^^'tfte^^^ien/ ^^'tbalf' the' ofiier e^miof 
liiftvferri^n® daght 'nov lo '^be i cohfidered as 
fiibpt^dfibfl^ ef^th^ imprdi}i0n df i^'^As u{k>tt 
the fenfes. To this C)bje<SltW<-Ii|epiyi thaf 
thdt>;|h^'iif t^rt^in taf^ <egb&8 ^^p^^t'pt^r^ 
tioned:tbtb(^r daufo^ tJSefe islrf-Natura in-infl 
feike niimbdr^of <§kfed wlieffe thd «ff(&dl*sap 
no kind of pi^ponioft -ttv their ^^krcht caU^'.- 
By a .fii^l6 fpark of fitet a' magd^ihe- of pdwdfet' 
m^'befet'^*^ tkrlfeme, Sia'-a^'feS^abe bl6\%i? 
up. Bf^e&iri&iHj a^^fli^lit- fii«i^npn)dii^a^ 
v«oI#Ati&6«&j? \i^h}chffti^lfaA\*iaaeaqt<?<^i<i^^ 
di{lanc«i;4'fftit?t& A:^k(fti&ll<t?^i4€^9^^^ii^^ea(>lr 
ot&r they would all be almoft as much af. 

. feaed 

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12 BUFFON's 

feSted by it as if the (hock had been confined 
to each of them individually. It is not, then, 
extraordinary that a flight impreffion on the 
fenfes fhould produce in the animal body a 
violent re.a6tion, and fhould manifeft itfelf by 
exterior movements. 

The caufes.we are qualified to afcertain, and 
the quantity of whofe efFe£b we can precifely 
eftimate, are lefs numerous than thofe whofe 
mode of ad^ion is unknown, and of whofe pro- 
portional relatidri," with their efFefts, we are 
entirely ignorant. Now mofl effe&,s in Na- 
ture depend on a number of caufes differently 
combined, whofe adtions vary, and feem to be 
determined by no eflablifhed law, confequendy 
we can only form a conjectural eftimate by 
endeavouring to approximate the truth, by the 
means of probabilities. 

I pretend, not, then, to afTert, as a demon- 
ftrated fe£l, that progreffive, and other exterior 
movements of animals, are caufed folely by the 
i(npreffion of obje£i:s upon the fenfes. , I men- 
tion it merely as likely, and founded on prin- . 
ciples of analogy, fince all organized beings, • 
which are deflitute of fenfe, are likewife defli- 
tute of progreffive motion,* and that all thofe 
which pofTefs the one have alfo the other. 


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KATtniAt BirfTORy. 1^3 

To iHuffiratc thdc obftrratfons fct m %ri€By 
analyze the phyfical principles of our ^dtons. 
When an objedt ftrikes any of our'fenfe% anH 
the fenfation it produces ts agreeable^ it creates 
a defire, whiA defire muft have a relation tt> 
fome of -our qualities, or 'modes of enjoyment. 
The objeflt we cannot defire but either tofce, 
tafte, hear, finell, or to touch. We defire ?t 
merely that we may render the firft fenfation 
ilill more stgreeable, or to excite another, which 
is a new tnatiner of enj^ing the objeft; for (f 
in the moment that we perceive an objeft we 
could enjoy it fully, through all the fcnfes at 
once, we ihoii?d have nothing to defire. The 
fource of defire, then, is, our being badly 
fituated with refpe<£l.tothe objeS perceived, 
our being either too far from, or too near to 
It. This being the cafe we naturally change 
our fituation, becaufe, at the fame time that we 
perceive tiie object we likewife perceive the 
cade which prevents our obtaining a iiill et>- 
jo3mnertt of it. From the impreffion which 
the objeft produces 4ipon our fenfes then, the 
motion we make in confcquence ofthedefire^ 
and the defire itfdf, folely proceeds. 

An objeft we perceive by the eye, and- which 
we defire to touch, if widiin our reach, we 
fVretch forth our ^handr, andif ata diftahce v/e 
VOL. V. C put 

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put ourlekes in motion to approach it. A 
man deeply imtnerfed in thought, if, he is 
hungry, and there is a piece of bread before 
him, he will fei^e it, and even carry it to his 
«mouA ;and eat it, without being confcious that 
he has done fo. Tliefe movements are a ne- 
ceflary confequence of the firft impreffion.of 
obje(5b, and would never &U to fiicceed this 
impreffion if other intervening impreffions did 
not often oppofe this natural efFedl;, either by 
weakening or by deftroying the aftion of the > 

- An organia^ being void of fenfation, as 4n 
oyfter, whofe fenfe of feeling is probably very 
imperfed, is deprived, not only of progreflive 
motion, but even of fentiment and intelligence) 
finq^ either of thefe would produce defirpy 
which would manifeft itfelf by exterior move- 
ment. That fuch beings are diveftea of a fenfe 
of their own exifteace I will not affert, but, at 
leaft, that fenfe muft be y^ imperfed iince they, 
have no perception of the exiftence of others* 
It is the a£tiori of objects upon. the fenfes, 
which creates defire, and defire progreifive mo- 
tion* In order to rendet^ this truth ftill more fen- 
flble 1^ us fuppofe a man, at the very inftant his 
will incites him to approach an obje£t, fuddenly 
deprived of all his members, his body reduced 

; to 

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to a phyfical point, to a globular atom, anc*, 
provided the defire ftill fublifts, he nC'iU exert 
hfs whole ftrength in order to change his fitua* 
tion. The exterior and progreffiye movement 
depends not, then, upon the organization and 
figure of the body and members, fince what* 
ever be the conformation of any being it will 
not fail to move, provided it has fenfes, and a 
defire to gratify them. 

On tfafs exterior organization, indeed, de« 
pends the facility, quicknefs, dire£Uan, and 
continuity of motion, bat the cauie, principle, 
action, and determinatioo, originate foldy from 
defire occafioned by die impreffion of objeds 
upon the fenfes; and if a man wsis deprived of 
them be would no longer have defire, and con« 
fequently remain conflandy at reft, notwith* 
fbnding h9 might poflefs the facidties 6x mo- 

The natural wsmts, as that of taking noari(h« 
ment, are interior movememsi which necef- 
firily create defire or appetite. Bythefe move- • 
ments exterior motions may be prcduced in 
animils, and, provided they are not 'deprived of • 
exterior fenfes relative to thefe wantSr Aey wHl 
aa to fatisfy them. Want k not defire; it 
difiers from it ^ the caufc difFsrs from the 
effect Every tme tb? animal perceives an 
C a N object) 

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1 6 JMJFPON.*« 

qhj^, relative to its wants, defire begins, ^d 
a£ltic»% follows. 

.The a^ion of external obje£is muft produce 
f^ne efFe£l,; ^ this «fib(^ we readily conceive 
to be axnoul motion, aft every tune itf fenfcs 
are ftruck in the £a»e manner, the iame move-, 
nients always follow. . But how ihall we com** 
pjrehend the action of obje£b. creating defire or 
averfion ? How ihall we olitain a knowledge of 
that \rhicb. operates- beyond die £cnfes,. tbofe 
bfdng the intermediate between the action of . 
t^i^Hi&Sj and the a&ionolF the animal;, a power' 
i% whieh confifts the .princti^ Q& the. deti^ 
minaom q£ rnodoiH 4nce it oBodift^tbe ^oa. 
oC the 4Bi»iaI,, and rwd^ra it fomp^frm^ auU.. 
iiotwtthftan£ngtbe impitiSioa^ of obj|Qds^?r 

V Tht$ quefttem, as itr relates to man, is-di^* 
ficult to berefolved, being h)K nature fo different 
from other animals. The foul has a (hare in 
all Qiti? movemtnts^ and. to dtflinguifh the 
ethS^ of this f[]iritiial fuhflance, from tbofe pro- 
dttppdt b)^ the; powers of our material being 
alone, isian^^e&of very great diffictiity, and 
ei which we cm form no judgment ba.t by 
analogy, and by compasing our a£bipns^with 
the natural eperatioas of other aniiwds,. But 
as man aloae/iili pointed of this iplritu^l fuh*- 
f^ce> w^ich ^ni^blps him i<y think and r^ 


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fkStj ztii 96 the brute is a being sdtogether 
naterialy which neither thinks nor refle<^ 
neverthelefe a£b» and fjems to determine, we 
cannot doubt but that the principle of the 
determination of motion is in the animals, aii 
efFe6l altogether mechanical, and abfbkitely de^ 
pendant upon its organization* 

I conceive, therefore, that in the animal, the 
adion of otvje<^ on the (caks produces another 
on the brain^ which I confider as an interior 
and a general fenfe, which receives every im- 
preffion that the exterior frnfes tranfinit to it. 
This internal fenfe is nc^ only capable of being 
agitated by the aalon of the fenfes, but alfo 
of retaining»fora length of time, the agitations 
thus produced ; and in the contimiity of the 
agitation coiJifts the impreffioiJ, which is more 
or lefs deep in proportion as the agitation is more 
or le(s durable. 

In the iirft place, then^ the inferior fenfe 
differs from the exterior {enk$j in the pro- 
perty which it has of receiving aliimpreifions, 
while the exterior fenfes receive them merely 
as they relate to their conformation ;r the-e>e, 
for example, being no more effoaed by found 
than the ear is by light Secondly, the interidr 
differs from the exterior fenfes, by the duration 
rf the agitations produced by exterior caufes; 
C3 but 

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but b every other refpeA diey are of tlie fame 
nature. Tha *Meri»T feak of th€ biriite^ as 
Its exterior, is eftttrety material, and ^ ef* 
f%di of mQcbaoical organizataon. We bare, 
like the animal, this material frnfe ; and we 
po&fs, moreorer, a fenfeef a natureh'^hly 
fuperior, which refides in tif^e^rrituatfubfi^uice 
and whi^ch animates and guides us. 

The brain of the animal is, therefore^ » 
general ienfe, which receives al) iaapreffions 
the external &afea tranfmit (jo it^ and thefe im-* 
preffions coiUinue much longer in the internal 
^an ia tiie external ienfes: for inftance, the 
agitations which light produces 10 tbe eye, 
continues longer than that wUch ibuad pro* 
duces on the ear. - ^ 

It is on thi$ Account, diat the imprefions 
which ibe former trai^mits to. tbe iiitmor ienf^ 
are more ftrong than ;thoie tranfinitted by the 
latter; aadthatwere^refent to ourfelves the 
diings. which me have ibeit much m(»'6 forcibly 
. tiiaa thefe whieb: we have hear4 It is even 
found, dsata:)^ all tbe fenfes, tbe ^ is that in 
, which the; agitations are tao& duvsdeile, and in 
.which, of confequence, though feenungly 
they are mare explicit, die ftrongeft impre£- 


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The eye may di^refare be confidered as » 
continuatioiK^tKe interior fenfe; It is, indeed, 
noting more than <M)e I^ge nerve expanded^ 
andaprolongatioi^of'th^ organ, in which the 
interior (eak refides« That in its natiuse tiMre. 
fhouU be a greater affinity to diis mternd^ 
fenfe^ isnot then ftu^fing; aad^ 'm ^Sk&^ 
nbt only its impreffions ai e mere duraUe> but 
its properties saore emixiefli^ diaot tbefe of the 
jother (cabs. 

Tbe eye reprefetita- outwardly Ihe inwstrd ' 
knpreffieiisL Like the imcm^ fenfe^ it i& 
a£tivev and^^qirQf&addli^or avefAon, whjie 
all the other bsak^ are ii^iotty paifive ; they 
are mereljr oagaot: fi)rme4 foe tfao recepiiQfi 
of exterior impfcffioiiSy but incapable Of re-r 
taining or reAeAtngAieim . . 

When with viofeQee^ hawever> and 6» ^ 
length of time any fenfe Js a<Sted upon, th^ 
agitatbn iiibfiils much longer thaa the aflaon 
of theocteriop ofa^eAs. This; i^, .-however,^ 
felt meft powerfully in tbe eye, which wiU re- 
tain the dafiwiing imprefion made bykx>king^ 
for a moment, on the hOy for boons and even 

The brain alfo eminendy^enjoys tjiis property, 
and not only retina the impreffions it receives 
but propagates their actions, by communicating 

^ the 

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the vibrations to tMe nerves. The organs of 
the exterior fenfes, the brain, the fpinal tnar*-- . 
row, and the nerves,^ which are difFufed over 
every part of the body, ought to be confidered 
9(s one continued fubftance, as an organic ma-* 
chine, in which* the fenfes are the parts a£led 
vpon by the external ofajefls. But what ren* 
ders this machine fo different from all others^ 
is its fulcrum not only being capable of refift-- 
ance, and re-ai^ion, but is itfeif aiSlive, becaufb . 
it long renins impreffions it has received; and 
the brain and its membranes being of great ca^ 
pacity and fenfibiHtyy it may receive a number 
of iuccei&ve agitations, and re^n them in the 
order in which they were received, bepaufa 
each impreffion agitates one pStrt of the brain 
only, and the fuc^ceifive impreiHons agitate the 
fame or contiguous parts,, in a di&rent man- 

Should we fuppofe an anhiial which- had no 
brain, but poilc^ing an exterior of great fen* 
fibility and extenfion ; an eye, for example, of 
which the redna was as extenfive as that of the 
brain, and bad the property of retaining, for a 
long fpace, the impreilions it might receive^ 
it is certain^ that the' animal fo endowed would 
fee at the fame time not only the prefent ob- 
je£ts> but alfo thofe it bad feen before; and 


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feeing thus the paft and the prefent with one 
glance, it would be determined mechanically 
to. a<ft according, to the nuniber, or force, of the 
agitations produced by, the images which ac- 
corded witti) or were contrary to this deter- 
mination. If the number of images calculated 
to create an appetitOi (urpafled thofc that would 
produce difguft, or loatbiog, the. animal would 
nfceiTarily' be.deteroftiiied ra move,, in oi:der tp 
fatisfy tb4t. appedte.: but if their number and ^ 
fpJEce we^e oqivJ^. having.. DO<partif:uIj|r caufe 
far motloA it WQuU. r«gaiiin psi/e<9:Iy at re{(;, 
aod if the m^iiber^ qc ths £^ce^ of the* images 
of the fqrm^. ase equal to th& nup^c^i or the . 
fQfce». of the images of the latter), the animal. 
Mrill r«msiio mdri^mvQe^ andla aa^uiiibrluoi . 
between, thefo. two. eq«4 po.wr% iios will he * 
make a^y movement either to obtain or to 
ayoid. This I (ay, it wouU do mechanically,, 
and without the intervention- cf memory s for 
as the anhhal fee» at. die . iame timet all the 
iimgQS, they coniequently 2^y and thofe 
which have aq. affiiQty to appetite and defire^ 
cauacera(§b thofe wbioh hare' an a^nity to an- 
tipathy and difgyfl ; and it is by the preponde- 
nuice of either, that detenmincs it to a& in this, 
or ict. th4t manner. 


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22 BUFFON's 

It is evide;it, therefore, that in brutes the in- 
terior fenfe differs in nothing from the exterior 
but in the property of retaining the impreiEons 
it has received, a property by which alone all 
the aftions of 'animals may be explained, and ' 
fome idea obtained of what paffes within them 5 
a property which fikewife, demonftrates the 
effential* and infinite difference which fubfifts ^ 
between them and us, and from which may be 
diftinguiflied in what refpeds thejr are fimilar. 

The degrees of excellence in the fenfes da 
not fbllow die feme order in Ac brute as in the" 
human Ipecies, TTie fenfe which has the 
rfrongeft affinity to thought, is the touch. Thisf 
^is enjoyed by marn in greater perfecSFon than by 
animals- That which has the ftrongeft affinity 
to inftindt and appetite is that of fmelling 5 a. 
ienfe in which man muft acknowledge an in- 
finite inferiority, Man then has the greatelt 
tendency to knowledge, and the brute to ap- 
petite. In the former, the fenfe ffrft in point 
of excellence, is the touchy and finelling the 
laft; and this difference correfponds with the 
nature of each. The fenfe of feeing is at beflr 
uncertain, without the aid of the touch, and' 
therefore lefe capable of perfeiSlion in the brute 
than in man. The ear, though perhaps as per^ 
c^ in the former as in the latter, is of much. 


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Jbr$ ule to the animal, from the want of ^ech, 
which in man is an appendage to the fenfe of 
jbearing, an organ of communication which 
renders it an a£tive fenfe; whereas in the other 
hearing is a feofe almoft entirety pai&ve. Man, 
then, eojoys the fenfes of feeiirig, feeing, and 
hearing, more perfe(9^ and the feiife of fmelling. 
more imperfectly^ than other animals; and as 
jthe tafte is an inferior fmell, and has alfo a 
ftronger relation to appetite than any of the 
other fenfes, there is a liifficient probability td 
fuppofe, that animals enjoy it in a more ex- 
quifite degree than man. ' Of this' tx proof 
might be adduced fr6\n the repugnance which 
^mals have to certain kinds of food, and from 
their natural appetite for fuch as are proper for 
them; while man, unlefs informed of the dif^ 
ference, would eat the fruit of one tree for thit 
4>f another, and even hemlock for parfley. 

The excellence of the fenfes proceeds from 
Nature, but art and habit may render them 
ftill more perfeft, A painter fees, at the firft 
glance, numbers of fcades and differences, 
which another perfon will pafs over unnoticed. 
A mudcian, continually habituated to harmony, 
receives a lively feniation of pain from difcord. 
In like manner are the fenfes, and even appetites 
of animah; rendered more perfect. Birds may 


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i4. • ^ ^UFiroN*^ 

•be tanght^to repeat words, and imitate tunes; 
And the ardour of a dog for the chace may bfe 
increafed by accuftcsning him to a certain re- 

In proportion as thefe fenfes are acute and 
perfect does the animal fhow Itfelf adive atjd 
intelligent. In man the improvement is not fo 
confpiouoiis, becaufe he cstercffcs his tar and 
his eye by means more i^onal and ingenious. 
Thofe perRms who fce^ hear, or. fmcll, fei- 
perfeftly, are of no tefe inteIlc<9Mal capacity 
than others; an evident proof Aan in man 
there ts fomethitig more than aA intfa-nal ani- 
mal fenfe. This is the fcul of mani ^which is 
a fuperior felife, a fpiritual fiAftance, ientire!y 
•^different in its dftstee &nd aSion from the na- 
ture 'of the e>rterrid fenfes. * 

Frbm- this; however, we are nottti deny thf t 
thereis in man an internal material fenfe corref- 
pondtng "Witfc tlie Externa! ferifes^ But* what I 
maintahl fe, that thfe latter is irrfirtltely fabordl- 
rtafte to 'fte othcff; that Stie 'fpirltttal fubftance 
governs It,' and either d^ftroys br 'creates its 
opCTSftirns. In'the'acnin^ tMsfenft is the di;- 
tcrttiin^tiifg pfincipflil of motion, bat in* man 
only the means, or the fecorfdafyc^fe. 

Let us endearroar to dear ujprthis'impfortaJit 
pointy and let US' fee whftt power this imemlal 


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iiateriai fenfe poflcffes,. and what it w caprf)le 
of producing. The intefitel material fenfe re- 
ceives promifcuoufty afl the nnpreffions the eSc* 
temal (cnfes tranfmit to it, Thefe inipreffions' 
proceed from' the a(5tion of objefts; diey only 
pafs over the external {nnksy and produce in 
them batan inftantaneoas vibration; they-rcfti 
however, upon tht internal fenfe,' and prodtice 
in the brain, which is its organ, durable and 
diftinS: agitations. TTiefe vibrations creatd 
appetite or £Iguft, indiaadon orrepugnance^ 
accordii^ tothe pnefentxflate.and difpofitioa of 
an animal. An animal^ Ae •inftani after ittf 
birth, b^ins t0 brealbe^ fthd 4io feel the vmit of 
Aourilhment; the'^fmell,' which is ^die (tnk of 
af^etit^ receives the emanations of the miik' 
whtiih is contained in thtf teats of -its ciother* 
The ytbratioAs which thtsfciife- imdergoes, 
from the -0(fi»riferoti9 particles, are' commii* 
nical^-to thehnrin^ whtciia£ting,iii its turn, 
vpon.the oerves, the ammal is .fHtmilate^ to^ 
4^>en iis nK»^, ^ obtaiA diat fiiftenance of 
which it feeb the wma» The feiUe of appetite 
being left acute in man ^laa in brtxtes, (fee in* 
iknt at its birth fcds only the defift of reccir-' 
ing nour^iment^ wfaidi it announces by ttsi 
crieS) but it canootisteain it of ttfetf ; ttreoeive?' 
no Jnfosmatkm from tiie fmdl, and is., obliged^ 

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$6 BVPffOK^S 

to have Its mouth put to the nipple, when the 
agitations, excited b7 the touch and finell, are 
communicated to the brain and nerves, and the 
child makes the Beceflary motions for fucking 
in its nouri&ment Solely by the fmell and 
tafte, the fenfes of appetite, can the aniq^ial be 
informed of the prefence of its .fopd;^ and of the 
place where it is, as it^ eyes are ilill doied, and 
would, even if they were ogcnji in no d^ree 
contri^bute towards the determination of mo* 
tion. Vifion has a greater relation , to I^w* 
|edge than to appptite, and in, 19^ ^S^^^r ^^ 
open fronx the pioment of his birth, ijq.jg^ic^ 
ani9[iaU it is ihut for leve|,but in,,w|^im 
^e i^nfes.of appetite are &r more e^qps^d^i^ 
and more perfect 

The (anie remark is alike app%able tqftOr. 
greffive motion, and to all the other exterior 
movements. A new-boni infant can h^dly 
move its members, and it is a long time before 
it attains ftrengdi fufficient to ch^ge its place, 
but in a very little time does a young animal, 
acquire; thefe faculties. In the animal. the^ 
powers, relate ( die appetite, which \s 
vehement, quickly, developed, and the. fole^ 
principle of motion j in man the appetite . is 
weak, more (lowly developed, and can lure lefs 
i^uence than knoin^edge upon tbe^^dftennina* 


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tion 6f ftioddn ; man is ncceffarily, in flils re- 
fpe^i more backward than the ammal. 

J^vcry thing concurs Aen to prove, even in 
a phyfical fenie, that brutes are aZhiatcd by 
appetite alone, and that man is governed by a 
fuperior prfrtciple. If doubts ftill exift,^ it is 
from ouf imperfeft cdiKeption how appetite 
alone is capable of producing, in animals, eiFefls 
fo much refetoWing thofe vHiich knowledge 
producesamongourieives; and from the difficulty 
welair« to diftinguiih \^t we do in virtue of 
len^edge, Warn what we do bythe mere foriee oP 
appetitef. Yet, in tny opinion, it is not im- 
poAble to Hfptl this uhccrtainty. ^e in-' 
tttiuJiftoatenal fenfe fet^lfts for a long time* 
the agitations it receives ; it i§ a fenfe of which* 
tile brain W the organ, and by which all the im- 
prcffions are received that each of the exterior 
fenfes tranfinits to it. When, thcrefpre, an 
dxterfof* impreffion proceeds froni the fenfes 
of appetite, the animal will advance to attain, 
or draw back to avoid, the ol>je<St of this im- 
preffion. This 'motion, however, is liable to 
lincertaintj^ when produced by the eye or t;hd 
car; becaufe, when an animal fees, or hear^, for 
the firft time, he will be agitated by light or 
.by found; yet this agitation will be uncertain,^ 
fmce neither Have any relation to appetite. It 
ii only by reputed afls oF feeing and hearing, 
JXsX s^ded 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

iS buffon's 

added to the fenfes.of tafte and.feelixsg^ that it 
will afluallj advaoc^. of. recede fnom objei^s 
vhicb became retetive-to i^-i^ppetite^' A ^>gy 
for iAftance,.whohasbe^n tutQred|.bpwe¥^r vio* 
lent hU appetitp> will not iejj&e vfhs^t m^ht&tisfjr 
tbat appetitc» altbougb be mH ufeevogr^-* 
tyre to obtain it from ibe band^of.kt^ mafter^. 
Doe$ nat-this amoial fe^ip ^ to reaiba between 
defire and fear>. nearly as.a man vsould^Qi wfaa 
yras inclined to ieize oxi:^^.property.of aao* 
iher^ but was v^U>be]4 b}^the,dfca4 of («u«ifli7 
jo^? Thougb.thi^ j)UI 5 yet 
to render it in efFe^ well-founded^ ihoiildjM>e 
animab' be capable . qC f^omrn^ diQ Ama 
a^cns that .we perform I Hqw ^^ cpntrarjt i&. 
eyidentii. a^ nothing do anto^aU citber invent^. 
ptrk(^i in ^vjery tWng they have an unifonsulty^ 
^4,. qqnfequently no, .r^fl^fltipnii. .Of this 
an^gy then we may doubt it;s ri^ty>^aiKl 
xnay.withr propriety enquires wbjBther it is nofi 
by a pfinciplc^ different from wi$. tl^t .Jirujin 
sore dir^djtedi' and wbeijier, without bein^ 
und^. the! tneceffity of allowing them d\&. aid. 
of re8e£UoR» the fenfes^thej. ei;;joy are.^n9t 
fufficieiit^ to prodt^ce the addons, they per* 

ferm-r .. - . 

Whatever relates to their appetites, ftrongly 

agitates their interior (enfe ; and on the obje£l 

of this appetite the dog would inftantly ruflt 


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iii not this very fenfe retain the impreffions 
of pain which had formerly accompanied this 
a£Hon. By exterior iinpreiBons the animal 
has been modified; This pfey xb not prefented 
to a dog fimfdy, but to one which has been 
chaftffed every time it obeyed this impulfe of 
appetite} the agitations of pain therefore, are 
renewed when thofe ef appe^te arefelty having 
been ocmftamiy Mt at the ftme time. The 
animal' befng duift Impeded at once by two 
eonoraf^' powersr, two powers deftruQtve 6f 
ea«h ^er, remains between them in- an eqiit« 
likium ; Ind^ » the disterminative cauleof its 
motion is cotmrer^baljcn^ed) it makes no effort 
to attain the ob}e£k of its appetite. Though 
the agitations of appetite and i^pugnaii&ey or 
of pteaAire ttnd pa!n, deftroy the ei&a of 
each cfditTy in die brain a diird vibhition tak^ 
pidce, which atcompanies Ae other tw(^ ^n3 
Ais h occafioned by the aflJon' of Its mafleri 
fr6m whbfehahd the animal has often rettiVed 
its food i and as ^19 is in no degree 6p^ofe9 
or coanler-balanced, it becomes' the ddter-* 
ihihative caufe of motion ; and the dbg is 
Aei^fore d^termihed ' to move towards its 
mafter> and to remain in motion till its appetite 
fe entirely fethfiet . * 

r J, J f^ 

3itized by Google 

30 BUFFON*^ 

In the lame isamier> and upon the (ame 
principles, may. we cxpiaio,. however coinpit^ 
cated tht^ appear, all the. a&iosii of anmak^ 
without allowing them «irther ihought or re- 
flection } the internal feofe being (ufBcient to 
produce all their movi^niiti^^ . The nature oC 
theo: fenfations alone rqmaiiH . to be 'ekscsiM 
dated, which^ from, .what .imt have, aflerted, 
muA be widely different, from purs* ^Have 
animals, it ip|y be fiiidv : no knowledge, 
|io<:oniS:ioiifnefstoC.tbeir.extftesiccE Dojoude^ 
prive thcQt oi[ ibQtjn^^tr i }n . pretecidiog . to 
explaia their a£UoQ$ wppn mechanical psin* 
ciplcs,. do you not in , fe£l render them mere 
ii]achi4es, or infenfible automatoms I? 
, If I have been righlly.janderftood^ it mitft 
bavjs ^ppear^d, that^, far from ixifxt^inginbB9i& 
jo( all fiov^r^,. I allow them every things 
th(jught.aip^^€fle£^oftje;^ceptJed, FeeUngstbcy 
) ayejt.. in,^ Jegfee fup<^rior ^ . ourfelves* > A 
^confcioufiieis they alfo h^ve q£ their, prelei|i^ 
though 119^ ,pf ^ their ^ paft exiftence. They 
liaye, fefiij^tion^. buf |hey. b^e n^t.^tl^ fa»culty 
©f comparing ^ them,^ or .producing ideas : 
i4eas being nothing , mpre. th^ui »fibcialions 

of feiJations*, ^ ; . 

Each .of thefc objtcfts fet ii$.)exa9une in par- 
,^cu^r^ That 9fimi)s,>;|ve. ^seUog^ -aad ia 

a de-^ 

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a. degree even more, exifin&ie than ourfblres^ 
I think we Jbavc already evinced, by ,what we 
have fiud of tfae^exfielfence of ^ir fenfes re- 
lative, to appetite. . Like ouifdves, theni ani«» 
mals are affe^ed<bf pkafttt^ and pain, they 
do not knowgood and eyil> but diey fed it}' 
Vi^ac is agr^aUe to tbem -is good, whast ii 
mkgpeBsijiid H bad, msA boAi aretiodiing tnore 
than relatioQs,'^ Saotable, cf 'contrary to thenr 
naturev^and organ^satfiom The plej^tme of 
tickling, and .the padn from a hurt) as they 
dep«iid'aiBibli|iteIjr dn'»an'a£lioB moreor leb 
&o9g. upon the nerv^ #hkh are the organs 
fif .fsniimimty-^tie aUke common to man and 
oth^r aiiimalsi - Whatever aAs foftly npon 
fiuk iMTgansy/istia catlle of {rfeafur^ aiid virhat* 
evec fhadoesftfacini^vtdileiidyv is* a canfi of p^: 
AHi kffSsaoosiii^txax^ zn- louices of fde^ure^ 
yihih:€myf»GLimxidses^^ fo 

iboa^ th^bcttoi&tetoi^vftMang, they produce 
fiain, ^jviuch, in a phyfidd fenfe, ii the extreiii^ 
nitk^ than-^-ej^pdlil^ <tf pleafure. 
' A lighl^teofarig^'a lith tdd ho^ a noife 
«o0^.1otid).'a imdl 'tx>eii ftrongyiCJbflMfeiriaaiik 

ieni^ions ^ whereas a^ddicate colbur, ^ mcA^ 

. Ttate heat,: a ioift feund, a gentle j^unbe^ a 

&itiay<9ifyMdU^ lofid^i 0taife and n^ove 


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31 raPFOK's 

ui with delight Every g^itle application to 
the fcdei, dien, is a ^kaiiirey and every vio-- 
lent (hock apain ; and as the caufes which oc« 
€afioR, vioieat) happen more rarely in Nature 
diaa thofe which produce mild and moderate 
effefis i and as animal^ by the e^^erciie of dieir 
fenifiat acquire in a Itttk time^ thp- habit of 
avoiding every thing oftn^ve orhunfid to 
fbetOi andofdiftin^inlQung) and of apimaeb" 
ii^ fucbatarepleafingi fin MhMtdoafa^ Itei/ 
eofoy iBore agreeable dtabAsm it^fnk di&eiee^ 
abk onesy and the amaufitroC d^ir {d^g^rea eX)* 
ceed the amount of their paiiH 

In many phyfical plcafare asid paiit fbriA thit 
ibiaUeft part ^ his fuferings or: ei^mentsf 
His imagination^ never idle, feems perpetuldl/ 
tni^yed toencreaiehIsmMin-y.> prefentirtg/ta 
th^ mind nothii9.Jbttt vain phaman% 9r eiugi*- 
gerated naagftk More agitated by shefe illu« 
fiofiS) than by real cAije^ i^ aind kiTes iu 
&c:uli;y of judgipg^ and even its dominioaj th# 
wiU, cf which it has n^ longer ibecoinBUndi 
bfscomes a burthen » its, e^avagan^ degr^tf ace 
ibjnrows » /wd^at .btrft, i^ pro^pedB are. dslufive 
pleafures, wbNeh.vanifb. as 6x>si as die^ mind) 
xefiuning its plaae^ is enabled to form a judg« 
giej«:of thi?nu 


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In fearchingfor pk»fure> we cfeate ourfelves 
psun; and fecking to be more happy, we ia- 
creafe ourmifefy^ thelefe we defire, the more 
we po&fs* In fine, whatever we wifli, beyond 
what Nature faa^ given, is pain ; and notfaixig is 
{deafure but what fhe offers of. herfelf. Na- 
ture preioits to us pleafures • wi^out number |< 
fhe has provided for oar wants^ and fortified u$ 
agaifift pain, la the .phyiioal worid, there, it 
ij|finit9^t»ore g6od ifvaaevil *, and therefore it 
iftiiot.|hererfitle^'<bikt the chimeras, .vfb^ we 
ha«t to dread :\ k^is- not 'pain of body, difeafe, 
nor death,, that are 'tttribte; but the agitation 
of the foul, the conflidl of the pajCons, die 
txientttiw^iety^ ai^ tkofeonly we *need appre« 

h^ni,' • ; ' -- i 

..Animals have but one mode of enjoytx^g; 
pUiftfote I the iatisfying their appetite by the ex<^ 
ercife of their ftniatiQas. We likewife enjo]i^ 
this &culty, and have another mode of acquiring^ 
(dciafiM, the exercife of themind,; whole appe« 
lite 19 k{fo\i9%edg«. This foufce of pleafiire 
WMid J be- the- more pure and copiot<s did not 
oor paffionsr oppole its current, and divert * ih^ 
OHfid-fromcomempbtton. So fooil te diefe ob-^^ 
taio ttte^afcendancy, realbn is fileficed^ a djTn 
guft to truth enfuesj: the charm of iUufion in« 


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creafes; error fortifies itfci^ itnd drags us on 
to mHery } for what mifery can be grtater thati 
ho longer leeing diings as iSxcy'strt ; to hsLVt! 
judgmentprevcrtedby paffiofti'j to aft (cMf by 
ks direJKott, to sppearj in Conferences nnfuft 
or ridiculous* to others I and, wh^nlhe Kotir of 
fetf-examinatioir tomes^ of being fbrctd t9 
defpife ourielves'f 

t In tiiis Aate <^ illnfion atid darititefe ii\^ 
would change the natttre of tniir ibulv Sbe wa# 
given us for die purj^fes of knowledge ^ttttf ^mr 
w<mld employ herfclely fsr tkofe itf Ibsftt^n. 
CoaM we^ eactiflgttiSi WO^^ &r liwm i%« 
grotting theMs, wiib |>!eafiire Aodd we m^ 
hrzcQ the lot of iliots. ' ^As'l^m loi^e#^ 
rea(bn but duriAg iotervab, and ^ tfteib itt-' 
fervid$.ftte trottbkfcixle, and Tpenf in fteref jro* 
proaebesi ^nre wift to fiippids -diedfi) and tilttSi 
procc^ng irom one iUofion to anpdier) vft at 
length endeatTOor to lofe tdl knoHde^ei all re-' 
membrartce of ouriHvBsv- 

A paiSoo M^idiout intervals is maAiefi, ik^ 
a ftate of.madnefs is die death of (he fodt; 
Violent paffions 'with mtervals are fits of *>%> 
a malady (of ittt liiind, -whofe danger corififfc^ in 
its duration and frequency.' . In diofe* intervals 
alone it nmy be £ttd*ta enjoy hesdtb by the re^ 
^^ / . . : • ■ - iumption* 

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NATURAL mnonr. %^ 

ftmptioa of idfifcob but prertnu it being t 
ftate of bappkid^ bf r^to&iiig co, and con* 
deninif^ the paft tolUey* 
. The geim^i^iof .ibofe viho call diemUvei 
uxAtdgpy^Wffi fimicof irioi^ilpaffiDnsy or rather 
madniea, ^hotlmvc S»ne intemds <^ miboi 
and ^ in .:iua^ed >i^febns». tfaertr aro more 
falfe deiiresy more rain purfiitttr'aaoie mtmdf 
paffiqi|$fij|iQre^Mifeaof<tfadBiiiid,than'in tho 
is^mi tblijJGli<Diio>.4M)amd.a49i^ ii^the 

iSittJbl 19 ftuan fa^ iheft Iflooa^ob^ea^ 
tii^ilMiahiliatiiig vt9rttti»^aiSi4a4«K^arVi^ of tho 
U3im <^ y^ndoni^ ii9im:^m is worthy our ao- 
tif^^cf^mt^misi irith baa fituationt be^ who ta^ 
eoti^Ao thistch^raflwywithea no( «oUve bi»l 
a^^-N^bltfi alwa^fm lived ; bapfi^. wbtbitt bmSsAS 
bf itendyn fifttfe need pf oeher refoufceai eon^ 
tiouaUy ^flwpied ia^exerdfiag the fiiodtie^ of 
hi^ mio4 ^ V^fia^ bts itiiderftaadiag> ciUtf* 
yates his talents> acquirea new kiiowksd|gC) ahd^ 
y^AlQitliemorfe and di%iift be ettjoj^^thoMrh^e 

. ^aiaokke tbUrisr undoubtedly tbe^ibappiefb 
being in ^)>lature. To the pUsJkru ef-tho: 
bod]r> wbicb be pofieifts inconftmon wi& edxer 
anioFiala* be add«t thp<e of the m^r^i^bbe 
et^offseiicbifirelj/w He baa two netbods of. 


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^6 BUFFO* V ' ' 

feeing happy, which aid arid fortify each other; 
and if 'by indifpofition^ oi" accident, he is fub- 
jefted to pain, his fufferings are not great, his 
Arength of mind fupports hina, reafon conlbles 
Ilim, and he' feels a £lttisfa(Stion that he is enabledf 
io iuSer. • ' . * 

The- hedth of man • is more precarious 
ilian that of ''any 'other ' aAimal ; ' he is in- 
difpofed more frequendy, and for a greater 
tength rf^ time, and dies at all 'ages, while 
brutes travel dirough life with an even and a* 
fteadjr pace. This difference Teems to proceed 
from two caafes, which, though widely diftiri£t,' 
contribute^ to the feme effeft» The firft is, the 
«nniline6 of our internal -material fenfe; the 
piflioris have an influence on the. hedth, and 
diibfder the printiples which animate us. * A1-* 
moft all miailkittcltead a life of timidity or con- 
tention, and the gt'eateft fatt di^ of chagfine; 
The fecond is, the iiliperFe^ion of thofe of our 
fenfes which have an a*mty with the appetite.' 
Brute animals have a better perception of what 
is fuitable to their nature; they are not liable 
to deception in the choice of their food $ <hey 
a(re*not guilty trf'.e^ccefs in their pleafures ; and, 
gui^died folely by a fenfe oJF their prefent wants,- 
they fetisfy -diefe wtHout feeking nehv tnodes- 
of gratificMCioii. - As-for fnafi> indepeAdent of 

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Ms propenilty to excefs^ independent of that 
ardour with whidi be endeavours to deftroy 
himCdfj by endeavounog to* force Nature ; he 
hardly koows how to diftinguiih the cfFcdt of 
this or that aourifliment; be difdains Ample 
food, and prefers artificial difhes, becaufe his 
taSe is depuvti^ and becaufe, from being a 
fenfe of pleafure, he has rendered it an organ 
of debauchery, which iS never gratified but 
when it is irriCatecL 

It is. not fitrprifuigi' tberefore, that we are 
more fubje<% tfa^ the antmak to infirmities i 
fuice we know not fo well as them, what may 
contribute to^ prefcrve or deftroy. health, our 
experience being lefs certain than their percep- 
tioni n^y weabufe the very fenfes .of tbeL^ap^. 
petite, which-they enjoy in fuch fuperior excel- 
lence, thefe being to them die mean$ of pre- 
ferving health, and to us caufes- of djfeafe and 
of deftruftion. By intemperance alone more 
m^n iicken and die, than by all the fcourges in*, 
cideiit to human nature* 

From thefe refle<5lions it would appear that 
animals have a more certain, as well as a more 
exquifite fenfation of feeling than men. In 
fiipport of this fuperior flrength of fentiment, 
we may advert to their fenfe of fmelling, which 
forae animals enjoy to fuch a degree that they , 
yoL. V. E can 

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3^ feUFPON's 

can fmell farther than they can fee. A fenfe 
like this, is an eye which fees obj^dls, not only 
where they are, but even where they have been ; 
it is the fenfe by which the brute animal diftin- 
guifhes what is fuitable or repugnant to its na- 
ture, and by which it perceives,, and choofes, 
what is proper for the gratification of its appe- 

In greater perfeftion, then, than man, do ani- 
mals enjoy the fenfes which relate to appetite ; 
and though of their prefcnt exiftence they have 
a confcioufnefs, of their pafl: they have none. 
This fecond propofition, as well as the firft, is 
worthy confideration. The confcioufnefs of 
exiftei^ce, is compofed, in man, of the fenfation 
of his prefent, and of the remembrance of his 
paft exiftence. Remembrance is a fenfaStion 
altogether as prefent as the firft impreiEon, and 
fometimes afFedls us more ftrongly. As thefe 
two kinds of fenfation are different, ahd as the. 
mind poflefles the faculty of comparing and 
forming ideas from them, our confcioufnefs 
of exiftence is the more certain, and ex- 
tenfive, as remembrance more frequently and 
copioufly recals paft things and occurrences ; 
and as, by our refle<aions, we compare 
and combine them with thofe paft and pre- 
fent occurrences. Every man retains within 


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himfelf a certain, number of. fenfations, corref- 
pondent with the dliFerent exiftences, or ftatesj 
tlirough which he has pafled } and thefe fcnti- 
tions, by the comparifon which the mind forms 
between them, at length become a fuccefSon, 
andaferies of .ideas. In this comparifon cf 
fenfations confifts the idea of time; andindfced 
all other. ideas. But this feries of ideas, this 
chain of exiftences; is often pre fen ted to us in 
an order very different from that in which our 
fcnfations reached us; and in* this it is, tliat tlie 
difference principally confifts in the genius and 
difpofition of mankind. 
' Some men have minds particularly a<5tne 
in comparing and forming ideas. Thefe are, 
invariably, the moft; ingenious, and, circum* 
ftaDce.3 concurring, will always diftinguifli 
themfelvcs* There ai*e others, and in a greater 
number^ whofe nriinds are lefs aftive, allow 
all fenfations which have not a certain degree 
of force to efcape, and who only compare thofe 
by which they are ftrongly agitated. In points 
of ingenuity and vivacity thefe yield to the 
former. Others ft ill there are, and they form 
the multitude^ in whom there is fo little activity 
of mind, fo little propenfity to think, that they 
compare and combine nothing -, at leaft al the 
Ez firfl: 

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"firft glance ; fenfations of force, and repeated 
a thoufand times, are required before their 
minds will be influenced to compare them, and 
form ideas. 

The coiifctoufnefs of ouf exiftence being 
compofed, then, not only of our aAual fen* 
fations, but of the train of ideas, which gave 
rife to the comparlfon of our fenfations, and 
of our paft exiftences, it is evident, that the 
more ideas We have, the more certain we are 
of our exiftence ; that the more we have of 
intellectual capacity, the moreweexift; that 
It is by ih2 power of refle<£Kon alone, that we 
are certain of our paft exiftence^ and view our 
future one ; the idea of futurity being nothing 
more than a comparifon of the prefent with 
the paft inverted, fince in this light, the pre* 
fent is paft, and the future prefent. 

This power of reflexion being denied to 
animals, it is certain they cannot form ideas^ 
and confequently, their confcioufnefs of exift- 
cnce-is lefs fure, and lefe extenfive than ours. 
Having no idea of time, no knowledge of the 
paft, nor conception of the future, their con- 
fcioufnefs of exiftence is fimple, depends folely 
on the fenfations which a^ually affect them, 
.and coniifts in the internal fentiment whichi 
tfaefe fenfations produce^ 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

«Af tJRitC ttlirroR'Y. 41 

May we not conceive Mrfaat this confoioufnefa 
of exiftehce is in animals, by reflecting on our 
own ftate wheii ftrongly occupied with fome 
objedly or violently agitated by fome paflioni 
which banifiies every refledion upon felf P 
This ftate we familiarly exprefs by iaying. 
The man is abfent or beflde himfelf; and 
people are in reality befide themfelves^ when 
they are occupied with (enTations adlually 
prefent to them, efpecially if thofe fen/ations 
are fo violent and rapid as to allow the mind 
no time for rcfledion. When thus fituated 
we feel pleafure and pain in all their varieties; 
therefore, though feemingly without the par- 
ticipation of the mind, we have a confciou!^ 
nefs of our exiftence. This ftate, to which 
we are occafioi^ally expofed, is the habitual 
ftate of animals s deprived of ideas, and fur* 
liiihed with fen&tions, they kruw not their ex- 
iftence but feel it, . 

To render more fenfible this difference, let 
us confidcr minutely the faculties cf brutes, 
and compare them with the a<Skiont of man. 
Like us they have fenfes, and receive im- 
preffions from exterior objeiSlsj they have alfo 
an interior fehfe, an organ' which retains the 
agitations cccafioned by thofe impreffions, and 
coniequently feniacions, which, like ours, are 
E 3 renew- 

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41 buffonV 

renewable, and are more or lefe ftrong ancf 
duralilc. But they have neither ingenuity^ 
underftanding, nor memory ; becaufe they are 
denied the power of comparing their fenfations^ 
and becaufe theie three facuhies of the mind de* 
pend on this poiver. ^ 

Have animals no memory ? It will be re- 
plied, The contrary Teems demonftrably evi- 
dent» After a confiderable ab&nce do they 
not recognize the perfons with whom they had 
lived) the pkees where they redded, and the 
roads which they had frequented ? Do they noc 
recoiled the punifliments, the carefles, the lef- 
fons they had received ? Though deprived of 
imaginatiofi and underflanding, every thing 
feems ftill to evince, they have a memory ac- 
tive, extenfivey and perhaps more faithful than 
our own. — However perfuafive thefe appear<» 
ances may be deemedy.and however ftrong may 
be the prejudices created by them,, I prefume I 
can demonftrate^ that they deceive us, and that 
brute animals have no knowledge of paft events, 
no idea of time, and, of confequence, no me* 

In man memory flows from the power of re« 
fle£tlon, for the remembrance rf thing3 paft 
fupp< f.s not only the duration of the impref^ 
fions oa our internal material ilenie, or xenova* 


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tion of former fenfations, but alfo die com-" 
parifon which the mind has made of thofe fen- 
fations, or the ideas it has formed. If memory 
confifted merely in the renovation of paft {en^ 
fations, thofe fenfations would be leprclented to 
our internal fenfe without leaving any deter* 
mined impreffions 5 they would prefent them- 
felves without order or conne£tion, as they do 
in a ftate of intoxication, or in dreams, when 
they are fo incongruous, and (b incoherent, 
that we immediately lofe sdl recolIe£Hon of - 
them. Of fuch things only as have a relation 
to others, vAich preceded or followed them, do 
we retain a remembrance j and every folitary 
feniation, however powerful, paflcs away with- 
out leaving the finalleft trace on the mind. 
Now it is the mind which eftabliflies thefe re- 
lations of objcfts, by the comparifon it makes 
between them, and conned our feniations by a 
continued thread ef ideas. As memory con- 
fifts, then, in a fucceffion of ideas, fo it ne- 
ceflarily fiippofes the power by which ideas are 

But^ if poffible^ to leave no. doubt on this im« 
portant point, let us enquire into the nature 
of that remembrance leit by our fenfations 
when they are unaccompanied with ideas ^ Fain 
and pleafure are pure fen&tiiEttis, and the itrongeft 


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44 BUFFON*^ 

kJL any, yet we but feebly recoiled them, and 
with coafufion. All tve remember is, that we 
were pleafed pr hurt; bat this remembrance \% 
not diftin^l; we cannot reprefent to biirielves 
either the kind, the degree, or the duration, of 
thofe fenlations by which we had been fa vio- 
lently agitated ; and the lefs are we capable of 
re(>refenting' thofe wc had but fddom felt A 
{Kiin, for example, which we have experienced 
but once, which only kfted a few mtnotes, and 
differed from all former pains, would be foon 
forgotten; we might recoiled we felt great 
irain, yet^ though we diftindly recolleded the 
circumftances which accompanied it,, and the 
period at which it happened, we fhouid have 
but an imperfed remembrance of the pain 

Why is almoft every thing forgotten that 
pafi^d during otur in&ncy? Why hare old 
men a more diftin£): remembrance of what bap* 
p'ned in their prime of life than what occurred 
in their more advanced jears \ Can there be 
a ftronger proof that fenfations alone are not 
iiifficient to produce memory, and that it exifts 
iblely in the train cf ideas which our minds de-t^ 
rive from thofe fenfations^ In infancy the fen* 
iations are as lively and'^rapid as in manhood, 
yet they leave few or no tracer becaufe at this 


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ser2L the power of refle^Uon, in^ich akme caa 
form ideas> is alinoft totally ina^ve i and be« 
caufe) in the moments it does ad^ its com« 
parifons are only fuperficial. In manhood rea- 
fon is completely developed, becaufe the power 
of reflexion is in full exercife ; we then derive 
from our fcniations every poi&ble advantage^ 
and form many orders of ideas, and chains of 
thought, whereof each, ffom being often re« 
volved, forms fo durable and indelible an im« 
preffion, that when old age comes on, thofe very 
ideas prefent themfelves with nvore force than 
thofe deri\'ed from prefent fen(ations, becaufe at 
that period the ieu&tions are feeble, flow, and 
dull, and the mind itfelf partakes of the languor 
of the body. In infancy, the time prefent is 
every thing; in manhood, we equally enjoy the 
paft, the prefent, and the future i in old age W9 
have little fenfe of the prefent, we turn our 
eyes to the future, and exift in the paft. In 
die in&nt that prattles, and the qld man that; 
doats, reafon is alike imperfect, becaufe they 
are alike void of ideas; the former is a3 yet 
unable to form them, and the latter has ceafed^ 
An ideot, whofe corporeal fenfes and organs 
appear to be found, has, like us, fenfations of 
all kinds ; he YfiH alfo have them in the fame 


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order, if he lives in fociety> and is obliged to 
a£l as other men. As thefe fenfations do not 
create in him ideas, as there is no corref-* 
pondence between bis mind and his body, and 
as he is incapable of reflexion, (b he is n&« 
eeflarily deftitute of memory, and all know- 
ledge of iymfelf. In nothing does fuch a man 
differ from a brute, as to the exterior £u:uluesy 
jR>r though he has a foul, and poiTefles the prin- 
ciple of reafon, yet, as this principle remains in 
a ftate of ina£^ion, .and receives nothing from 
the corporeal organs, it can have no influence 
upon his adlions, whic^ are like thofe of an 
animal, folely determined by its fen&tions, and 
By a fentim^nt of its exiftence and prefcm 
Waiit9« Thus the Ideot and the brute are 
beings whofe operations are, in every rcfpeSt^ 
Ae'&me^ becaiife t}ie one has no foul, and the 
other makes not any ufe of it^ they are both 
dfeftitute of the power of refle£Uon, and of 
eourfe have neither underftanding nor memory, 
bhould it ftill be faid, «^ Do not die ideot 
and the brute often a<5): as if they ,were deter- 
mined by the knowledge of things ps^ f Dq 
diey not^iftinguifli perfoHs with whom they 
have lived; places where they have redded, 
and perform many other adlions, which oecef- 


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fiiTily imply memory i And does not all thi$ 
prove that memory proceeds not from the pow« 
«r of reflexion ? " 

• It muft already have been perceived, that I 
diftinguiih two kinds of memory, infinitely dif* 
ferent in their caufts, though fomewhat fimi* 
liar in their efFe£ls. The one confifts in the 
tmpreffions of our Ideas ; and the other, which 
I would rather term reminifcence than memo^ 
ry, is iioihlng more than the renovation of our 
ienfations, or of the vibrations by which they 
were occafioned. T4ie former ifliies from the 
mind, and is much more perfe£): in man than 
the latter;* which is produced merdy by the 
renovation of die vibrations of the internal 
fenfe, and is the only memory poffeffed by 
brutes or .ideots. Their preceding fenfation( 
are renewed by their prefent ones ; the preftnt, 
and principal, calls forth the former, and the 
acceffary images ; they feel as they have fdl^ 
and therefore they aft as they have afied ; they 
behold together the prefent and the paft* but 
without diftlnguiihing or comparing^ and conr 
fequ^ntly without knowing them. . 

As another proof of the exiftcnce of memory 
in animals, I may be told of their dreams. It 
is certain, that brutes while afleep, have the 
things .reprefentied to them with wbioh they 



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48 buffon's 

have been occupied while awake. Dogs bark 
when they are afleep ; and though this barking 
is feeble, yet- it is eafy to diftinguifti in it the 
cry of the chace, accents of rage, founds of de- 
fire, of murmur, &c. It is not to be doubted, 
then, but that dogs have a lively, and aSive 
memory, diiFerent too from that of which 
we have now been fpeaking, fince it afts inde-^ 
pendent of any exterior caufe. 

To clear up this difficulty, it is neceflary to 
examine the nature of dreams, and to enquire 
whether they proceed from the thind, or depend 
entirely on our internal material fenfe. If we 
could prove that they reflde folely in the latter, 
it would be an anfwer to the objeiSlion, and 
ano&er demonftration, that, in brutes, there 
is neither underftanding nor memory. - 

Ideots, whofe minds are without a6lion9 
ikeam like other men ; therefore, dreams are 
produced independent of the mind. Let any 
perfon refled upon his dreams, and endea* 
vour to dlfcover,"" why the circumftances 
are fo unconnected, and the events fa 
extravagant. To me it appears, that it is 
jprincipAly becaufe they turn folely upon fen- 
iations, and not upon ideas. With the idea 
of time^ for example, they have n& affinity. 
Perfoas are reprefented whom we never faw, 


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and even thc^ who hsive been d^ for many 

years, as alive, and as they formerly wer e^ 

when living; but we indifferently connedi 

them with things,, and perfons of the prefenity^ 

or of a .different period. Thus it is alfo with^ 

ih% idea of place; we muft perceive qbjedlf 

whe/e they are not, or we fhould not fee them, 

at alL Did the mind a£l in a Single infkant 

it would give order to this . incongruous train 

©f fenfations. Inftead of which it allows the 

reprelentations to fucceed each other in dif- 

order 5 and though each obje£k aj)pears in lively, 

colours, the fucceiEon is often confufed, and 

always chimerical. If the mind is rath^ 

roufed by the enormity^ or force of thefe ka^^ 

fations^ it will in the midil of this darknels, 

produce a fpark of li^t^ -asad cx^^ate, in the 

midft of chimeras, a real idea. We thei; 

dreamy or rather we will think fo, for though, 

this action is but a fmall fign of the foul> it Is 

yet neither a fenfation nor a dream ; it is a 

thought, a refle£):Lon, but being too weak to 

difpel the illufioh, it mixes with aad .forms a 

part of the dream, and prevents not the re- 

prefentations from fucceeding; in fo ^nuch, 

that on awaking) we imagine we bad dreamed 

the very things. We had thought, 

yojL. y. ' F Ia. 

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In dreams, we iee much thougk we bu^ 
feMom underftand ; we are powerfully agitated 
by our feo&ttons, images ibilow each other, 
without the leaft kiMventfon of the mind, 
ekher to compare or reconcile them. We 
have fen&tions then, but no ideas, die lattep 
being compatifons of tho formeri fo dreams 
muft refide folety in the internal material fenfe j 
and as die mind doe».not produce them, diey 
muft form a part of that anima} reminifeaice, erf 
which we have already treated. Memory, on 
the contrary, cannot exift without the idea 
e£ t^'me, withoi»t a Comparison of ideas, and 
as thefe extend not. to dreams, ie feems to bo 
6bvious, that they can neither be a coniequence 
2K>r an dFe^, ndr a proof of memory*. But 
though, it fliouM be maintained that to fome 
dreams, ideas certainly belong ; and as a proof 
of it, thofe peoj^e be quoted who walk,' fpeak, 
andconveifeconneSiedly while afoepj ftil], it 
would be fuflicieotformy argument, thatdrcams 
may be produced by the renovation of fenfations 
alone, io^y in confequence thereof, the dreams 
of animals' muft be merely of this Ipecies, 
and fuch dreams, far from fuppofing memory^ 
indicate nothing but a material reminiicence. 

By no means am I inclined to believe^ that 
perfons y(\i^ walk and converie while alleeps 


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are in reality occupied widi ideas. In all fuch 
. «£ti<His, the mind feems to haVe no concern. 
Sleep-walkers go about, return and ad) with«- 
c^t refledtioa or knowledge of their fituatioll 
or danger ^ alone are their aiHinsd facilities ex^ 
ercifed, and even of thefe fome remain unenn 
ployed 5 and while in this ftate, a fleep- walker 
is of courfe more ftupid than an idiot. With 
refpeft toperfons who (peak vMle afleep, they 
never fiiy any tkiitg new. An ^mfwer to cer«k 
tain common queftions, a repetition- of a fe^ 
familkr cxpreffions, may be produced, igide« 
pendent of the pritoiipic 0i tbraght or skSkiii 
dftheinind Why(bouIdwenot4>eak with^ 
eut thougiht when aHeep, fince whtn moil 
awalse^ and under the ittfoence of paffion^ 
fiianUtOMft PMubetkk liungs .without reflect 

• As ttl ^ octafiooal canfe <^ diPeams, hf 
which formed Jenfationii am reneMred without 
being excited by prei^lit objefis, it is to bd 
obferved, tkOt we never d^eam when our fleep 
is found: ^very thing is dien ill afiateofih-* 
a£Hon, and we flebp both outwardly ami in^ 
wardly. The int^hal fenfe^ however, falls 
afleep the bflr> ftnd aw^]^» the firft, becaufe it 
is more aAivf^) and nwre eafily agitated, than 
the extcKial fcnfes. It is when owflcep/is Mi 
F Z found 

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S2 BirrFON*s 

found tl&t we experience ilkiiive dreto», 
aiid former fenfations, thofe e(pecial]y which 
require not rcflejaion, are renewed. The in- 
icrnal fenfe being unoccupied by a£hial fenfa^ 
tions, from the inaction of the external fenfes> 
fixercifts itfelf upon its paft fenfetions. Of 
ifaefe, the moft ftrong appear the moft often ; 
and the. more they arc ftrong, the more the 
Situations are extravagant y and for this reafoa 
it is, that almoft all dreams either terrify or 
charm Us. " ' 

'JThat the internal material fenfe may z& of 
ifielf^ it Is.not neceflary that die exterior fenfes 
ihould be abfolutety in a ftate of repofe : it is 
iuffieient if they ate without exercife. Ac- 
cuftomt^d regularl]^ to relign ourfelves toxepofey 
viffi do not ealily &U afleep': the bodf, and th^ 
members, fofdy extended, are without motion | 
the eyes veiled by darknefS) the tranquility of 
the places and the Ulence of the oigh^, render 
the ear ufelefs s alike ihaSive are the other fen-» 
^Sji- allis^at reft, though nothing is yet lul- 
led to flee{». In this, cpndition, when the mind 
is 2Mb unoccupied with ideasy the internal 
material , fenfe is the only ppwer that ads. 
Then is the time for chimerical images and 
fluttering fliadows. We are awake, and yet 
we esp^ience the efyOs of fleep. If we ac^ 


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HATtrmAL mSTpRY. 51 

in full health) th^ images are agreeeable, the 
illufions are charming; but if the body is did 
ordered or opprdBed> then we fee grim and 
hideous phamomS) which fucceed each other 
in a manner not more whimfical than rapid« 
It is a magic laothorny a (bene of chimeras, 
whi^b fill the brain> when deftitut^ of other 
lenfiitions* We remember our dreams, from 
the lame caufe ths^t we reniember fenfiuiona 
Jatdy experienced; and tito only difference 
which fiibfifts bittween us and brutes is, that 
we can diAinguifh what belongs to dreams» 
from what belongs to our real ideas or.feniap- 
tions ; and Uiis is a comparifon, an operation 
of the.mpmory, to which the idea of time ex«* 
tends* While brutes, who are deprived of 
memory, and of this, power of comparifon, 
.cannot diftioguiih their dreams frosn. their 
seal feniations* 

I preAune, dia^ Ux treating of the nature o£ 
man, I have domonftratiyely fhown, that ani* 
mals enjoy not the power of reflection* Now 
the underftandii^ which is the refult of that 
power^ may be diftinguiihed by two different 
operations* The firft . is the capacity to 
compare ien£ttions, and, form , ideas from 
them ; the fecond is the faculty to compaic 
ideas themfclvesj and (oua arguments, or con* 
F 3 dufions. 

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54 BUFFON'a 

dufions tbereon r by the firft we acquire par* 
ticular ideas^ or the knowledge of fenfiblc 
objects; by the other we form general ideas 
which are neceiTary for the comprehenfion of 
abftra£i: truths. Neither; of thefe faculties do 
the animals poflTefs, becaufe they are void of uni- 
derftanding ^ and to the iirft of thefe openu 
tions does the underftanding^ of the bulkof mea 
feem to be limited ? . . 

Were all men equally enable of comparing 

ideas, of rendering them, g^uieial, ^y wouU 

equally manifeft their genius by new produc« 

tioi^s, alw^s different from^ and fometimes 

more perfeft, than thofc of others j. all would 

^iijoy the power of invention,, or at leaft the 

talents for improvement. This, however, is 

far from being the cafe. Reduced to a fervile 

imitatiofi> the generality of men execute no*. 

thing but what they fee done by. others ; di^ 

only think by mepibiy, and* in l2ie£tme ftyle as 

others have thought, and their underftanding, 

being too confined for invention, they proceed 

to follow imitation. 

Imagination is likewife a faculty of the mind. 
If, hy imagination^ we underftand the power 
of comparing, images with ideas; of giving 
colours to our thoughts ; of aggrandizing our 
fen&tionsi of perceiving diftia^y all the re-* 

mote * 

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•tati^rAl history. 55 

mote affinities of obje£b } it is the moft bril« 
Hant and moft adive faculty of the mind of 
which brutes are ftill more deftitute than of un- 
^^ihmding or itiemorfr. But there is another 
kind of imagination which depends folely upon 
the corporeal organs, and which we poilefs ia 
common with brutes j it is that tumultuous 
emotion, excited by ob)e£):s analogous or con- 
trary to our appetites $ that lively sOid deepim«» 
preffion of the images of objeSs, which is con- 
ftantly, and againft our inclinations, renewed 
and forces us to z&. widsout refleftion ; this 
xeprefentation of objedb, which is moreaflivc 
thaii even th<^ir prefence, exaggerates and faL- 
fifies every thing. This imagination is for 
ever hoftile to thehummi mind; it is the fourcc 
of illuiion, the parent of thefe paffions, which) 
ki defiance of tfie efforts of reafon, bear us 
away, and:e3qK)feus to a continual combat, in 
which we are almoft always wprfted. 


The interior man is double,, being compofed 
of tWQ principles different in their nature, and 
contrary in tlieir a6i;ion. The foul, that pria- 
ciple dF all knowledge, is perpetually oppofed' 
by another purely materiajl principle. The 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


fonner is a poie light, iccompaoi^ed with (e« 
rtnitjr and peace, a falutary (burce^ whence flow 
* |cienc€> raaibn, and wifilomi the btteris « 
fidfe lighty which never ihines but in the midft 
of darkne& and hurricane, an impetuous tor« - 
nnt firaught with error and piiffion. 

The uuaai principle is firft devdoped. Aa 
it is altogeter material, and coofifts in the 
docadoii of viiMradoiis, and the renovation of 
imprcfliona formed in the internal material 
ftnft^ byobje^anakgOtts, or contrary to our 
appetites, itbegins to aft as iiion as the bodjr 
is capdile o< ibelii^.pain or pkafiiie. The 
ipirituai princi(de maoifefts itfeif much later, 
and is developed and perfefted by means of 
education i it is ^r the oommimicatioA of die 
thoughts of odiers, that the in&nt become a 
thhdctng and a rational being i and widiout 
diis communication, it would be fantaftic or 
ftupid according to the degree of a£Kvity or ii»« 
a^Hvity of its internal material fenfe* 

Let us coniiidcr a child, when at liberty, and 
far from the eye of his mailer* By his exteri- 
or actions we mi^ judge of what palles within 
him. A ftranger to thought or reflexion, he 
a^ without reafon; treads with indiflEErence 
through all the paths of pleafurei obeys all 
tfaeimpreffioas of exterior objefts; amufes 


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himfclf like a' young animal, in running and 
bodily cxercife; all his a£tions and motions^ 
.are without order, or defign. Called on bjr 
the perfon who has taught hirtl to thiiik, he 
compofes himfelf, dire<^s his afiions, and 
proves that he has retained the thoughts iVhich^ 
have been communicated to him* In infancy, 
the material principle is predomioant, and 
would fo continue, were not ediicatii»i to dc- 
velope the ^^intual principle, asdr to pot it in 

The exiftence of thcfe two principles is cafily 
difcovered. In life there are moments, naft 
hours and days, in which .we may not only de^^ 
termine of the certainty of their exiftence^ 
biitalfo of the contrariefy of tbeirafiion. :I 
allude to thofe peridds dF langutor, tndoloio^ 
or difguft, in which we aire incaf^fale of any 
determination, vrhen w6 wi& oa^ thing and 
do another s I mean that ftate, or diftemper^ 
called %^^rj| a ftate to vSiicb idiepeflbns 
are fo pecidilurly fubje£k» if in dlis iitoatibn 
rwe obferve ou/fdve$, we IhaH appear as divided 
into two diftinft beings, of which the firft, or 
the rational faculty,- blames every thing done 
by thefecond, but has not firength fufficient 
cfeAually to fubdue it 5 the fecond, on the 
eontrary, being formed of all' the illuiions o£ 


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Ibfife and iiniglnation, conftrainS) and often 
overwbdms the firft, and makes us eidier zSt 
tontrarjrto our judgement^ or remain inadlive^ 
tbeugfa dffpofed to adion by our will. 

While tike rational £iculty reigns we are 
calndy occupied with ourfelves, ouffnoicb, and 
iiffitirs. But when the .material principle pre* 
irails, we devote ourfelTes with aidour to 
dtfipotion, to all the parfutts and paffions it 
creates; and are hardly capable of refleding 
upon the very objeds by which v^ are fo eiU 
grofied. In bodi ibefe ftates we are happy; 
m the fanner we command widi iatisfiiAiotH 
and iii the l^Xtsc^ we are ftill more pleafed to 
lobej* As oidy one of Aefe principles is tbea 
in aAioii^«iidadsvritfaoutoppofition from the 
otiRr^ we fi»l no internal contfarier|r; our (UiT 
appeals to be fimpk, becaiA m experienct 
but one irnpuMe. In this unity of aAion 
Mnfifts ouf faappineis; far, whenever reafon 
cipndemns our paffions, or, ffom the violence 
aS our |)affions, we attempt to difcafd reafi»i> 
froln thut mimite we ceale to be happy \ the 
tinity of our exiftence, in wfaidi coiriifts our 
tiunquility, ia deftroyed ; the Internal con* 
trariety commences, and the two contending 
principles are mantlefted by doubtt, inquieiu^ 
and remorfe. Of all fiatcs^ diatis the moft 


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NAtURAL Hirroitr. 59 

iuiiu4>P7) in which there two fbvereign powers 
of humair nature are both in full motion> and 
produce an equilibrium. Then it is man feda 
that horrible difguA which leaves no defire but 
diat of ceafing to cxift) no power but to eff^ 
his own d^ru^on> by coolly plugging iota 
ItimTelf the weapons of deipair and madne& 
What a flate of horror ! in its blsKrkeft colours 
k is here preTentsdj but by how many gloomy 
Ihades muft it be preceded? all the iituation* 
approaching^ an equilibriuot muft necei&rily be 
accompanied withmelancholjr^krefiilution^ and 
unhappineis* From tfaefe internal coofli^ the 
body fuffers ; and from the agitaUons it itndl;r-» 
goes languiflies and decays. 

The happiiiers. o£ man.confifts in the anily 
of his internal eacifteoce. In infancy he^ 19 
happy> ibr tbei^ the material principle rulef 
alone, and ^s alsnoft continually. ConftiaintSi 
temonftrances, and even chaftifeq^ents, zSoEi 
not the real happinefs of childrcjo, but are only 
accompanied with a momentary forrow, for as 
(oon as they find themfclves at liberty they re- 
fume all the adlivity and gaiety which the 
vivacity and novelty of their fenfations can 
give them. If a child was left to bimfelf he 
would be co^letely happy, but this happineis 
would ceaft;^ and be produ^ve of mifery ever 

after i 

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^0 .\ buhfon's 

after } it is, therefore, heceilary that he fhould: 
be .conftraiiied, though it gives him a mo- 
mentary .grievaxice, as It is, in fa(St, a prelude ta 
ail his future bappiaefs in life. 
'" In youth, when the fpiritual principle begins 
to ^, and is capable of condu<5ling us, a new 
inaterial fenie appears, which affiimes an ab* 
folate fway over our faculties, the foul it- 
felf feems with pleafure to incline to the im- 
petuous paffions which it produces. The ma- 
terial principle has, then, more power than 
ever, for it not only effacesreafon but perverts 
it, and uies>it for its bwn.graidiicatiQn, Wc 
only think and s£t to encourage^and to gratify 
fonie paffion » and while; this ininYtcati^ lads 
we are happy. The. external coi^tradifHons, 
and difficulties^ (eem to render the unity of 
the interior exiftence ftjllmore firm; they 
fortify the paffion, and fill up the languid in- 
tcrtals i they call forth our pride, and direS all 
our views towards one objedt, all our powers 
towards effefting ope end. ' 
: But this happinefs pafles away as> a dream ; 
the charm difappears, difguft enfiies, and a 
horrid vacuity of fentiment fucceeds. Hardly, 
on roufing from this lethargy, is the foul ca- 
pable of diftinguiihing itfelf ; by ilavery it has 
loft its ilrcngth, and the habit of commanding; 
^ • of 

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^ tbat ilavcry it xven regrets the privationy 
and longs for another mailer, a new objeft of 
paffion, which presently diiappears in its turn, 
and is followed by another paffion more tranfi- 
tory ft ill. Thus excels and difguft fucceed 
each other; pleafure flies,' tlie organs decay, 
and the material fenfe, inftcad of commanding, 
lias no longer ftrpngth to obey. After a youth 
like this what is. there left for man? A body , 
enervated, a mind enfeebled, and the inability 
to make ufe of either. 

It is remarked, that at the middle period of 
life men are chiefly fubje£): to thofe languors^ 
or vapours. At this period we ftill run after 
the pleafures of youth, not from an abfolute 
propenfity but from habit. In prepcM-tion as 
we advance in year& our ability ifor the enjoy- 
ment of pleafure decreafes^ and fo often ^re we 
humiliated by our own weafcuefe that we can- 
not help condemning our ,a<Sl:ion$ and deiires. 

Befides, it k at this ^ge that the cares and 
folicitudes of iife begin; we then, Whether by 
accident or by dioice, aiTume a, certain. cha^ 
ra£ler, which it is always difgraceful to abandon, 
and dangerous to fupport. Full .of pain we 
tread between contempt and hatred, two rocks 
alike formidable; by the efforts we make to 
VOL. V, G avoid 

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avoid them we weaken our powers, and fink itita^ 
defpondcncy, for after having experienced the 
ifijuftice of mankind we contraft a haWt of 
accounting it a neceflkry evil; when we have 
^ccuftomed ourfelves to have lefs regard for the 
c^inions of the world than for our own repofe^ 
and when the heart, hardened by the wounds it 
Has received, is become infenfiblc, we eafily 
attain that ftate of indifference, that indolent 
tr^Cnqunity, 6f which, a few years before, we 
Ihould have been afhan^cd; Glory, that power- 
ful motive of great fouls, which, feen at a dif- 
tance, appears aS the-moft defireable objefl, 
and excites us to perform great and ufefiil 
afiions, lofes its attradions upon a near ap- 
proach. Sloth afilimes the place of ambition, 
and feems to prefent to us paths leis rugged, 
and advantages more fubftantial; bub it is 
preceded bydifguft, andfolWwed by difcontent, 
that gloomy tyrant of every thinking mind, 
againft which wifdom has lefe influence than 
folly. ' 

It is, therefore, from being compofed of two 
oppofite principles, th^t man has fo Imuch 
trouble to be reconciled widi himfelfj and 
hence proceeds his inconftancy, irrefolution, 
and languor. Brute animals, on the oontrary, 


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whofe nature is ftmple, and altogether- mate^ 
rial, experience no interior combats^, no com^ 
piin(SU9n$> no hqpes, nor any fears. 

If we were divefted of memory, i^nder- 

.flanding and every faculty belonging to the foul, 

tlie niaterial p4M:t alune would remain, whioh 

;Conilitutea us 'animals, and we fibould ftill bav,e 

wants, (eo&tionf 3 appetites, pain, pleafure, aivl 

-^ven pj\flion, for what i$ paffion but a ftrong 

fen^tion,^ wbi(^ ni^y tse renewed at every 

inftaot i 

. But thj(. great cH^quI^. is ,.to - diftinguUh the 
^.paStQftS. wli^cKbcloagibkiy to man, from thofe 
.whi^lfcr poQefies b Goopuwm with the. biutes. 
Js:|t<2^tfiij;^ofipff)1(^^ ^t the latter- ii^ve 
pa$9a$l^;|^it no^ oc^ ,^t conti^a^ aUawe4 
;that every- paftm 9^ ap ei^ptioii of .die foui-j* 
Oughit W6x: t^er^fave^. tp^'^f^afc;^ any 'whor^ 
clfer^ bv$ ii^ tbSf ipirilMi priocipiei (0^ 
t\M: k^ oi j^i^: «i>i%. wiibiti^% ^vcuric<% 
^nd t>f^ev«ry.Qjfi^fiiiafl5^by \eMrt^ V?»'W* 
governed f ^r ;>v.i.:; • • ^'■' ' • ■:" •/•"•'■rt ' 

To me it appear% :tHat . nc^iiiDg whi^h 
£overnsitfaen)iivlform&;uiypar(;of itjt that the 
principle of l^pwledge .is^pol; the priocqpk of 
^ntjnuei^; t^ttl^ jfecdsof the paiionsisui 
our appetites s. that/fllufKai$ K^ed fn>i?i ^uf 
ii^nfesi aadrefi(|p jp our imerMl^m^t^iiai iibnfei 
G a tiiat 

•^4 ■ buffon's 

that the mind is* at firft paffive with refpeft to 
them 5 that when it countenances them, it 
is fubdued, and when it allents to them it is 

Let us then diftinguifh in the human paf. 
fions, the phyfical from the moral ; that is, the 
caufe from the effeft. The firfl emotion is in 
the internal material Tehfe ; this the mind may 
receive, but cannot produce, 'Let us likewife 
diftinguifh momentary 'from 'durable temotfons, 
and we fhall immediately percejve, that feaf, 
horror, rage, love, or raAer the dcfireof' en- 
joyment, are fenfadons, which, though iuf> 
• rable, depend fblcly on flie Jmpreffioh of o6Je<5b 
upon our fenfes, cotnbined with the' riemkiriing 
•iiiapreffions of oiir preceding ftn&tionsj ari4 
that, of confequence, ^ofe paffions we enjoy 
in common 'withthte'bruies. I miltftioh the 
aduaJ impreffions of cbjeSis, as* being c6m« 
l>ined"wiiA the impreffibii^ that remain of 6u^ 
fcfrmer fcnfitions, for iieffhei»*ib>rtian norbc«ft, 
nothing is horrible, nor attra<aive, when feca 
for the firft time. " Of ATs we have pr6of in 
young animals, who w31 run into the fire 
the firft done it is prefented to them. By 
reiterated afts, of which flie impreffions fub* 
fift in their internal lenfe, do they alone acquffe 
experience s and though tht« expenenCe' H 


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KATlfaAl:-«ST01lY. 6^- 

9&t fixtucal, !It iiliiDticfcikre^iaiid'Isermba: 
that: accbunft msam ciimoKfpe^ L.>k.\grbfl|: 
noife, a violent motion^ an extraordinarys 
figure^ -whlofc. is .ieeacar l^eard fiukbnljs and 
tor the Hvi^ .timc^ prckiu^es in die animal a* 
fiaoci:: of w^hf:lhe> effefl ia .fiinilar, to tbe^ 
firft iniKenient^ of ffbaii'^ But^ this .fontcmentf 
is only. ieftaalaneDus ; t fiiBJ a^it! cakinbt bt^ cdf)w 
Vui^ with' an^ fircoeding (onbixon^: ta k muflf 
€On^amci(te ta the ammal a. tianfitdry vibra<# 
tioo, and nota (hcrabia emotion^ fqch ai the 
Ipafian^of^ftavfiQi^oiesli : 
.. A.^PQuagi^ndpaabeful ^tenant of the fo^ 
wbojbcU«Kil)^heai^]tisc£s)ix)d6the^h^^ . 

faorn^ QrrthKJDe|]bBt-:tof » g^nyleape, bbuudi) 
and flies off, bj^itheXole* violence, ti the (Kock 
. which, it has experienced; Yet, if this noiGi 
ia ivithouteffqSbdud cia6s^ th^ianittia) diftin- 
goiiiii^ tSe wonsM fii^nce'of -^latere, ,cem«- 
poifea itfeif, haha, kild' iietu^ns to i<% tranquil 
•cetrtatv ' JBiit age and^ ^xj^ri^hde, render it 
fiicumipe^ and~ do^, • iinil ' having been 
jKoundedafter a^paiticular nc^tb,- tb( &nfa.tioil 
^ pfdnlis: ntataed. \n lUointfernal '4n(e, an! 
Hrikdih thfefiMiieuBbi£B ihaUt be ag^ -h^i^' it is 
ditoeieed^ rbkhbin^ei .itfelf !i«ich ^ ^e a£luaX 
9giMtQJ)> aad^ prodeccs a pexansiv^t paffion,. a 
': G J ' reaj 

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TeaII»r;'thraiuiiisQ Bitevndi ^ its migh^ 
sod frc^uendy narer -Tetunift to. m. uftial 
abode. , : 

EeaT) thdv is a paffion of ^idi hmter ani* 
mals are fufceptiUe^ though the/ Save noty 
Uke UB, rational, or ferdeen appreben&ns^ 
Of horror, rage, knd Joice, th^ are alfo ftt& 
ceptible; buti^ey have-not ooir averiIon% 
founded on refie&to% our.dtirable hatreds, op 
our conftant iirieiidibips* Thde paiEdns^ in 
brutes, imply ,no knowledge, n& ideas, and 
are founded folely on the es^riems of i feiti-f 
meot^ or repietlti<ms of: pain and plfsafume, ^'and 
the renovation, of preceediag fenlatt<»is :df:thc 
fame -kind* Fury^ or natucal cotirage^ is^ rei 
markable in anunals which, have eioperienced 
and afcertaii^ed their Arengthy and found it 
Aiperiorto othtsrs^fear is tbe^ p<»tioir.of the 
.weak, but lov^ belongs ita- alli Loyel thoui 
innate defireij thou foul .<^ jushire ! . thou in^^ 
exhauftible prin€;iple pi; exiftence ! thou fbreo 
reign power, by whiqh. civegf. thing breathes^ 
and every thiiig :is renewed. I ithou divine 
ilame! thoU.. feed of; perpetuity ^infufisdi by: die 
.A]pfiigbty;.|i\to all which has the brendi of li&l 
thou precious &ntimeht by which 9lon& the 
nioiL fayage and frozen hearts are foftened { 
. thou 

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tiiott Xrflrjcaofe of all happmefe^ of *aD Ibciety \ 
tfioa fcftile fputce of rrqry pleafure^ of every 
cblighr! Lov^ ! Wby doft diou oooftituts the 
felicity of every other being, and brix^ miiery. 

The reafon is obvious* Confidered in a 
jibyiiod ijaife, dris paffion is good; in a mcval 
oine^ it i&j attended with every evil. In what 
does -die morality of love confift ? In vanity f 
vanity in the pleafure of conqueft, an crroi 
Wbich proceeds, from our putdngtoo high a 
value upon'it ; die vanify of defiring exdufivfi 
pofleffion, of which jealoof^) a paffion fo baie 
that we. are afliamed to own it, is thexonftant 
attendant ; vanity in the very mode of enjoy- 
ing, or evep. relinquifbing the objed of out 
ddiresj if the wiib of feparation'originates with 
ouiielves ; but i^ inftead of foriaking, we are 
f6r(aken by the beloved obje^i, the humilia«> 
tioa i^ dreadful I and the diicovery we. have 
been: duped and deceived, not unoften hurries 
us into .deipair. • * . . » 

Erom ail theie miferies brutes are-Wree. 
.They ^ek notito iobtain ^deafiire, ^ where it is 
not to- be. found: .guided by>ientiment' alone, 
they'are> mirer decaived^ia 4heif choice ; their 
idefires are. always priiponLotied to their power 
of gratification ittiey fed as much as they ea« 

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lA ' BDWCBfffi i * 

Jb]f, ana&B not^ tb yacy or;ant1cqAte:AoinL' 
But Man, in ftriYiiig^to Byveot |ilea6ioeJ «d1jI» 
deprasfes natatre:; ih ftruggliiig to cieatb fetttW 
ment, he perverts the intention of. hb beings 
and creates in his heart a vacuimv HBkidi HGb 
ihing can iafceewards fill. . / r r^' 

: Every thing good in Imrei bqlngs Itoi':^ 
brutes as well as to many atideifien.the]9^ ^s^-tf 
tfiifc fentinlieiit fcooid never be pan^: (deat'tB 
jbave* a (in^il portion of- jealbufy.- Anioiig us^ 
ihis palQion always im^diesifocne iStftruft of our4h 
ieives^ fiupe'-diftatit) jtnixirledgQ 4ȣ our Wic 
wealcneiS) wk)le bv^ted. are ' never^ioua bo|. 
ki proportion to^ their ftmigtb, asdour fer^ imd 
prppenfity to pleafiire^ The reafoa is,, that 
vur jealeuiy^ depend^ on our ideas, and th^rt 
en fentitivent.' Havii^.once enjoyed, they de^ 
iir^to enjoy agatn^; imd feeling their ftr^xigdi^. 
tiiey drive away a)) that would^* o^cxify^Aeir 
pkcre. Their jealoufy U 'WJtibbar tedoQiosi^ 
they tiiraitnotagainil the oHje& 06 iimt love 1 
of their pleafures alone are theyjealpus* . : . .; 
. But are fmitnala. confined merely .to tfaofe 
paiBofifi ime ,h«y«e'd(fcribeii? / jAsc fbo-, ragd^ 
hoxitu-v love^.an^ jesdoufjA> .diei/clilyL dito-sMe 
ftSeflio^ they ai^ tcapable- of exporicncipg^l 
To mf it appear^ tb^iadependest: of the(e 
paffiooa whicii ari& £r^ tteic natural ^clings,. 


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•they have others, which are communicated to 
them' by example, imitation, and habit. They 
have a kind of friendihi^, pride, and ambition, 
and though we may be convinced, that in all 
their operations there is neither refledlion nor 
.thought^ yet, ^s-all (ietr habits /eem* to imply 
fbme degree of [intelligence, 'and to^ form the 
lhade*i)etwcen themra!id*man,ittequires^ in a 
pecaliar manner, our ftiri^ examination. ' 

Is there any thing exceeds the attachment of 
'die^g to its ms&^r^l On ih.e grave that con- 
tained his doft teis ttii$ aflifAal teeim kndi^ td 
i)reathe its laft/ .Bilt^ (Avilhout quoting pro^ 
digies, 'or ^bi^s) witfiF i*hat iidelify does hi 
«Cc^piMilyi''ifoliow,' -and defend his- maftcr! 
•AVith;M)at6^emifi'docs hcfolicitliis careflesi 
-Withi what docility does he obey Kim ! With 
:wlat patience ddels Ke 'fuffer his bad humours^ 
and bis frequently unjuft corrcftibns ! WltH 
what, mildh^ and humility ddei he endeavour 
to; be reftot«d tb'^fivWlrl cWhat demotion and 
anxiety does he exprcfe when his matter h abi 
fentl'and what joy when he returns !—Fr(Mn 
all diefe circumftances is it poffible not to 
dtftingui(h true mailed of frieiidfhip? Even 
among 'the Hum^' fpecies is' it cxpreflcd in 
thara<a^r8 of fuperior energy f 


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This frtendfliip is the fame as that of a: ^ 
male for her favourite bird, or of a child for its 
play*thing. Both are equally blind and void of 
refle£tion; that of the arums^ is more natwraly 
fines it is founded on neceffity^ while that of 
the ocber is only aa Mpid aojulement, in 
•which the mind in no degree partakes^ Theft 
cbildiih habits fvibfift qiefc^y by iitteoefs, aoU 
are more or left ftrong it tfae brain ii moco Qf 
Ub vacant* 

. Real friendihipi Iioweviery fuppofesLthe power 
^ refiff^fMii'it i^oC atl atuditaents tbemdk 
sifQsiAiypf Qoaai ^ t^e^ ooEy onfi bjrwhich he 
ia iV>t dej^|sidc<^^ Fxfeiida|iprfl^im:fW)m,re^(bl^ 
idone^ . It is tb» mifd of ^ Ini^^ wb^we 
love, aAd ti»^iQve a mindr it i^-neee^^ t<^ ha^ 
one, and tp have ms^ vfe of i^ in th^ attiuf>- 
ment of iptelUgeji^ce,. and :ii( c^mparifig (far 
f^eji^nifdit; €d differ^ -minda^ % filiekiit 
ihlpy thcA) 4io|: ooly k incited t)ie prini?ipl^«iC 
J^wledgCj:b\tf ^jfttHa.wfeftte^^ afiufld 
fxercife of that principl^^ • f !' ' » ': 

Thus, while friendftlp bfctengs fdely to 
{nan, attacbn)ent:.may be pofl^iled by animals; 
^ fentiment aloim is^ ftfficjefit'fo^at^cb them 
to p^rfon^ wh^mthex often fe?, and by whooi^ 
they are fed and i}puri^4* The at^hme^ 


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of females to their youitg is produced by the 
trouble tfiey have had in carrying them in the 
womb, and'in -prodacing and giving them fuck. 
T^ atnwig birds, fome males fe6m''to have an 
attachment to their young/ and to take care of 
the females while they are fitting, it is becaufc 
they have been employed in the conftfu6lion 
rf the neft, and continue to enjoy pleafure 
with ibtrr females long after impregnation. 
Among other anrmals, with whom the feafon 
of love is fhiort, that elatjfrfed, the male is no 
longer attached to jthe female; where there k 
no neft, no employment, in which they may be 
mutually engaged,- thre fethcrs, like thofe of 
Sparta, have no c^ for their progeny. 

The pride and ambition of animals proceed 
from their natural courage j that is, from their 
fcnfe of their ftrength, agility. Sec* Large ones 
hold the fmall in defiance, and feem to contemn 
their infukJng audacity. This courage may 
alfo be improved by inftrudion, . for, reafon 
alone excepted, of every thing are brute ani- 
mals fufireptible. In general they will learn to 
perform the fame aflion a thoufand times ; to 
do wWibirt intermiiSon what diey did by in- 
tervals 5 to continue for a length of time what 
Aey at firft ended in a moment; to do cheer- 
fully what at firft was die cflfeft of force 5 to 



do by habit ^Hbiatrthey once 'have cjone by. 
chance \ and to pe^iprfn of- thenafelvies ivhat; 
thej have fe^n done by odier^. Of aU the 
operations c^.tbe animal, machine; imij^tWu js 
the moft admirable, .It^js, its^lic^p^ndj 
moft extenfive mobile, and exl^ibits ^the trueft; 
copy of thought, and thougji.the caufe of it,., 
ip animals, is altogether material, .yet by its, 
effetSb our wonder is .excited. Menijn^yrer 
more admire an ape than when th^.fee it 
irnitatc.the aji^ions of men, Ifi fa^ it^is .not. 
eafy to diflin^iuih {qnie .copied Irpm fot^e^ 
originals. Befides, there^ are fo few? ,who c^n ' 
dillindly perceive the ,diiFerenipc between a 
reality and a cQunlerfeit^ that to the bulk of 
m^kind an ape mufl always exdte aftpnifh- 
ment. ... 

Though apes have the art of imitating the 
a^lif^s of men, they are not a degree fuperror 
to other brutes, who all, more or lefs, poffefs 
the talent oif imitatijDn.^ In moft animals this 
talent is confined to the imitation of their own 
ipccies; but the ape, though ^be belongs not 
to the human fpecies, copies .many of our ac- 
tions; and this he is enabled to do from his 
organization being fomewhat fimilar. So.nearly, 
indeed, do they fometimes carry the refem-- 
blance that many l^aye ignprantly afcribed that 


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to genius and ioitslligence wluch is nothing 
but a grofs affinity of figvre and oi^anization. 
It is from the relations of motion that a dog 
karns the habits of its mafter, from the rela- 
tions ^of figure that the ape counterfeits the 
geftures of a man, and, from the relations of 
organization) that one bird repeats airs of mufic. 
and another imitates fpeech, which forms the 
greateft external difference between man and 
man, as between man and other animals^ flnce 
lai^uage in fome 'indicates a fup^rior und^- 
fian<&)g and an enlightened mind, inK:)thers it 
barely difcovers a cooflifion of borrowed ideas, 
and, in the idioti or the parro<;> it indicates the 
hB: degree of flupidity, plainly ihewing their 
incapacity for refle£tion, although they ma/ 
poflcis every necefl&ry organ for expreffing 
what pailes within* 

With eikfe^iay it bje rendered apparent, that 
imiti^onis^a mete meohanical tffcHy of which 
the pelrfe^ion d€j)ends on the vivacity with 
which ifae internal material fenfe receives the 
impreffion -of obje<9:s, ' and on the facility of 
exfureffing them by ^e ilmilltude and the flexi* 
bility of the exterior organs. Perfons whofe 
fen&s are ^eHcate and eafily agitated, whofe 
members are active and obedient,* make the 
beft adoi:s> the beft ^imic% the beft apesi 
vpL.. V ' H Children 

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74 BUP#oN*a 

Children, without perceiving it, imftate the* 
habits, gefhires, arid manners, of thoft they 
live with ; thejr have alfo a great propenfity to 
repeat, and to counterfeit' every thlhg they 
fiear and fee. ' Young "perforis wlioYee nothing 
but by the corporeal eye, are wonderfully rea- 
dy in perceiving ridlculotfs^objcas: every 
fantaftic form aflffefts^ - * every teprefentadon* 
ftrikes, every novelty tnoves- theni. The im'* 
preflion is fo ftrong, that they relate thehi with 
tranfport and copy them widi fitcility and 
grace. In a fuperior degree tfo'*ftey chjoy the 
talent of imitation," A^ich'*^i4)^ofes -the moft 
perfect organization^ and t6^ Which nothing is 
more oppofite than a largo portfon' of good 

Thu?, among men, thofe who ref!e<a' leaft 
are, the moft expert at imitation ; and therefore 
it is not furprifing,' that we meet witMt! in ani- 
malsy'who^have no refle£Hon. Thefe' ouglft 
to poflefs it in a higher degree of perftftion, 
becaufe they have 'nothirfg within* them to 
CQunteraft it ; no principle by whiCh they may 
have the defire to be different from each other. 
Among men,, it is from the mind'tliat proceeds 
the diverfity of onr charafters, anilhe variety 
of our aflions, , Brut? animals, 'by having no 
mind, have not fiiaty^^ which U^thh principal 
'- ' of 

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oF the differeace, the. caJUfe which conftitutet 
the individual. Of .necefitty, then> when their 
organization is fiinilu^ or they are of the 
fame fpecbs, they ^nmft copy each olher, do the 
feme things in the iame manner, and imitatr 
each odier vnidi a greater degree of perfeflion 
&an one* man can imitate another. This ta^ 
lent fbr imitation, therefore, far from imply<^ 
ing that antmata have diought and reflection, 
isaproofdiat they are abfolutely deftitute of 

For die &me feafon it is, that the education 
of animals, Sioiigh ibort, is always attended 
with fooceib. Almoft every thing the parent 
knows Aey -qi^ickly learn by imitation. The 
yourtg-are moddlcfd by the old : they perceive 
the la(tt«»approa<Jh or Jy, when they hear cer- 
tain IbOild^^ When they fee certain objeas, or 
fcaM c«Hsten odours j at firft they approach of 
fly without any determinative caufe whatet'cr, 
tet fmifAiHilS arid^ftowards they approach or 
fly of thentfrives, in confequence of their ha- 
lving acquired a habit of doirig fo whenever they 
feel the feme fenfittions. 

Having compared matti with the brute ani-' 

ftial, takei^ individually, let us no^ compare 

them "togedier colleftively, and endeavour at 

the fame time to afcertain the fource of tha^ 

H 2 kind 

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kind of induilry vifhAdi we obierire in certaiit 
fpecics of animal, and thoie even the meaneft 
and the moil: numerous. For this induftry, 
what encomiums htYc not been beflowed on 
particular infeiSs. The wildoai and tatcnts of 
the bee, obfervers fpeak of wilh admiration; 
they are (aid to poflels an art peculiar to them- 
ielves, that of perfeft governments A bee* 
hive they add is a pepuUic, in. which the la* 
bour of ^h indlvidital is devoted lo the pub- 
lic good, in ^ich every thing is otxiered, dis- 
tributed, and Oiared, widi a fcMiefigblv afi equity, 
and a. prudence^ which is really aftofufhing. 
Thcr government and poticy of Alliens itfd^ 
were npt more exemplary. But I ibould ne- 
ver have done^ were I barply to ikip over the 
annals of this cot^monwealch, and to draw^ 
from the hiflory of this infed):, all the incidents 
which have excited the aditiiration cfits <fifie« 
rent hiftorisins. 

^Iiatcanwe ^nk. of thetexcefr to which 
the ek)giums on this animal h^e beea earned ; 
ai{(iong other great qualities they are &id to 
poSj^fs the moft pure republican principles, an, 
ardent love for their country, a difinterefted 
affiduity in labouring for the public good,, the 
ftrickeft econ(Mny> the moft perfeft geometry 
and elegant arcbitedlure., Notwlthftanding 


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iTAitrftAL HJsro^r* 77 

4iefe eUlogieS) a b«e Oug^t to hold no greater 
T9nk in the eflm^tioii of^a ofttufalift than it 
does in nature i .a^d, it| the eye of reafony thi» 
marvdlouft^ rZBii fo - 4xn»ds«exloUed republic, 
will aev^ bstgnfrdiMi; more tfaanamiildtad^ 
of fmatt ^^abmahi «Hlich.fhare no ^iffiniiy to mea 
but that of fumfking :him whh wax and 
hon^. .. 

Let pto(^ examine >wtth attentkxi thefa* Iit« 
da ntand^urres^ ptdoMkigaj and toih; Jet 
dnm d«(brihe tJoMy thdr generation, their 
multif^icAiioft) - thirir aie^anior{]jiofts^ 0oc>^ 
Thei^ ar e 9bjt£b wdrtky of the attsmion )of. 
a( tUitttrsdiA ; 4)ut tO' hear the morale of infeifts 
cried Up hifi inTuil^ble'; and I atn> Mtf con« 
vinided^' ttet. by a. ftiiSI aJKt iMionaL obfei^er 
it woiiid be ifonnd^ liiat the origin: and fupef'* 
ftm&Bce of thb v«Moto won&rfri tal^ti d&' 
crib(idtobet», arife^ frotn^fte mother bee pro-*^ 
ducing io>OQO individuals at one tiine^ and iiy^ 
the latiie pla^^ arhkb rieceffiarily «bKges> th^vh 
to arrange theffafi^es^in^ibihe order forthetf^Oi*'^ 
ierta66il of their cexKlence« la not Nature fit& 
iicientiy aftwH&tng of herf^f^ widMUt atteit^t^i^ 
ing 16 ronler her more fo, and withottt attri-. 
buting toiler mtractek ^Mchr have no ettftence 
but in oar oWn^magfttKtioft ^ l^r not the Criia-^ 
tor fuftcJerttly g tidat by hisl wtirks j a»d dti wt» 
H 3 beliive 

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7 J bufp6h*» 

believe we can render him more (b hjevaf 
weaknefs? This, were Aeft a poffibility^ 
wouM be the way W debafe him. ^ Who, 'Ii» 
efk&y has ^ moft e^tdd idt» of >di» 8u^ 
preme Being, be who beholds tim crcfltie Ae 

. univek^fe, arrange ev^ cflciAencc^ aaA<^ahlifli 
nature to invariaUe and perpetuaL Jaws; of' 
he i(irho fees hiih attettcive ia coodufting a ts^ 
public rfinfedb? 

Certain animals iwite into focie^k% wfafkh' 
feem to depend on the choice ^ [thofo fbat. 
compofe them, ,and wfaich,^ of oonfe'cpience,. 
has in it a far greater degree (^intelligeivce and 
deAgn, than die fociety^f bees^ of which the 

. foie principle is, phyfical neceffity. Elephants,, 
beavers, apes, and man; other fpecies of aoi!- 
mals, aflemble together in bodies, affiil,. and. 
drfend each oCh^. Did wenotfb often difturb* 
thefe focieties> and eoitld we obferve them with, 
as much eafe as thoie of the bees,, we fhould,. 
doabdefs, meet with a Qiultitude of other- won^ 
ders; which ftiU, however, would amount to- 
nothing more tkin fo many phyfical relations.. 
A great number of animals, of the £une fpe* 
cies being aflbobled in the (ame place, there 
will 'neceiTariiy refuit a certain arrangement, 
and a certain oider of common 'habits. Now 
every common habit^ far from having en* 


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l^ghtqied intelligence for its caufe^ implies no* 
thing more than. 9* blindL^imi^tiom 

Amcmg m^Kh foQMy flepends Ids on fky{i» 
cid ageeememi^ithanc^ moral mbtionsl , Man 
>4it. fif!ft nv^red bi^ ^i!eogth> tus weaknefs, 
hjsigaorttice.imd ^ i^o&tfi be fek tfaaty 
of Uaa&If^ he amid not iktisfy the mulu^icity 
of ills Dtiiapt»|.]ie.:cli&:oir«r^ ^ advantage Jle 
ihould have in fociety; he refleded oa the 
idea of^^euU, .he.epgcayed it in his 
faear^.hyj^ie^l^t^ of the natural h'gh^ com* 
imwcaled to him^thsoug^ the \>ounxy of the 
Cre»^ ;. he &w that folicude w»( a ibite of 
daj^e^y and of warfare j be fought for fecurity 
^n^.peace m focijstys, there he augmented his 
pow^r itnd. M^iwledge by uniting them with 
thofe p{ o^&iH and this union is the nphkft 
ui^heeifer.inade o£ bis rea&Mru S<ddjr.from 
governing himfelf) and Submitting to the laws 
ofibcielty, it is man'commands the univ^fe^ 

Everything has oonctn^sed to tender man a 
iqoial being; for, thcn^ krge and civilixed 
focieties depend ontheufe^la^ fometimes on 
the abiife of reafo% yet tfaey were- doubdefs, 
precccded by finaller fociceics^. whofe fole de- 
pendance was on nature^ A family is a natural 
ibciety, which is more per«an««;,,and better 
founded) becaufi^ Aw wants and fources of 


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80» BUFF0N^4 

attachoiimt^ are more nuj^ierous. Tdt.^fffttnt 
is man from olAier ahiiti^ : .\Kbea h^ i9: botf^ 
he hkrdly exifte; naked^ fftM^^ incap^e.of 
aaion, bis Hfe'depends oathf ^ftftj|m;eJ|e rie>» 
ceivcs. This ,ftate <tf iafe^tioe. wcab|csffiw 
^ontintm for i^ hnsfh c( tipn^i; a^^thfs/m-: 
ceffitjr of 'fiffii(bnce becoo^.air l^i^ wfaicb^ 
sdtiike i« fiftfficientxorpr^^dttc^ aa4ttacbca«nt ib^ 
tw^ft tbe thHd. aod ^ent... Ii^ pcoporttottj^ji 
the child ^vaiice% he is e;iabted,to^ do wichopjt 
affiftanqe$ the.affQ(3:ioii.of the I^Lrei^qonlji^^ 
while that of the. child daily decr^afes^^.aiid.. 
thus lov» «vcr tieTcefKbin aiiiuah ftropger^d^^ 
gnee than tt afcends ^ the attachment o£ thi^ pa-^^.t 
vents becimu excoffivcy blhid, idQiaJ^9^ ^ 
wbik d»t,of die. cfaild renuuaacpld vju;si i%v 
diflfereat, till^ by the influence of. P^atctif, 
the firad of gradtude has bsgan . to ^ tafeo^ 

Thw fadetjr, cMfidefed ev« ill Ae l%ht 
•f afingle fimify^ lirppoftsiA it^n the laoiky 
^f fea(c»t>; amoi^ antinab which.fettft to unte 
togetiier frcelj', suad hy mutual «^reemei% ftw 
ciety fu]9ofes experience and fentkn^nci 00i 
among infe9» iivi^ m^ like tho bee% afl^-., 
ble together involimtarity, and ^thouldefigtt ^ 
•fociety . imxplm noAitig^ mA Irhateve^ m^y be 
the efiefiv of fudi^attMa^^ tYiimt^ 


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they were neither forefecn, nor conceived by 
thofe that execute them, and that they depend 
-folely on the univerfal laws of mechanifbi^ 
eftibWhcd by the Creator. 

Let the panegyrifts.of infe£b fay what they 
will in their favour, thofe aninials which, in 
figure, and organia^on, bear die jEhongeft re- 
iemblance to man, muft iHU be acknowledged 
fuperior to all others, with reipeA to internal 
qualities; an(^ though they differ (torn tt|ofe of 
man, diougfa, as we have evinced, diey^ are 
noelting but the tiK^, exsercife, experience^ 
and feeUng, ftill are diey, ih a high degree, 
fuperior to inie£b. As in evo'y thing that 
exiils in nature thete is a ibiuie, a icale may be 
eftabliflied for det^rminiflg the degrees of the 
intrinfic qualities of each animal^' by whicfay 
when oppofed with the matc^al'part of man^ 
we ihall find the preference due to the ape, the 
do]g, the etephant, and, in different degrees, to 
all the other quadrupeds. Next to them will 
rank the cetaceous animals, which, like the 
quadrupeds^ have flefli and. blood, and, likq 
them, are viviparous* In the third clafs will 
be the birds, becaufe they differ more from 
man than either the quadrupeds, or the ceta* 
ceous ammds y and, where it not that there ^fe 
beings whioh^ like the oyiter and the pdypus^ 


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9t iUFFOMt 

feem to differ from bim as much as it is po& 
fible; the infe^b would occupy the lowed: claft 
of animated beings. 

But if animals are deititufie of &11 under** 
ftanding, all memcHryy^and all intelligence $ if 
all their faculties depend on their fenfet, and are 
confined to their ea^rience^^ ^whence proceeds 
that forefigbt we renutdc ia&vera(lt>f th^m? 
By fentimem alone ca)i d^ be prompted to 
provide -in the fummer provifions iiificientfar 
dieir fubfiftente during wimer. 2>oes not th» 
fuppofea ^omparifon of-feafcns, a- rational itu 
quietude conceming their iuairefiipport? Wh^ 
fhould birds, build Hefts^if they did not fcM# 
€hat they fliould have octafion for them tx> 4e^ 
fKrfit €b6ir eggs, and lo teaSc tlMr young f . 

Adihitting the truth of ^ft, and maay odiar 
circumftances which might be produced { ti* 
fnitting diat th6y ai^ To* matiy prooft of J)t^ 
fentiment, of forefigh^ and e^en a knOi;s4edgt 
of futurity, in animals, muft it follow, on that 
Account, that they are intelligent beings ? Were 
this the cafe their intelltgeiice would far.fiit|Mife 
our own, for our forefight is always conjec- 
tural. Our notions, wiA refped^ to futurity^ 
Sire, at beft, doubtful ; and all the light we have 
' is founded on probabilities of future things. 
Brute aAimalsj then, who fee At future vnA 


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certaini]^ fince Aey detennine before hand, 
and are never deceived, muft have within 
them a prihdple of knowledge greatly fuperior 
to man, muft have a foul, far more pene« 
trative ^nd acute, ar confequence, which, I prC't 
fiime, iscquaHyr^ttgnahtto peligion and to 

' B^^fli^ iisbdiigence fimilar to that of man it 
impeftUe thift brutes can have, any certaht 
knowledge of ;iial!urityy fihce, in that re^pedlf 
Usi ideas .ate 4dw8]ps inr^perli^, and fiiU of 
dddb^ ' • Then wh^ < om fttth flight grotmdsy 
inf^ them wWi a quality fo ftiAIime<? Why, 
Wiiheiit neceffl^v degradd thd httman ipe^iesK 
Is* it not tm^afenabie to attribute their fource 
ta me^hanieal^laws^ efts^fted,' Iftre di iho 
oAeiF laws of? Nature-, by the Will of 'tho 
Creator, The certainty -wjtfr whi'eh brute* 
are'ifippofcd- to 'aft,"and be detfefmffted, rtiigbl 
alone convince- tis,tha6 every- fhiiig they (*t( 
is merely mechafhfcal. The cffdmial charac«^ 
teriffiis of reafeii ircj doubt, dcliberatiorf, and 
fcothparifonj bdt motions ^^nd-acfttmis, which 
afiiiounce nothing but decifion -and certainty^ 
extitWt^ at once a- proof of- lAcchantfm and 
ftupidity. - 

Pfevioifs, hoxfrevcr'j to -tfie'fulPadmiffion of 
Ufefe ailerted'faftsi which iccm to^lcSen thofe 
'■ ■ i ' ideas 


84 - buffon's 

uleasweou^ttonamdaaa of tiie power and 
will of our ^vtne.CreatoFt iMigfat weraot to 
enquire whedier they leadiy^eadfl^ or laara{vAr 
cient ground to fuf^xn-t the fuppaficsoa t The 
boafted forefight of ants m oclksBmf^tSb^ 
nan^e for the wi^spr is anendetil wof^ fince 
it has been found that daring that tofim'itbtffi 
remain in a torpid ftate i theesforey tkis^pMsMld^ 
ed forefight^ fu^pdfes diem to pMi^iidrtl»t 
whkh it muft a]fehtv^HifiiBRied'4l^mwaidd 
be entirely unneeef&rjr ? k n^^dle ifaifttfon 
tiiat tiiey enjoy their fedd yri^ motie^qaM^ md 
tranquility in their fixed refide^e^ aleiie M&^ 
cient fo account for ^tr com^yhig thither 
more than they can poiBbly make v^^i The 
latae'^pplie^ to bee^^ ccikftiag .f|i4fe.^:^V4^ 
and Koney than their neeeffides reqti^t^ Ddes 
not this evince they are adluated by^Iki^ and 
not inteDigence, efpedally if we refleft thatif it 
fiTocecded framYormer experience, that wouW 
teach them to decKiwfuch unneceflary labour? 
which {o far from being the c^ th^ conftimie 
tocxtradl wax and heney as longf^ tliere ^ a 
(ucceffion of freih flowers, and were it pof- 
fibie to continue that tiheix bbours vcmid never 
ceafe. ' ' , 

Fidd*niice have a)fo been inflanced, whoie 
abodes are generally divided^ in one hole, they 


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cl^ofit their jroimg, and fii.the odier their food, 
the latter o£ ^nUcb^ they eqaSsandy £11 ; bat 
here it fbovid i»f obfenced tiut when they pro- 
yiide tb^eapMtaie»ts (or theaafelves* the latter 
a»alwa|P«.^fiodtt» just iijhi^y £uid a large hole 
nodor ateii wJwA they ciio^ for (heir abodes 
tbejrfiUiiMit iMil.a && whtojb renders it clear 
thqpjMii^ :ii»tfi^iga{ice of the Aatoreof their 
W«)3tS|rh4M:«|€ gtriMjbty the-Cj^ity of (be place 
tfai^^ta foe dfifia&ing 4heir £10^ 

i^ai)«thei&JMx:a^ loajrbetaced the^^^^ 
toiddti^pefiil^ a||t^^ to d^ feathered race ; 
noc.^ k «ef?eilky,|^ fufyofe the Aln^^l^y^has* 
cumiwiivl tin dK^n^anyftrticular lai|ir to. account 
ijir diecQoftru£]feiftaf 4Ntr neft. I/Qve *s tha 
gi:pri .fatimgor ^t exck^ diem to the .la^^ 
bci^cius ivodertikyig ^ ;4he Wfic ^d fetnale fee^ 
% «iq^ ittHibp^)^ jtb(^;Wi4^ to be^^loae^ 
s^ dieife&|» ieel^^ifM^fiU: ffi;om the .hl^ftlc 
W yi g yq Cfgy 5^ Af rKfl^rWi and ^a^vipg 
6>iigN^ ^s ii»o# xtbtviife^ft^rt pf a /ore^, ^o^ 
r<eod<^idt|^|N^jM;j;^ Comfortable they 

coIle<3: ftraws, leaves, &c. 0„ipi:i^ ^ CQ^:? 
ifiqn^itition,, ^<!rein thej ma; e^^oy^^ein- 
(el^ witk-'^gQ^pSt tcju^uilkyl..; jSooie, havr- 
evqr,, content themfclves with holes in treesj <)r. 
neftsr< they find' which- hjive been* formed by. 
othas« But aU thi^ does not prove .3, pre* 
YOU v., I fentiment 

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t6 BUFFOH'g 

ienttment of' future wants, but are rather the 
e(Fe6h of feeling and organization. A ■ftrong' 
evidence of their tgnw'ance' wiA refpeft ta 
ftiturity, nay, even of the Jail, orprefent, 
maybe drawn from a hen's^ftot hiWng Ae 
power to diftingutfli her 'ow»*from ttie-eggs of 
anodiei* bird, and not perceiving* that Wie young 
ducks which fhe has hiatdied, bdong not <6 Uer ; 
nay, (he will even fit widi the feme iskffidtious 
attention upoir chalk eggs, as upofi thofe fM>m 
iJi^ich a produce may be- c^)e6led.'' Uddier 
do'domeftic poultiymatt ndte, aUidii^h^ilWy 
arcconftru£ledbythe wihl dKiffk- and^oSdft^,- 
and this moft prbbably'frbniftdingtfcat^bttlHfy 
in being fafniliari^ed, Which' the-fetttl- fca^ftr 
in a retreat and foKtude. **I?1ie ncfts-'of bfrdsy 
ftcrt^ore, in tny opinion,' any^moreHilii *e 
cells of bebs, of' the food 'tcJfaftfe^-ttfJflhr 
ant and fietd-moufe, cannotT)eattiribtttcd%^ any 
particular law J to eadi fpecies^ lifflf *penB litM- 
on diofe feelings af ifing from 1»e ^etiihPT^ ' 
of nature^ zM with wl^h^cvei^r^teittl*^ 
beinff is endowfed, '' '"• ' ''^ '^ -? 

It is' not furprifing ttat nran, -IffctjT'faio^ 
fo little of hirafelf, Who'foHRequsWtl^ «h- 
foands his fcn&tiohs With his idcasi'wKo>fc*i- 
perfiiaiy fiftingiiiflies the produ^Sons rf*Ac 
mind from &e produce 6f his brMn, AouW 


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compare htmlelf to the brute animals, and ad- 
ngjt tfaejonljr, rfiffigfgQcr. bctweco them de^ exubd 
on the greater or lefst degree of perfedlion in 
the'orgaos; it is not lurpri^ing that he fhould 
make tb^^ jreafoniif df toro^ixiei. aod underftandy 
in the. fame manner with bimfelf, and that he 
ibould attribute ta them .not. Qjdy ^e qualities 
which he ha%. but even thde he has^not. 
When man, however,, his ogge thoroughly ex- 
awned. and analized himielf) he will . difcover 
th0 dignity of bis being, he will feel the ex- 
iAcncmiot.'hoi fiml;»he.wiU ^^9k t!% jdemean hfe 
lwiusCf.taiidjp^wi^;.av.rij3g)e. glance,^ wiH (te 
d}^ iofin^s^ diftaniPQ. v^Jmh- tbs. S^eme Being 

Qotrsdmi^ knows tiiie j^afii the prefeot^ and 
ihefiMim|i.etG(cmi ia: hjijs eicillenK^,; and. in«. 
finite! iiHhii^Jtoawk^gp* Mgn^ whoib duration 
ttxbiit|Qrai£wu](K>mGf^ l^ceives^but thofe 
SBomctUi:. by! a. living and; an imoiOFtal Power 
am ttwfiunoaQiBitsjcoinpAfiedi diftinguiihed, and 
ftifajBBdi aiuL Thset. Fowec it i» which enables 
man to know the pie(ent» jiudge of (he paftt 
and forefce the future*. Deprive hiaa of ihi^ 
c^ine light ^nd. youv de&ee and obfcure his^ 
^<%9 F^u render him merely aa animal, igno- 
Ant of tke paft, without conception of the 
ftoone, and bardy afiedaUfi; by the prefent, . 
1 2 chap; 

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W BUFFOlf's 

CH APTIR il.' '' 

Ik/TAN cteuiges the natsral ftal» of anknsds 
- hy jforcing them to obey, suid fender iiim 
iervice: a -<k>meftic animal is a fla¥e<to our 
ainufetnent9^d|»efaitions. Thefrequmtabtifea 
he fuflfers, and the forting hiiti Avni his natu* 
nd lno€ler<rf^'>Firing, make great' alterations in 
his iriahners Had temper, iirtiile the wild ani- 
mal, fubjeftto nature alone, kix»i^ no odier 
laws than thde of apfifetite and iibertf. The 
hlftorj of a wild animal is- con&ied to a few 
fy&s drawn from fimple nature ; but the hifto* 
xy of a domeftic animal is complicated with all 
the artful means ufed. to tame and fubdiie his 
native wiMnefs : and being una<U|uainted how &r 
cxamplie, conftraint, or cuflom, may influence 
animals, and change their motions, determina* 
tions^ and inclinacipns, the defignof the natu^ 


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VATVRA& KttTOIir. fy 

iimdift ooght to be to diflai^guifh Adk faS^ 
wbicb depesd on infttri£(» from thofe whtcb are 
«wttig to tteir fAode of edocattoii; fo afeer* 
tain what apj^ertains to them frata what thcy» 
have acqaired;^ t9.%arate wbt b AMhual ft« 
them frem wiMt thejr are made to do^ aact 
Jierer to coaibofid the aatmal witb tbe flave^ 
Ae bealt of burden widi tltt ctcaliire of God. 
The eflipwe whieb man baa over asknals k 
an em^te ^9tadx revolution cannot overthrow i 
h 19 Ae ampife of tlie fpiiit OTcr matter; » 
vighe of ^cmMit^ a powor founded on^unaitcr-^ 
aMe jfenVSy a gifto( Gody^by which^mas mj^ 
abftH tmc9^4Ubera4ieexcdlieiice of Ua beings 
forhe does not (ule An^ becaufii.i9e \t dm 
ttoft perfe^^ftfoagell>.or themoftikxtnMiaof 
anknais. If he was only> the: firftrafik^of tbe 
fime orier, tb6 others would imite to dispute 
the «mphre witb btniy but it k from- the Sun 
fietioritjp -«f * hk- natwe that nnn reigfta aoit 
cenEBanddi be tlunks^ and for this .ipeafen k 
Mdker Olivet beiiigis .that iai^ incapabietpf .tbilikir 
fagk lie 9&i§m «ver matc»ai bodkys ji>eqaiiie 
thqr^an only oppefe to hk wilia fuUen feiji&« 
ance) or an inAexible ftiipidity^^ whi^b h^e f ari 
4dwa]tt'<iver€ome„ by n^kmg them a£l ^gainfi: 
oaftb -Oliler. rfikis mafter of thf; vi^^ubfe 
«reatio% :^faic2^- by -bk ioduflxy b^ can augr 
1 3 ment^ 

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90 bufponV 

xncnt, dittiiniflij fciiew, multiply, or dc^oyt. 
He mabtatns a fup^iority. met brutes, becasiio? 
like them he not only has iiioCikMi^«ad ^eniiitiaa*. 
butpofiefies Jilfb the lI^of.ireafonpgarqEiis* 
his anions, cbnoerts'his^operatkins,. aod.oirer-^ 
eooies force by cunnisigj'.aiid {wiftix^hy^.ferr- 
fcyemacB. Neverthek($^£xiiongjaninttlsi$aa^ 
appear \ familiar,^ otbecs- iavage ^id. ferocioust 
If we compare the doeiltl^; aad ffrtuDiiSpa <^ 
the dog. mth the cruelty iifid:'>&rockjra of tha 
tigpr, the otievwill' appear to bis the; ftiend: of 
many the: onhs^ his enemy zvhis empere, jiiBiit. 
over suHmais is not^abfi^ute.:' Maoy^ ipecies 
can^eicape hi» power -by the ivpdiQr^ ..thdc^ 
flighty by tbeoUcuri^ of their retreats^and bjt 
the elements, they inhabit. Qther& cfcapehltn . 
from their mimttenefe, while other%, who^iax:.- 
from. jefpe^king their fovereIgn,.o[>enly attack 
him. . Befsdes l&efe,.be i&inftilted by the ili^gf 
of inliei^ poifooous bites of ferpents, and^ 
tdzed.with many other unclean,. troubleibaieb* 
and ufelefe cr eatar«^ that feem only to eooft to 
hrm a (bade between good, and eW],i and to^ 
make man comprehend how little refpe<3^ric 
his iail has made him» ' ' 

But vitt* ytmA diftingttiiL the empke of God 
frt>m the domain of man: God, the creator of 
all beings, i^ the fok matter of nature»^ Man 


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fkas no inAuence on the umverfey die motiens 

•f the heavenlf bodi«$». nor the revolutioiis of 

the ^obe whichvjb& /inhabits s over .animals^ 

vegetaUeS).oriBifieral3» he. has no geoesal do« 

lEitnion^ he can do nothing with* fpedies, hia 

power (v^f'^xtends to individuds;'<ibr fpeciea 

in genecdy and matter tn.the grofi,, belong to^ 

0r rather eanftkii^e .nature*. All things pais 

away> foUaiyV' Succeed, decays or are renewed^ 

by an: irrefifiiUe powmc> JVf an^ dragged, on bj 

flieitcH-rent of tim^, cannot prolong kia exift* 

encei his body being linked to noatter, he is 

^rced to.fubmit to the.univerfal law;, he obeys 

the fame fovrpti^ said,^ke ail* the rofl^ comes 

into tho world, grows to maturity,, and dies. 

But the divine ray. with which . man is 

animated ennjobles and raifes him above all other 

material beings,. This fpiriCual fubftance, far 

from bdng fubjc£k to matter,, haa the power of 

•making it ob^y}. and though: it cannot con»- 

madd ail. Nature it preiides over particular 

beings: God^.th^fde fpuroe. of. all light and 

underftanding, rules t)ie..univ^e md the^fpcdii^ 

with. infinite powi^r $ awi^.wljiQ.poilefles only a 

ray of this fpiritual fubftance, ha% a pow^ 

limited to finall portig<}s of inatt«r and in^ 



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It H by the talent of the maiy tben, and iio€^ 
hy (atctj and the otlier qcRji^ of matter, that 
man kas been enabled to ^bdue ani^tfals. Iii 
the 6xik ages they were all equally tndependent^^^ 
man, afor he beoame guilty and ferod&us, was 
▼ery unfit to deprive them of liberty. Before 
ke CQWld apptoocbi ltnow> txKdce cboice ef, and 
tame tfaem> k was^necefT^ that be fbouid be 
civflized hcmfel^ to know h(rw to inftrud and 
command ; and tiio empire ovtr anioials) like 
every c^dttr empire^ was net fdunded till afisf 
fcdety was inftituted. 

It is froA Ibddty that maivderiires his powtr^ 
liKxit that he perfect kis r^afon^ exercifes hi^ 
genius, and tMites his fti^ength. Previous to 
the mffon of fbciety mdn was peiiiaps the moib 
iavs^e^ and the teaft &MrmidaMe of all ereacures;, 
nakedy delencdd% and with<m£ &el«»r, the 
earth to him was only a vaft defert peofricd 
wjth monft^H of which he frequently becait^s 
die prey ^ and even loi% afcer^ hiftosy informa 
nsy xhM the firft heroes were Ofdy the de*- 
firoyers of wiki bea(b.. 

But when the hufi^»i race ifiultipli^^ and 
%re9id OVtir the eardi> and when,^ by the aid of 
the aits ^and f^iety, fif»an was able t6 conquea? 
the imiverfe, he^ by degrees, leflened-fke num^ 


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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

jr>^.^^ Af S^r^Ja^lkn 


3itized by Google 


1)er oF ferocious beafts, he purged tfce earth 6f 
thofe gigantic anhnds of which* we foirtctimes 
'ftill find the eaormous bones ; he deftroyed, or 
reduced to a fmalt number every hurtful and 
voracious fpecies; he oppofed one animal to 
smother, ainl conquered fome by fraud, others 
by force J and attacking them by every rational 
method he arrived at the means of fafety, and 
has eftabH&ed-an empire ^htch is only bounded 
by inacceffible firfitudes, burmBg finds,, frozen 
mountains, and obicure caverns, which now 
ferve as retreats for the fmall number of 
Ipecies <rf* ferocious animals that remains. 

THE horsb; 

TH£ noljlefl: cpncyieft evef made by man 
over the \irut,e. creation, is the reduction of this 
.f|Nrited and haughty animal, (^. x8J which 
Ibares with him the fatigues of )^ar, and the 
glory of vi6bry. Equally, intrepid as his 
0Uifter, the horie fees the danger, and encoun> 
ters deaths with, brayery i inipiced at. the daih 


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94 buffok's 

t)f annS) he levies it^ and. parfues the eneinjr 
with tb€ ifluae ardour and reioUition. He feeU 
pleafureaUo Uifd^ochace^ a»d in tournaments; 
in the caujcfe btt is aU fire}, but equally tra^ble 
aa ooDcageoua, be does not give way- to his im- 
petuofity, aad knows how ta check his jiacuraf 
and fttry- temper. He not only tbt 
arm which guides hin^'hutl^^B™^ ^^ confiik the 
defires of his .ridcsr } and) always obedient to 
jhe iiiiprei&om he receives, lie preiiss oni or 
ftops, at bis rider's pleaTure* The borle> is a 
preaeure which renounces^is very bein§ for^tiae 
fervicepi: mao, whofe will be even knows* ho«r 
to anticipate) and execute by the promptitude 
of his movements ; be gives himfeU up with-^ 

yond his firengtl)^ and often dies fooner thaa 

Sufh is the hor&b whole talents and natural 
qualities art has ii^ggroved, ajpd who widi care 
has been tutored for the fervice of man ; his- 
cilu«atii>n cdmrnences^ wi^ the lol^ of bk li- 
htttjj and is iini&ed by eoi^aint The flswei^ 
iOr ferviCiMle of the hoife is to umverTal^ and 
io^ aiuuent) ijhat we rafely fee him in his nMt^ 
td ftate« Tbcpf aire idways covered witfe hamefc 
wfaeft at vvotk, and are hot V(4ioily free from thek 
batids eve&ac die time of reft.^ If tliey arefome- 


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IBVS (tdtereito nmge itidieMiili) dieydwajrt 
War about .them .otarks/ 4^. fitmtude, tad 
frapwdj. the ntennl itaintiffioni of la» 
faoar.aiid.of pancithenidnth it dofomied by 
the wtmkles ocoiionBd by the Uti tfatt fidct 
fearred niritb sraands> iM fliA ed r by.'the <piiri and 
^.faoo& are picrcid wttkna3s* The ^titiide 
a£dic.bady caaftrained bjttke.iv^MWffioii ef 
habttftal iiackle% icon iMricb they would 
he iiidmiied' in vfiH, as they ^f^uld not 
kit mute atcilibeny. ' Sveii' tM(e wh^fe Aivei^ 
iA the mcdk' geittle, viho Atsrmly fed-HHd-l^xtBlGc 

^thUin^tidy'fi^irve^ '^^sfy Ihe^ vMi^df «heir 
mtAcilfi 4te ^9'f!liore^ftK>h6ikfed by the de* 
gj^iee dftheififrapplngSi amihy^lh^pbats of dieir 
iimi^ )#iinrby the keti^fbotst on their ktt 

Nature is mere beautiful than art, aii3 in' an 
«tiMitM»%dttg:, ^he fif^^eden^ of- k^ eio^^lfiiemt 
nttdedl^Weldftenee^nfoiPe ^^'OU^r^ Che 

horKe M Spaiilfil ''AtsfeiH<faV wKitl^ha4i%'lAttl(i* 
plied^^ f^ and liv^^ in fteedemts ^heinenotioAs 
ftem nddier cotlftmined nor regdlaij proud 
of their iiictepeftdcince^ fliey fly ^the ptefeflife 
efmany arid diiHkm his care;' li^ejifieekaAd^nd 
fix* thefi^i(dhr^ proper aotlrillimertt i thl^ "AMk 
derandttkip abdut in immefife mettdbw^, ¥/tM9 
Ibey feed 1M th^ frdh produ^aons^W perpetual 


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9^ BUfFOH'S 

out any otkerOiritic tkw a ii»M.%, tbcy 
iMleaife a pvitrM dnailtofevUdiaKccin- 
fiaad .m vatiliod fwibeek . fisMt wUr IiMcs 
«i».iAmBgery f«iftM% wd mom mmfmMt^ma 
die 0Rattfir piirt <iCA)iii6ftkaiM»9:.thqifrlii^ 
flimgth and oobknefit. tke.g^ oEnaCum^ 
while tbe oikenham »Uk£i andgmecftilaBft, 
.wUohualLthitflitoHkg^e* . 

Tke «atiml difpofitM of . viikl toffin is 
aot fi^rocioiiS) tey ape ^a^d^r itigb-^fpiiiti^ 
and ii«M- Tiioiig|i f^periorja.ftrangib t^ 
ths. ffFfaD^. p0fft of anutpOi^tbii; jftvimsm 
MacktheoAi and if attacke4.^:Oibff%f.tbey 
eiAar.4iifibi|i 4e«i as fee% and % out of 4ieU- 
m9» or fcve. a £ual Mow wi^ tbw lieels* 
Thqy. units tb^m&lves in. tn^opf) saerdjr ^ 
tbe pl^u^e of bebg togQ^ip^.. for ^y. faive 

nQu«:ifl«nuBi|ts thejf have j^e enqugl) to fxl^j 

the fl^ of ^ouls, Aty nt^cr m^Jtc :yiw: 
vosk dlienH poriiirith ^etnfeliTes.- They a^ver 
^)iarrfl/at)out their food, they have no ocqUIoa 
tolraviAij^i^y fromeaph other, the ordinary 
iburce .of xront^don and quarrels among xar- 
nivorotts afifinals* They live in peace becauie 


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dieir appettet aiv Imj^e ;aai «0d0rftle> ittir 

4nloOT^ and ftrsQgib b)F tajr eAer fign 4blft 
emobtMKi. They :«n4e<iiNMr ^ be 
in tbe cqi^ ^ti^nims^ ^ hran 
in cii»0uig a rk^or feap&ig a diteih ; ind Ihoib 
wi^A tii HMe jBtfmsA^exsftJfo -Ice ifa^^ 
ample, it has ofien -beeir^bfenred, vtei re^ 
du«^a,ddbeftie#^ ait dietiaoftgriMMB^ 
docie».aiid gentle ' 

Several ancient aoduMi^wfeiaf mU hotfm^ 
Hetoiotm (sLfs; ikaHi M the banks of tke-Hf'^ 
ptaiGBf tn^)«famy there werfe wM borTes quite 
whits^ aad^ that th .^wl. lioirdKm ^ pafti «f 
Tkrpcc^ beyond tbe DwaiSiyei dieve waw 
p&ers coverai ivtdi tair^Sve ihidhes Ulags. 
AraftMle ailb cite Sjffiar *Pliiiy tbe^ aohliieni 
cotxntriea ; Strabo, die Alp9 and - Sp^«r j at- 
placea where wild hemes' were td*be foand* 
AtDOiig> Ae nnxlems. Garden nfeiiti6fi» the 
fame thtn^ of Scodatx) and the 'Orkneys; 
Ol2ex39.'9S Mafc(xrjri Dapper, of ^ the ifliSr «>f 
Cyprus, .wbicJi,.as he &y$, contained vfviA 
horfes very beautilUy of. great Arcngtb ai«d 
vot. V. K fwiftnefsi 

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98 SVFFOM'f 

fiviftnefr; Struts) of tibe IIU of May^ one of 
the Cape de Verds^ vriiere to found wild 
Jntiesvery fmadk Leo the Africia aK> re- 
lates, tfat^th cre wete wild borfes in tbetteferts 
«f ArBbiai and Lybiair • and ke affiires us, diat 
lie* Aw in the rehioteft para of Nvmidta, a 
whiteck^ with it curled mane. ' Marmol con-- 
firtBB tins faSti aliemn|, tbar wild horfes are 
fi»xnd in the defeitS' of And)is and' Lybia, 
favdl) and of an 'aflM:dloar4 others vAntt^ 
whoft ttianesaod coatsrare &ort and rough; 
and dm neithw ;dpgs. nor tame faoHes can 
ei| firttaieft^ we read aUb, in i^t^ 
. Lettres £difianteS| that in Giuna^dwc a^ w^ 
.fapdSbs^ a vdyjfinalifize. ? . >; 

Asiabnoft aUpactsof .Eitropeaie dtpeebnt 
-peopled^ and eqtudly iidiabitedi wBd harfes «re 
) QA'bn^ Jfound dxeseiiL Thofe in America 
' erlginater .from, fiocopean. tame* horfesy trani^ 
spoiled thither b]rthe,£]>amards ;. and have m^il- 
.itipIM-4^onfidi9jh)y io.liid vaftrddects of. this 
toovntr^ Tb^ aftomftanent and: fear which 
ifae inhabitanKs of Mexico and Pent expn a fl cd 
. «t•^the^fig^ 'Of bodes wd. their rhters^ia a 
i^rong pi^runqjtion that this amnud was e]\« 
tively mnknown in ^tkt new woiid; The fipa* 
eiaids famed tfaiAer a great nunaberitt well 
fixribsiticQ^ai W^ropagstt the bitedw They 


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left diem on many Uhnds, and men let the«i 
loofe oa^tbe eonttnonv wheie they have mtil^ 
ttplied dike other miU anjnuils. M. la Sidltf* 
in i68S) faw, » the northern parts of America^ 
near th^'Baf. fitf St» I^^iSf whQ}e troops of 
thefe.borfes {ceding in the j>afturesi which 
were fo-wUd) ths^ n«A>iie oouM approaci^ tbtoi* 
The aodior of the Hifl^yof the BucaoiefSi 
hjsy <^ That in die iflaod of St. Domingo, 
hot fes are fomedaies £bea in troops of» 500^ aH 
jn^nnia^ togedica: ; that when they fce ajnaii^ 
^y aUik)p$ and d^ one of them will ap« 
proach^ to a certain diftanoEy fnortSs takos 
fl^hty and^is iiiftandj foUmred by all the 
reft." He adds, ^ that be does not kmw 
wfaether diefe horfes, by becoming wild» have 
degeneratedor not^ but that he did not tUnk 
than (b bandfeme as tbofit d Spaixtf though 
dsoy are delcended fi»ni the iame breed. They 
have (condaues. he) large, heads and limbs* 
and their ears. and necks are alio long.; the 
inhabitants eaiily tame them, and aAerwaid$ 
fiirce diam to wodc« To catch them, naofes 
made - of ropes are fpnead in places where diey 
firequent^but if they ace.cau^t by; the.neck 
dief prefendy ftrai^e diemfelres, unlefe aAft* 
an(» is Jieac9 they are then £ifieaed by die.body 
and legs to. dto tre^^ whidra ibey. arc left for 
K 2 two 

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two dstys ii4Aoiilf«ttb^ ftdd or dfMc» This 
tnperitxm^'w futUl^t t» mate ihtm fame-* 
whit tni£bMe>< and in afi«Aetifp»th4ey>bee(me 
as linuch Ss as if the)r<1kia^ never beetnit^; 
and even^ if f^y dtence, Aey regaitt Aei^^ 
liberty^ they never !iecothe fe agaiit, but ^ow 
tlMur AiiRei'S) dfld 'vifKt tncinRives^ to be i*^ 
taken mtboiit trouble* 

This proves flM korfes>r45naferrdy'g€sitIe; 
and diipdM t& lie ftiiiHkHr w{#r man; they 
nerer fedt to quit the ^abodes of fnen to re^ 
cover Aeir Hbertyln the fbrefts } * on the doni^' 
ttwfy they (hew great anxttfty to rcMmtdffl^ 
dd habitatioii^ where, peihi^'th«y^fuidb0t 
Marie fo^ ri^ys th^ &bc^ juid ^eneifMy 
Ihcsafiired out to thear wMr t iptrfn^ hiQfd( 
wiftbiit <SoAu(feriii|p fli6 weligdt'' w (Mtf 
ii[ypenfes* OiiRbm,^ however, lerv^ theAi M 
Ben of yifftit Aef itsfi by ilavery. Whert 
worn with ftefgde,' the phce dfrtft is to 
|hem*thctnoft daielous j tbey ftnett it at a difr 
teice; <ran ' even find it out in the ttMtt of 
large town$> ^hd, ■ in every thing*, ftem t» 
prefer IKivfery to Hberfjr. The imfttnns to 
which^they hare bedi forced to fubmit, become 
a fccofnd natUrd to them ; for horfes ^artdoned 
in dte-ferefts, hare been known to neigh con- 
tinuaHy t6 • ttiafcd themlWves' Wijard,- tt^ galtep 
''•*;;}^^ towards 

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1* * . 

i[>waFdsdiehiima9 voice; and eroo lo. gjsow 

depend on th^ir educa|^i^);Whi^ is apeomr 
pUfl^d vfith^gauns^^ai^d.^^es ;i|r)i^. mai\ takc9 
for no other aoi^ial, sm#Jfor which, h^ is weU 
requited by their continu^ii^r/YAce^^t 

It-has long bo^^^ culi^mrto ft^swate the 
fQ$i$ frofl^ ti^ m^^t^ers jiirh^ fk#»,'&X9.or 
feven iBCM^h^ o{di^>.x% j^perifnn^ l^^PfiW^ft 
that^ ihof^ wh^ are^^^i^^kkd teaoifiek^^ 

wHit4>;m;)Wfaifie4 iboner> jdH>^,jtiMgp are 
g«pesaltf 6iUer.«i( flefe. Afcjr fij^or.^s^ 
Qip^tbft tbqf < a|;e .MWnfd i b|^ is, the^; ^jve^j 
|ttM|i twic^.a,^j«. ^md a^Uttle bay> of wluch 
^tbenqM^Utj^is^ ifK^eafedin.prqppn ^f 

advs^e in^i^^ f Theyace kept ii^^he ftable as 
long aS:tl»e>ftftekn|U> retai^atiy defire to t^ti^p^ 
ihetnaresv butwhei^tfai$defirecesirc8,ljbg^r(;iMf« 
fenaitogodutjAndlediiopiafturej but^rex^j^ 
jk tak«D not ta buffer tbetn to gO/,Qutto,par« 
tare ftfting s-they muft hare a lit;tle bjoan, land 
be made to dank an hour before they arip fuf;* 
fcred 10 fptzt^ and ihou)d never, be expofed to 
great, ^old or rain* In thi^ winner they.^afs 
the firft wiater ; m the Msy following they 
K 3 .may 

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I04 ^ WTFWilfrf 

ihay be permitted to jpiatit ^veiy d^, atf ti 
remain out m the fields tifi^Ae dfd of O&Mtn 
oliiy ohfer^ng ndt to let didtir ett tte afi^r* 
gndrvfof if they are aecuftbfiaed^ tkat delicae^ 
fh&y w91 grow S^tAsA \ridr i&y^ wHiefa^cni^ 
however^ to be their principle ibbd during lM 
fbbobd winter, togedier in^' hnA mjHii wiA 
barley) or oats* wetted. Thcf are hmsl^M in 
{his manner^ letting Aem giSa^e kt-Aoiaj 
time during winter, and ij^ die nt^-iSh Agi 
ring the fammer^ ^ they sHfi fettr yeti^ eU$> 
iriien they are tafeen from Aes pafture^, and 
teptondryibodb TMs change hi find- reqnilM 
feme precantten ; for the ftHt eight day«^ iiief 
Aodd hare nothing batftraw^ a^ it x» peeptf. 
to admmifter fome vermifuge drinks^ tor dMbo^ 
Aok Mvortm wfaidr tnay have been^ genei^Med 
from indigeftion, and green" food. M. dd 
Gaurfault, wbo recommexld^ diis^praAiee, docs 
it firom experience; but «t sdl age» and in ^ 
feafons, the ftofnachs of horfes are fttiffedwitii 
a pi:odigious numbed of Worms. 7hfsy ard 
alfo found inihe ffomacli of the a& ; and yet 
neither of thefc animals are incommoded diere^ 
by* For thi$ reafoii worms flicsztd not be looked 
on a$ an accidental <:ofnplaint caufed by bad di^ 
geftion and gneen feod, but ratibte as a common 

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gcftloff of tfa^ animais. 
-Gi^eai attcihtiOa muft be pttk^ ift weaning 

not^tw-hbl^ for fesn^ of tDdein^ dtcm tod delw 
^«t€ «fid toa fthfibid of the imprefiSon^ of the ' 
a^i Tjte]!^ imdd frequ^dy^ hdte frefli Iitr«r 
and he k«pe vei^ ofeiln, by firoc|ifendy rubbing 
tikbi Ayvm wi^ a wi% df fthiw. Bot they 
ftcwM not be tied tip or cufrfed tiM they art 
nfte dtt»7«ufs' oldy theit ftfia being 'till th«ft 
toQji^filkS t# beiiir die comb. The rack artd 
manger fihtft not be- «oo high, m the necefity 
of rtafir^' their htfads to reaih riieir foodj tMfy 
give ft habit of carrying it kt thstt foUdCD^ and 

^ WiMi about a year or elgWeenr iMildis 6M, 
thdr tials oiight to b^ cut^ as the hak wHl then 
grow ftronger ahd thicker. Tmn two yesLvs 
xM tbd cote ftottld be {mt with itie hcrfed and 
the^fteiales with the marefj wlthdut this pre- 
caitdon, the edits would &iigae and enervate 
tttemfelved* ♦ At the t^ of three years, or three 
years and a half, we may begin to make them 
tradable $ they Siould, at firft, have a light eafy 
fi^ddle, and wear it two or three hour9 every 
day r itey ibc«M alfe be iccaftom^to h^e^ 
Tluffla bit in their mouthsi and to have their 


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feet Itfted up and ftruck, to habituate tbem ta 
(hoeing; if defigned for cOach or draught 
horfes^ they (hould alfo wear a'^ harnefs* At 
firft a cwb- (hould not beuftd ; fiiey may be faeM 
by a cavefibnyor leather firap^ ^aivS 'be made to 
trot, on even ground, ztid ^di dnlj the 
feddle or harnefi on their' bodies ;. and when 
they turn eafily, and- willingly foHow the p^ribn 
who l(cAds the leftther ftr^,- tit^ tmi^ ride^ 
ihould mount hiiti and ^mimUagdiri in ^ 
lame place widioik making.' him inoV^jtiX^Jfe 
is four year» dd,. becaufe befi3re th^, ^ge ^ 
weight of a man overloads him^^^biit 4tifoiir 
years he ihould be made to wrfk 61? trA^,^*i 
tittle way at ;a time, with the. rider onlu^*b^v 
When a coach-horfe is accuftojhcd ta^fe^httit. 
cdsj/fae fliouM be paired with ^ horib lAAt Is 
thoroughly br6k^, putting on him a bridle %¥Ch 
a flrap pafled through it^ till he beglhis to be 
ufed tb his duty ;.. afer this the eoachmaflf may 
tff tcriaake him draw,, having the affifta^neeof 
,a*man topulhhim gently behind, and ei/ttti.'to 
give him feme blows, to make him do iti. Ail 

• Thu A(krtUn of oyr siuthor will meet with little crtdik 
in the prefent day, when daily prad^ce proves they, nftay be 
completely tfiined while rifingthfce ^hm^'trid bwre-ibfli. 
cient ftttfDgth t9«alQr thr MAs oo Uie:^«^i^. bff^r^ i^y m 




this ihould l^ d^« before fQfmg kode» bave 
fb?r^ecl tb^ir foqc^ t^ wl:^ once they are 6a 
gcam .iM^...h^. tbqr. are more vigprouSi k(s 
^esfiais^eySi^ss^^^ jdi^ujit to. breaju, , 

{ Ttb6i^^c«il4(,tliie. ^pur^.aire tyro tut^ mado 
iiib of to bni^ tb^ Into colder,, the. farmer for 
dMir gujdanq^ and tho; Imof tg^ ipakc theoi in-^ 
creaft; tbrit motion* Tbt iMt«th Uoe^ not apn 
r«ar foBaM b^f,ia9im^to.^fimyemy other isn? 
inrdEon^ tfMtti ^M ifif . ^^ aod ^wetite;^ bMj( 
tfaettiis Xo^fgf&H^a'kD&hlilkym ^ <Bwd> of 4 
hofb^ ^tiiin fN^fsferenPiMo ^» ejres and eaf% 
«le^lK^ra6^p||fttNl•^to^ ¥Aderft 

fiaai wr. picaiiiif^f ttM^.^igMil i90Cion%>0| 
prelp[ure of the bit,, is At^QOt t^ iplxpfi^i^ 
Mmf9i9m h»Qgft^'^mi M^. <«£§» pf iC^ia 
bis,9b4odier £mi1i tbaiiics p<rfeAi0iV: Jits top 
gIMK TelNlibilii^ i«fuife» i^articubr maolg?^ 
AMOtf fiir if ir i^ abiifed the month of the ^Oft^ 
h* fpo«W» and mddwLin&nfiUei to the hh*^ 
poefiM'^ the biti; tbe/ieafea ^ ftgfet ai^ 
healing cannot be duUed in tjb» manner 1 bu^ 
ht all likeUhood it Jias, been fowd.incpov^enief^ 
to goyern horiet by diefe org^si befiden figna 
given tiiem by die ibnfe of feeling have more^ 
efl*^ on animals in genend ^hah thofe coA» 
veyedbjr the ejtts or eaera, The fituation of 
the tyts df hnrftst wilb fdmion Jt» thofe iWka, 


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io6 ^uffon's 

mount or conduft ^eaii is rcry anfevourable; 
^d) though they afefreqtt«itl)rccxlidu6lQsd^a»t 
animated by the tar, it appears that the ufe of 
this organ is Hmited tpcommofi horfi^s, bocadfe 
in the nieimge they are felddm-^k^ii tof in 
hSt^ V they are wdl broke Aefoudleft preflore 
of tht diighs^ or ntoft trifling modc^ of the 
btt^ is fufficiont tO'direft themu Hie iporii 
even ii£il«f% or at ka^ k is only ma^nfe of 
to force dicm to viotent motions $ and as dirough 
Ao folly of the rider it tofbni happens, tot id 
giving the fpur hedieaksthe. bridle, ihehot^fo 
' Hading hfan&lf excited on oneiide, and kept in 
on. the .other, ody ptences and Gipei9».witho<il 
.ftinrittg out itf bis.plaetw 

%^ means of the bricHe horfes' are tm^M 
to hold ap: their heads, and keep them in th« 
moft gmceful pofidon, and the fmalteft %n e« 
inoventent of the rider i» fu^ient to make the 
faorfe ifbew alt his diievent paces; the mofir na*» 
iural kperh^s.the trot^ but paeing and gallops 
iiog i^ tatioite'plafiint for the rider, aod the^ a«« 
At two paocs^^'wieiKuttcutai'ly endeavour taitn* 
pvovedi ' Whea the. ho»(e hits up hts foreJeg^ 
fd walk^ this motbn: {kould -be per&mied mth. 
ipirtt and eafe, and the, knee fuffijciehily bentt. 
The kg. lifted up ihould.feem a& if Aifpended 
iwr a axomeii^. mi. when kt d^ma the foot 


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Aould Jie finnlf refted on the ground wtdiout 
tbc horfe's head receivi^ jaay impreffion from 
ti»8.»ottoiv for when the kg fuddenty Ms 
d0Wiv and the jiead finks, at the iame time^ it 
is mUsxH'^^a^^ rtbe^ other Icg^ whidi has not 
ftrength fo fijpport the whole weight of die 
body. This is a ff^tst fiadt, as well asthat of 
caciTUig^tfae foot too 6r out or in* We (hould 
alfc^ obfern^ tjneit when he re& on his beel it is 
a«i>aric:of »m}p9^ Md when herefls on th^ 
iwtpm ^ JilarJxoof.Jt is A^ti^ittg .and tin*- 
giit mta t> att |ta(tedttol he;caiina^ long fappcg^t. 
r. Xhdi^ miking is die ^fioweft of all ijiek 
pSCfiS) h^Jliep fhould be ligbt^ bci^' and nei^ 
ther too long nor too ibart $ his Garriage,fhouU 
b^^ifyy'^ii^h depends ;nuiGfa eia^e freedom 
itf ;i>is fliottidian?)^ and is^known by the majinsT 
in which be carries his head in walkfi^$ if he 
k<9rps:it high and fteady> he ts^eneraHy. yiga<i> 
rp^s^ and quipk, .When the motion of the 
ibotilders is . not. free» the leg jdoes net ri& 
fOOM^f and the faorib'ia apt to.fluflifaIe» aiod 
ilrike.his foot ^ainft. the ^nequaitties on the 
ground* Ahorfe fiiouJd raife his (houldersy/atid 
lower his haunches, in walking. ; - be fhoeild alfo 
dife.and fof^ort his leg; but if lie keeps it up 
tQ6 kftgy or ]ets k h)l too Qowly, he loles al] 
the advaM^ sxf .fait fyffflms&f becomes 


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another fi)r:fli«w ttidftttadi;.* /•'* ^^ 
It is not fiiAdem du^f 'Ml^ ntMtyttt^M^^ 

both^ behind a^d befer«;'lbfP4r'tt»'«l<tep^«M^ 
a fwtitgirig'Mocictii MMIft iRJ kltefi r^^vftto 
ftotiders, ^ ifder Is i#bi^ j«tM^s»iLdim^ 
dered unea()^i thteliufietKHt^l^ipensi^lleMlMi 
Korfe extebd^M^ <irfid Ieg^'fo*4iib^<i» t<»^1itilf(it 
beyoiri the&tne-plr^e'M #MdlP'hiJ rlfl^lkit 

tblke them 'a|;ainft ettch "dSi^fV trT^lel^'fitm 
Iwted; ingeneRdlMoft^^MMKn)Mi^^ifciigi 
ETC Ac mbft "eafy 'fcf -Ae -tfder, ' betteilfi^'lle^ !« 
* a greairr diftance frora''*d <wo tfetkrltt df 
motion, the ftotildersinitftattr^iMes, 'tifid flKre- 
fore lefs fcnfrWe drthe'Jbltih^. • . i» *> » 
^ The Ufual methdd'of Walkfng ^bng qua- 
drupeds IS to lifti at ihe fame time, one tf the 
fore legs of one fide: antf bne o^ tfife'Mnd feg* 
©f the other: Aisr dfeiSr fjtefdife are 'ftflSftied 
upon four points of 'fiippdh, which forAi ati 
<fbTong fquare, the iiS^ manhei* biP moving 
for them is to change two at once in the dhgo- 
nal, in fuch a manner that the centri^ of gravity 
Ibf the b<>dy of the knimal may reft aluv^ays irf 
the dirciaion' of the 'two points triixch 'are not 

in . 

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iiimodoii* In tbr three .aatipi^ pfl^e» of the 
horfe» the walkt tbt tiefty aitd thf^opi this 
rvk^oim^m j» aiwyi obfinrvedi though with 
fiMiiot4iAfWCe» la Iberwtdk there are four 
bflit9bja.the motmiiiits if the right fore leg 
wmm^Atlk die left bind leg follows the inftant 
afteejf^ iKeff dM(.lei.iQce leg moves forward ia 
t|«iv Md>.U«fiittowed iniUntly by the right 
hind l^g I 4hwJhe 'light fore footrcfts on the 
gn^wAiirftf the^ left hind foot ncxt» then the 
lift fpeo. foot. iceiisy and la^ly, the. right hind 
:^t,^FV|i«ho»ialM a-ii^ementof four beats^ 
ai|dral.4brfc^: i^tervids, of which the iirft and 
jhft^pe.Aikrier diea the oiiddle one.^ In the 
.trot.|bei« are bm two bes^ ; if the right £bre 
Mgi99i^ off die giound die. left hind }^ mqrea 
,atM^ '#n^ lifsvei, and tl^en the lejft fore leg 
moves at the fame time with the right hiqd 
<amf 10 filch a nutfujer, that there are in this 
movemep;t only t^o beats and one interval; 
the xight fore foot^ and the left hind foot, reft 
on th^groiiod at the fiuxiiQ time, as is alfo the 
cafe wid} the ]^k fpre foot and the right hind 
one. In the ggjl^ fit^^.h u|^ally three beats^ 
but* as. in this movement there is a kind of 
leaping of the two fore l^s^ the right ought to 
advance more forward than die lcft> which 
ought to regiaia on the ground to ferve as ^ 
VOL. V. L point 

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'4tO ' "WPMH^ 

point ef^ii^'f^'tteafUdlcfMKjt^ tte 

tip cofijofffti)fi wltt'^ left ^feAP>^illldt talk 

^r%M fi^ 'leg: «i'' fuMMitaAiMlf / iM^ifkmlffk 

^diegikKind; ^M 1^^^ gMSfafi «teft«e lUM 
l)eats 2tnd ^t#6 imenPldst in Ihe^fA^tel^^ 

"iburlegs ir^ f^r ftri i^Mmt|M'tlie'dif«^4llfe 
i&nc time, '^jh^ feifr IMSa^ tfnaf^MM.^i}*^ 
.^ce. 'WheA Ale H(Mb''hit94ut){«^'fi^ 
^Mtmeh^9, ami moite^tbhEigih^'ilAB'-glfll^^ 
%e inore'perfea; «d» t)k^>d^dlMt»'i^ Mttb^Bi 
43i[it Ifi^es I firft^ Iho feft^1ftlHl«ibo«^ «i« -tte 
i?gUt!:fartid jMdti mat the^ left* f^'A^^^ailii, 
WHj^jtherightfefe^ft^.' * ♦''^ - ^ - - '•••• 

%nie tn^Met as they'i&UTf the fbr^ rilkM^fH 
HWlkifTg aM trbttmgj thiy^aHb ArwrlSf^^Wfe 
Tiiift in- galWjpifife-^firtlf M*A^ ai-f^ Hbife^iS^, 
trhich is Vnofe adVaitecd ftan ^fte feft ^ ^nd iflte 
t^ght Mndleg^, ^ith'f<IKo«$^ tttttlioiititdy*^ 
t^gheibre ohe^ Ssulib m6re ladranded tlMh^bo 
Kft hWkflcg; froin #ftertC5 if refeksj HteltMSfe 

Ibt^cs ilbhwdrtlifc Wicrsj-Wthrmoft iat%ucd ; 


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|f ATWM HIMTOltr. lit 

fir liMb.iM(<Kiitr#CNiU.te ^glu' t» loMt hnrlefe 
at ^ey if^uid- thi^begf much iMgtr ^fr vig^> 

«^«V^riMri lltHfiMo^p^ iTtoaborr^Miu 
fhrtwni QHthii fiiM Igiw; \t it finttfhnr fimltti" thn • 

tmirns^mvf MK«ir-iiNn <ki$,ic9fi4i«p%) wd, - 

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1X2 BtrFFOHV t 

be'ir^ererfo'flioit^ this reMbwoe i^ftfittiettd 
to -mtafce thli^ puce mytt ttne^fytdsm^^t^tMt^ oxt 
gilldpin^, ^ • w ' •• •;'' j^ ' .t ^ 4.J :.; 

senA pdftffdip^asrt the htliteF^dft^ ^^^lilig of 
the hough, txreiks di^'ftfoIiesqElHil'Mfellii^'liM^ 
fliotkr thus, tttt iMoi^^pKafil'^ftncl-ftraiig^istfe 

tt^ii H <hdf» in^tidn itf gftoplrig* • v ^ -t tr ^/ 

t#t» kgft on '(^ ^fatt!(e-fkle) for exam)^^ the' 
fs/ft add'hiftd'teg^ dit the rr^t fide^ pfa^tfMm- 
the gtoUnd fiC tto' fijiM -titntfy tttrf afterMunds 
^)|iv0Mt 1^' lb tiial^le^difideiordie^KMty 
altiNmtitrijr 4s ^Adtt^ rftfsport, wMeh esmnet 
£tfl'<tb isitigtif f'ttoa^al very much, being 
. - ©bilged 

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tt %pfl#. lafeli 'ui^^:fmcA Maim' 
hf Ibe t«fii4A9: of ^ iBotioa irhkli is ftwcdf 

iHi.fMC^ i«r mi«h iw fa« dqm in bioidc^ or* 
wMoi^.ilifel^ lii'^pu^ fiA MMg on hit 
ilk KMdift^k only Aimb doioft gnuoitig the 
MPtdbf-atrff dMr.qMkbi^^ tkathe i^l 

iiriMild $l9pqc«.)iil|AI4 la 4ie anibie, as 
Mlkwt«a|#;|a9|»Aei»ai;eM two beais ia 
dlfi4mii9n^icw44l, the dWbfSfici is, that in 
the trot the t^Iw wM^S^ l^getber ara 
fQI>o#|% ii^A 4^^ UttC^inftead of which, 
«lM)ip^Q^ Mthe ftfae fid^ gd 

4m slia^JAWfi i^kiMd »« ^iol»ng <>f *o tro^ 
iteMfir k» i|i9bSinl|t», '^ ilRm Isg- jfjjiis at the 
)<wMvi#^m^ tW4M«4 1^ 1^ thtf 6me fi^ 
aiidaBSi *w|wwrtly illiaW ^wMi no ^efiAance in 
4hi flMiipo,; AQmimte^^'$/bLti^ us, that 
jM|ilb:)V«Wcb fiaiMMV^ troti and 

KlN:»<bir>'«^ mn^ w«aktr -lAian ofters wfab 
'imit-m^ tliatjiaeei ui^ad^ colts ^oftfn get inb 
4hiHWi^ wk^«bj)yasCibrQodtogo:&ft| aad 
^Mv'e^ioti^afiijIiskil-ftiiBligtb to ti^t dr gallop; 
i«i^^pe-ilifi»i^«44f<%itlii^ «»W ^oodijiarfes, 
"-^'* ... -V-.-JU^. '^ '•.-•'• .-when 

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114 • MVMJfO»% 

when mui^ la^ttHt ptlswiMP^ MKne^i^laiD^ 
of t]iemlelve$,tp stoibHfig^ r, i „ ( x u .r 

We may ihmi Jook .iip^a <^ fs^icf^m p90^ 
ceeding from^ ^eft ii^ut Jhnteaitt' 
fiill too other pa^ce^ cs^ted Bi^fil^m Amb^ otor 
between the ^laibik,^ ihe.waU^ >M4iitl^ 
other betw^Q.tb<i,trot,9i|d{the giiSof^ b^tbo^ 
which are more 4efe£tiv(^ thatirtl^lPc^fn^ht^ aiii 
proceed fr^^ ^oat fatigi^ QrvWe9A;^s^i49ili|9 * 
loins i Aefe p^e5 lire &e^ 
almoft woriv-Ottt poft bprfcsv : ,/ .. i :*r.'y^. 
The . horfe», o^ . all nuacitmped fc r fptdli iffar 
nobleft ftature^ Jus the |;ceat)eft^^pKOBQrtk«l18|||# 
elegance in, all itsi. parts* % csqtipaii&g'hM 
with thiofe animals v^hicli ai;eiiip9i^rriQ^}iQfe^ 
xior to him,,, we j^l fee tli^Mjie «(^^l,-^i»dtoi;; 
that thp lion has toQ lai£ea^ca$ift l^Jqd of the 
ox too thin and fhort^ Ifi prapostiofit^^t^Qof 
his body; that die ca(;DeLi$^4efQ^Ile^;W4dk)li^ 
thofe mp^rotts a|^9l% t)uQ MtiowM^utAAc 
elephant^ a^e oierely tufi^.^uiAt{kaftkb wiiSbu 
The gfrcat lep^tU of jtbie, jjiws>^ tbe,pfifi«ipil 
diiFerenee. bei^eo .th& be^ds of q»94F!i|peds 
andthebuinanipecie^i His alfq^.tbi m;^;i|^ 
noble mark .^f ^1;.. yet^ though .tfa^,)«w .^ 
the hprfe ai;|ryjpng»^he,h^s m^ lik^ the 
fOs, an,,air of .W^c^^ilityi hqt, ofiftiHpidiigr Uhe 

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iktrsau^WMfieg^lMttf of the 

parts of hisi heady give hhh atilir of fprightlU 
ndB) ^Ml 4s;««^l fot>poitdd by idle beauty of 
hk^fMlk.-'^ ¥tt(^ik6n amAmidus of r^Hi^ him* 
tt^ aJtove^his^fiftte^^ ^qttadrt^ped, by holding 
«K^ Msi-'lleaill ^d^itt ^rHkohiemitade- he Iook» 
otsrti'iii Ar6ft0.^ 4J8reye^ areilvefyand large, . 
hSi^ «fef>«^ •niAdi^ atid'of i }uft proportion, 
^•*aittu# HS^ fliort, fife *ofe of the bull, o^ 
*>o^^4ite tfeife df Ae ^fe,^ hfs mane orna- 
ments his neck, an^giv^ iiifn ah air of ftrengtti 
WA f^Jftagej^'-Wis^ong'buihjr tail covers and 
^niMltt^ advantag^)ly liie extremities of 
iMibddjM' . F» di#cre!it*fw)itithefl3drt tails of 
tbe^ftag^ >ele|*knt, &tj ahd the' naked tails of 
^4A^'€anM^' fhufbceros, fee. the tail of the 
hOifel«1brftfed<)ffongHlifckhair^ vrhich feems 
t€P6dme-from {he crupper, 6ecaufi^ the ftump 
§f0a^ wlricH'if p6wi hi vety (hort; he can:. 
not mfe hls'tiuf like the Ibtl, but it fiiits him 
belcer haiij^g <ioh^, as he ckii itiove it ]from 
-fil)eito^fid^> and driveiiway the-flifes which in. 
CMMtfdehim ; for diough his fkin is very firm, 
and weH fiifniflied with a clofe thick coat, itis> 
iiot«ritbfbn^g, ortremely fenfible. "^ 

T>« attStutle^of the bead and nect con*. 
*[&^Wb wiore than all the briier parts of ftc 
body to give him a noble appearance^ the fu. 


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'. lienor p«trf-*«J^rtK*4.iBft-iAiA 

groit^ ftoHM K9I& MIf So'^ Htmihiiimifm^ 

9Ky <\iff^ M Ai^iod fliPfltcl to#4Mk Urn 
fiwn Aff cSeft tP' Afr B^ 

pam of 0sit ff^ek Iboultd }i^«i0iy»ii«t^<iiiiiib^ 

deratfely ornainefMd D^Mi Io«g. i^> Jum iA 
haruK^e ch«ft and <MKpnii>teoU W^^ 

korfe; wbeii it-H Mo bng tftJU tMw tjie>h4rft 
«fuatly 'thwws hh hcail bacb^ ai^! '«rh!mttrt« 
ibort arvl «e% He puSi« tfe#ii?4i* l*i>*a<*i 
/or the head Ito fefc ptae»d <it^'fte?!iefti«alv«o* 
tsigeous pogliofi *a .foirt«rf &qi4i<J^ pcv«* 
«lic\il»rtothelibri«0»* j •' " ^ ^ ' • * 
Tht head flkould be i(^ aad finsH^ mdiiait 
b^ng too - long : ' the-^aif^ iit:» asoAarate- *fr 
jtftn^ie, Wal, Araight, (li^ 1^ ft**) o«w»«S 
^d weU-0accd ^ tiie loprf th^ k*d| das 
jforehcad flxoidd .We iui««r,'M»d'* IM«.<soo^ 
vex5 A^ hoBows oar Ipiic* hMtrottH tte-fcyts 
^iidear$, wdt fiUcdi Ib^ Ǥ^ds^.rt*il; tke 
ryc« d^n» liKlj> ftftl '.of fic«> -^^ttr ^§^ 


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andprojeatag^ 'tin po^ rither Wga} the 
nedier^wihiil; f tl^iic^a Mf^^arqbedi the 
ndkiils^ klFgeaiid ' ^qM%^ i«idr idiivMed kj a thia 
parAkxir tl)e tipMbilli ^ mouA of »a ^lode- 
rate widUti .-the wkhqu •rai^ «k) Q^j^g s the 
flMMtMers. flat^ and- nr^t^^^e^tie^i^ tho back 
eqiiad, intefiUy aiohed ki%<ih«v|y% ahd^raiied 
Meacb^fide^<»it^fcvbtek tniaci, whio^ IhouM 
qipeat^ mdciUed ^i 4il^ "^Anld^ MfbU^iaml ibort» 
flfe iMi^rburid imdifl#{Iky^ 4hd^^ ureil 

coferai'i^fli^iifiiirGdliir fleA^-ihb.' fluo»p of tht 

dxHioitgh9Tdii6d%efiEH«»%iiil4y^^ on the itdes i 
llte%^sft^iai»ii mi^^oAlt the /<tiock ftxong^ 
iaik^^iii^viih'^m^'^^ ^Iva^i ^the 

^rM%r|^ i^ ^ arMiddtihg. letigiih'} .thii 
teymtit mtb^riiii^ ih«^ hoof >U^r i<»OQtb) 
and'flliffliig^S 'th<t*ikft^ hi^i die quarters 
rouodr ^ hedft'^de^^Md mbderatefy mkdf 
the frog fixiall ahdt thixH and the fole ditck and 
hoUowt ' ' '- • r /•- .- ' .. ; 

Tewrr horfes poflfcfe this aflcmblage of pei^ 
fedioo } the* eyes . ai^ fvfeb)e6i: to many faults^' 
which ftre (ometimes difficult to be k^iowm 
In »feuiid eye, w^ ought to- £ec through th<^ 
coffiea'^two^'Or throer^ts <ef the €ok)vir of • 
ibot,tah6ve dhe^:piipU'^ ' for 'to fee thefe (pots, 
ihe^ toroea* ^mi^ ^bi^-ctear, cLq^ and . tranf^ 


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mdftriiight jpupil, €»cfa^Mifl%d wjtb a,, wbte 
ciifclc^ .or .vbea it i\<rf*^ Wu^jg^e^.^lfc^ 
Ibe eye U ^^fatJMiil j£ 1^ . . ;.;.,.,;,. - 
. I fliidliat { |iC«<^m.S>i4x.(i<]¥aW^ .^ 

MM^ ^» ipwtt ¥«*!«. jpwa ^«^w jWii 

IJUby ;«tl J^ktrll ,thl|ir W%: 4% %« ^:ini!;V#^ 

Wk% or ott t^/linqj^'.Wqj »4rp^ 4t$i^ !^ 

have ufually a bad fight y thofe whofe n[)(^j^t|ig 
JU^. dry^ are ' nor;pf for, i)Ba]iJ)V % tpn;|feii;aqa^C 
9S th^fe which have., t^ir q^i^ 9io*^(^ s|r|d' 
piake tjie tjryje fj;9|hj./ iV 4441^ ^^^ «9I|^. 
to h^ve ^ /h^.4lctersi^ Xuppjcj^^^d 9<H >^rjt 
f^^Os^i 4h§ .dr^t barf%5» :^e /iog^«i^]<^ 
(bpHl4 :h^e tMm fl2^. rqu^K), a<^ ^i¥^>4 ^*^ 

-. ' ■''":*"' ■' "" " "" arc 

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*are too thin, ari3 the tones fhcw tJiehiielvcs 
through the fkiA, It is a defeft which proved 
Ac ?h6u!3ers atrc not (rccy and confequently 
the horfe cannot tear "ftiuch fatigue. Another 
*fautt of a faddle horfe is, to have the chcft 
'project too forwarc^ iand the fore legs placed 
<too6r backward, fcecaufehe Is Jipt,ihthis cafe, 
'^fo reft on the hand in galloping, and eVen to 
'ftumble and' fall,; ' The. length of the legs 
ihould be prpportionaHe to the height of the 
"horfe; when tne fore legs are top long he is 
*xi6t furc-footed^ if they are too fiiort, he beai^ 
too heavy on the hand. It is a' remark that 
*mares are more liable than horfes to b;e low 
T)eTore,* ana that Hone horfes, in general, have 
'thicker neCks tiian mares or geldings. 

* Tlie moll: important thing to be known, fs 
the age of^ an horfe. As they advance in jearg 
the eye-pits cofilmPnly firik, but it is from the 
teeth that we obtain the moft certain know- 
ledge of their age J of thefe the horfe has 40, 24 
grinders, four eye teeth or tufhes, and 12 in- 
'tifivc teeth. Mares have no eye teeth, or if 
tiiey have them they are very'lhort j it is from 
the front and fe^e- teeth alone, we are • enabled 
to formi any judgement of tfteFr age. The 
ftont teeth Begin to 'Ihew fhemfelvcs a few 
^ys after the birtE of the'.forf^ thefe Srft tcett 

* arc 

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120' BUFFON't 

are round, flidrt, apd tiQt very folid-; they drop 
out at different times to make room for others* 
At two years and a half the four front middle 
teeth drop outy two at top and two at bottom ^ 
a year after four others fall out, one on each 
iide of die fuftj which are ahxady r^iauccd. 
At four years and a half, four, others drop out^ 
always on each fide of thoie which have be«a 
{hed and replaced s theie four lafl milk teeth 
are replaced by ifbur others, which do not grow 
near fo iaft as thofe ovriiich replaced the firil: 
eight ; and thefe four Iaft . teeth which are 
called the wedges, or comer teeth, are thofe by 
, which the age of an horib is dtftinguiihed^ 
theie are eafily known, fmce th^ are the 
third, as welt at top as at bottom, beginning 
.to count from the middle of the extr^nity 
of the jaw; thefe teeth are hollow, and have*|i 
l)lack mark in their cavities* At four years and 
a half, or five years old, they fcarcely project 
beyond the gums, and- their cavides are plainly 
feen. At fix years aiMl a half they begin to fill 
up, the mark alfo b^ns to diminifli gradually, 
till he comes to feven years and a half, or eight 
y^rs, when the hollow is^ entirely filled up and 
thci)lack mark effaced. After the animal has 
attained this pei-fod, it is common to attempt to 
judge of his age by the eye-teetli, or tuflre ; 


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tbefe.feitr(9eth|i«plac^ at the fide cf thofe 
ivhkh me hsore juft deficrilied. NditSaer the 
^^^teetb) aor grta4eisi,.are preceded bjrxitbees 

u&i3iifrbsg» miibmt at limee yq^ra and a, hal^ 
^e: t«pD tf.4iA>vupfier7awatlb9 age of fonry 
0Dd tSi ibesaeicnaiusHiii y^saes. qid tbajr wsfi nvf 
•jGharjxs. vflCJmf ears idd^tbe^Qfip^rooas appear 
«lc«e(^Ubnt^jA»QfQ^aad iongi bopaiife tbe.gum 
<waif5 cimriir ;«& agft, i^. the Tooce it a^ir 
{s^rs^ipoefi aiifsqr,. tbe^miaie ajcd JM^echoti^. 
£coflK..iei tii(^ja)£: i>;^(af^ diere^ isvhardiy 
fin3r inAiottioa efctfaaaga^wbeii fcrnerf the bails 
-on die «]r«4Hroi9s ^^hegin ' to grow- wl^$ but 
^s JAdie^Q i$.equi|K<KaIy' ftnce* k has beeft 
4roiitar):ed tkitJ&ovfesengeaderod refill old ftab- 
liAfls and oU mare&^hibreitbe: ihm wbmoa the 
ie)e*49t-o«Di^ h^sthb ageof :i$o tyeaes^ Tbe^ are 
^ faorfeawbofe teelb. are &»• hard ihaftbey 
ido not laear^mdiitfeA . wfeicii tbe bla^ mark 
iSAfifts and ir ^lever^ e£Ke(t$ but ihe(e^ are 
icafilj ktiawn by 4lti^ ie|ig|h^«l& iba ^e teethw 
We any aio^bneiWyr^tboe^b ^9^ ^^^e^fioo, 
tbeage of ^a b^fe hyi theH%9S Ql:tbej palate^ 
whtdi are qSvoed. in prQfH>#ti^n:>tf^ Im^e, 

.%.tiloagefcf <WN or:tW«^*yQaR«r-:a^aha»v 
•tbe borfe i&iiiiaiiate to engender^ a^d<aare$) 
Mlae.all ..otbuf #nsde% <ir^ ftiU moie f«n^rd j 
vot» V. M -- but 

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ia2 >^ BUFFON*« 

but thefe young hor6s prod^ice otiy feeds ill- 
ibaped^ or of bad conftitutiQ^*^ The hotfe 
fiiould at lead be four or foitr ye^s and a hsdf 
be&ri^ he is admitted to the mtce^ Md even 
that is too early, unle& for iAr^tig^ mid; large 
borfes* It is neceS^ry ta ^t. tUl dw^ fucdi 
year for a fine breed, and the Spanifli ftalllon 
fiiould not be. acfanitted. before thetiibventh. The 
mar^ imty be a year younger ; .ih^ arc ufually 
in feafon from the end of March to the end of 
Junci but they ftrer. moil fit to leosive die 
male for about fifteen days or three weeJcs, and 
this, is the beft period: for admitting diem to 
theftaUion. He fhould be cho&n with care, 
bandfome, wdl made, vigorous^ perfefiiy found, 
and of a good breed. To have faandfome 
iaddktfaor&s, foreign ftallions, as > ArE^iait, 
fTurldfli, 39rbary, and Andaiufianlior&s, «it& 
pxkfctMsi,tQ all odiers s and . e<fen, notwitfa* 
fianding<; their faults, the Ei^lifh horfes may be 
fu£ate(sfally made ufe o^ beraufe they canie 
otigiEtiially:^.from the above*mentioneds,'and are 
lu^ much.degtoeialsed ; the food being excdient 
in Englamif where they, are alfo very carefiil 
in.kee{iing up the- breed. The ftallions of 
luij^ id^ially thofe of Naples, are veiy good, 
and produce . bandfome £uldlc-hodes^ whoi 
coupled with welUihafied .mu^j and fine 


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coach-horfe^ when with mares of* a large 
ftature. It is pretended, that in France^ Eng- 
land, &c the' Arabian and Barbary horftt 
ufually beget borfes larger thain themfelves, and 
that theSiiantfli hoifts produce a fntaUer breed. 
To have fasindfome coach^horfes we ihoutd 
make tife of ^ Neapolitan and Daniih ftailions, 
or thofe from Holftein or Friadand. The 
ftallions ihoiiid be iiiH 14 hands ^d a half 
high foe fodcfie^horfes, and fifteen hands for 
ceadi^horfes ; a flaltion ihotdd idfo have a good 
coaty fahick' as jet^ or of a fine gi«y, bay, er 
che&ait. ' Ail udiich feem in-their colour as if 
tfaejr were waflied- or ^kcdoured ihould be 
hanidioifi^dm th&broed, as well as thofe which 
haveuwrlttte -extremities* fiefides.dsefeexterioCi 
aifli^ian 4houhl alio have rtfae beft-.tnterion^ 
^pialittes^Toch' as. courage, docility,. fpiriti and 
agiIitt^s\feBfibility in the mouthy ficeedom inthis 
ihotddes&; he ihotdd' he fttre;£90(al9 fupple m 
the faatuMiheSy and have a (]^mg* in the whole 
body, butabove all in hts^ hind i^, aiidihaiiid 
hsare been well Inroke and^tnutied* Thefe pai>^ 
ticttlars it is the more neceilary to obferve ia 
the choice of a XlalUon^ becanfe It hgs been ro* 
marked) that he commuaicam by gen^ation 
almoft all.his good and bad qualities) both na« 
tural md ao^uised* A horfoj naturally morofe^ 
Ma gloomy, 

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124 BUiPon's' 

ibmc di^afition; aod as the dc:fe6i$ of <:oa* 
formaticm^ as well as^.the vic«s of th$ lnini(^ttrs» 
perpetuate with ftill; mota c^rt^jkil)^^ ttiaa the 
BStoraliqasAhias,* gcbttcsureltwdsA: be fiaken 
to exduxie' froair.ifae. wbole flud;dU'.(fefofin^ 
viciouS) , gbtndeiedy brokenf^wiocled^ or SMod 
horfes. - . • 

In thsfe dimates the in»e. coalribulss lets 
than (be ftaUion to die jbeauty of thefeai^ibut 
llie contributes peite^ moneto his ietnpdf^ 
ment aad f^^m^ tlnis it k rmctBktf Ast Jtbe 
aoaree fttouM be ftrong and iarge bodioi^ aael 
|:9o4 mrfes) in osder to breed beantiM ^kotirel 
TiK Sptttiifli ind IttiUalt masea «ne prdfemd 
far an elegant faittdl^ and dnife of. £ogfaiiadiicc 
dmu^iand coach badku .. The f»aQ:s< faf wik 

horfes, provided tfasjr are tbemfebts well nade^ 
of a good breed, and iuBVefiOfac ftaUioos; £00 
If dnejrare 'e^gfeodeKd ftom a bad 4iode. tiie 
foals whtcfa«ft»ey procliioe mik fretluently prove 
ddc£kive» Ii> lAik Ip^m of amtmls) as iMdi 
as in ^ human race^ ^e young frcquendy re* 
femble ^eir male -or female ance{k)r&$ only it 
appears, that in horfb^ the female 'does not con- 
tribute fo much to gttiaration as in the hmmaft 
fpecieS) whero the fon oftener refembles the 


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mother than tiw feal does the mare; and ^en 
the foal refembles the mare, which has pro* 
duced it, it is ufiialiy in the fore parts vof the 
body, as the h^ and neck. 
. To judge well (^ the rdemblance of chtldren 
to their parents, the comparifon ihould not be 
made in their youth; we ought to^wiit till they 
are arrived at puberty;, for there happens at 
Ais period (b fuddeo a change of die parts that 
it majr be poffible to miftake, at the firft glance 
of the eye, a perfon v^pm we have known per- 
tsGtij well before that period, but have not 
leen iince. Till after puberty, then, we ought 
not . to compare the- child mth its parents, if we 
vondd'i^dge accurately of the refembiahce, as 
then the fon fiequently refemUes his father, and 
the daughter her mother, aiid freopiently the 
ddd lefembles both at once. Sometimes chil- 
dr«a ydemble the gtand^&thers or grapd-mo* 
thers, and even uncles and aunts« Almoftal^^ 
ways children of the iame parents are like- each 
other, and; all have fome:'f8a|ify4likcnef8* . In 
hories, as the male contributes jbot^ to genau«» 
tioD than the female, mares fre^p/imciy pcoduce 
colts which arc/very like the ftalUon, or which 
always refemble their father more than then: 
mother; and when the brood-mare has hcrfdf 
been begot by a bad borfe, it fre^piently hap- 
M 3 pens 

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126 BVfVOII^f 

penstto^ thott^flie bsd a bautifa{ ibifk>ft; 
ftfid is hiindlba»e berUft OieQaM yet prodvce 
a&al'Wbicfa, howerer in appejo^nee handfeme 
and wdl made in itd early yottth^ li e g m cnites 
as it grow4 okkr ; i^le a weHMtn^ mare pro- 
duces foals, whick' though at firft &ty hitve an 
vn&voucable app(Banme6^ grow htandfomer as 
they advance in age. 

Tbefe ob&rviiti<H)s wUdi hem all-to eoncur 
in proving that in horfes the. male has greater 
influence than the female on their progeny^ do 
not appear fiiffi<2ieAt to eftabliih this fihft in>an 
indifputable manneiv It is not impoffible, but 
that theft ofaferVations may liibfifty ^atid yet in 
general the'mafc may contribute as much as the 
trorfe to the produ6llon of their iffue; €ot it is 
not aftoni(hing that ftallion^, always riiofenout 
of a great number, generally brought from wanA 
climates, high-fed, kept and managed with great 
care, ihould <have the fway in generadon over 
common^ maiies, bred in a told climate^ and 
frequet^dy obitgtd to labour. But if theibesiu* 
tiful mares of warm countries were fefeAed'Oiit, 
manag^ with equal care, and covered by cbm- 
smon horfes of ouf own country, I think there 
t:annot be a doubt but the femblance of the fe- 
males wOuld be foperior to die males^ and that 
among horfes> as well as in the human fpecies^ 


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tinrt w(nsdd te an equality (n the Itdluence of 
Uie maid aft4 &mat« in ih«ir young, iiij^fing 
a fimihritj in 4lie acoorthnt cbtumftances* 
This appears natufkl, and the ihore pfobaWe, 
as it has hten remarked tn ftuds that an equal 
nmnber of tntit srftd fettiale foals are bred) 
which fMTOfves dw^ at ieaft a^ far as regards the. 
fex, the femaJe has equal inAuence. ' 

Mares aregeneraHy ill *af<Jn^nine days after 
their delivery, when the hoffe ought to be 
taken to themi in the ctoice of which attention 
ihould be' paW to his figure being. peffeS in 
ftofe parts wherein Ac mare^ may be deficient 
The breed of horfes,'at leaft fech as are hand*, 
fome, require an infinite degree of cam and 4kt^ 
tenticn, and is accompanied with confideitlble 
cxpence*^ The mares and fdals (hould be kept 
in rkh indbfures,,and if alternately graced by 
o^eh and horfes it will be an advantage, as the 
former conftantly repairs Ae injuries done by 
diektter; each of Aefe inclofiifes (hould con^ 
tain a pond, which is preferable to a run- 
ning ftream, and be alfo provided with trees to 
fliekcr them from the beat of the fun; when, 
however, the winter feafon commences they 
ftould be tafcca into the liable and be well fup^ 
plied with hay. 


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128. * llCFrON^9 

The flalliob .ihould always be kept in* the 
houfe; he (hould be fed wtlh more ftraw than 
hay, and*4e moderately exercifed until the 
feafon for covering, when^he fliould' be fed 
plentifully, though widi nothing bot common 
food. If managed with proper care be may 
be led to 15 or 18 mares with fuccefe m the 
courfe of the (eafon, Vhich, as v^e before ob:- 
ferved, continues from the end of March to 
the end of June. , 

It has been remarked, that Audsffituatedja 
dry and light tountries, produce aftive, fwift, 
and vigorous horfes, with nervous legs, and 
firong hoofs, while thofe ivhich are bred in 
damp places, and in fat pafturage, hare 
genei^lly large heavy heads, thick legs, ibft 
hoofs, ^nd, flat feet* This difference arifes 
from the climate and food, which may be eoSily 
.anderftood; but, what is more difficult to. 
comprehend, and efiential to be known,- tS) the 
neceffity of always croifing, or mixing the 
breed of horfes to prevent their degendrating« 
There la in nature a general prototype of 
each fpecies, from which each individual is 
modelled, but which f^ms in procreation to be 
debafed, or improved, according to its circum* 
ftances, infomuch^ that in relajion t?o certain " 


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' NATUftAli HMTO&Y. I29 

qualities,. th^.:ia » ibai^e. .^«riff$y in the«ap* 
pearance of iadividuials, and^ at the iame time, 
sVL cf>nfl9at r«femblance in ^e whole ^[)ecies. 
The &ft 9mml} the firft hoiic,,^^: example, 
haift been the exterior an4 iaterior model, from 
which aU horfrs^thathavis exifted, or (hail exift, 
have been forined i but this model, of which 
wtt are cnljr acquainted whh copies, may have 
fi^lei^ 0^ OF. arrived M grea^e^^ periedion, by 
multiplying and communicating .its form. The 
original foj^miubfifta emi» in each indivl4ual} 
bat thojbigb: there are miUions of individuals, 
jH |io two cj^afliy rdfeivble each otbex, nor, 
conleqifendf, the modtl from which they are 
^ran^. This diffinrenoe, tufcicfa -proves how 
£«r NdSi»e ia fcom-Mtking any thing abfoktely. 
peofeffc, end bow well file tm^w^ how to fbade 
her works, is eota^y the fame in ^ human 
fpncies, ia «U animak, and in aH vegetables ; 
and, what is- fiagubr, the model of what is 
handlbiae and exceUcnt 16 difperfed through all 
pljPts oC tbe «arcli, and that in each climaee- 
there is a portioa thereol^ ivfaich perpetually 
degenerates,. imlefs united wkh another por- 
tion taken from a diftant country ; b that to 
have good corn, beautiful flowers, &c. it is ne-^ 
odlary to change the feeds, and that they never 
ibould be fowa in the lame ground where they 


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130 buffdn's 

grew. To have fine horfes, dogs^ &c» it is 
proper for the males and females to be of dif» 
ferent countries. Withoutl this beiag att^tsbd 
to, corn, flowers, and anisi»ls^ mlld^eneratey 
- or rarher take ij^ firing a tta&ure^l thse'dioiatle: 
as to deform.. and baQiardisie thQ.^cte&;'ii^ 
form remains, but disfigured in all the Ikies 
which are not eflbntial thereto;- b/ mixing, on 
the comrary, the kinds, and, aboVe atl» %• 
croiFing their breed with foreign fpecies, their 
forms feem to become more perf^v 

I fhall not here enter into^ the caufes of tbefe 
effe£ls, but indicate the co£|)e6lures which 
readily prcfsnt themfcl ves* We : fenorWi firom 
experience that , animals or vegetaUes . tranf^N: 
planted froi^ a diftan^ clim^ frequently dege4c 
ner^ti^ and fom^mes are improved in a ihort: 
time. It is eafy to conceive, that this e&^is 
prodqiced by the difference of the climate and : 
food^ The ipflj^ence of thfefe two caufes n|uit 
at length rendei; :thejle animals exemptirom, m. 
fufceptihle of^ certiain afi<^ipcis or certain di£» 
orders i titieir. , jteinperament muft gradually 
changei, ^confe^^ently their forai,: which de*. 
pends partly on tb^ fpodand die quality of the 
bumpurf, iijuft ,^Vo, change in Aeyr pfogeir^^ 
This changq is indeed almoft.iQsip^r.ceptihl^iil^ 
the firft generations. beq9(it& t^er^ijE^Q ^^ 




female^ tappoki \to be the ftock of this race, 
being completeriy grow% had taken their con- 
fifteiiQS aad form before they were brought 
iifomtbeirowACoumfy^ the new climate, and 
n«f{r> food may^ Indeed, change" dieir tern- 
perament) but' eannot haVe influence enough 
ca'tfae foiid parts, iUnd organs to alter their 
fonn,'Confeqifentiy the firil generation will be 
no ways changed, nor will the original ftock, ^' 
at the time of birth be degenerated; but the 
young and tender 'animal wOrf^l the influence 
of the climate, ' and receive a ftronger im- 
inffion ^lan its father and modier had done. 
The food will alfo have a greater effe£t> and 
afi! upon the organic parts during die time 
of its growth, change a litde the original 
knmf and produce therein^ thofe feeds of de- 
fe£ls which manifeft tbemfelves in a very con*- 
^ciious manner in the fecond generation, 
vAk^rt the progeny wiH not only have its own 
defe6te, which arife from its growth, but affo 
tfaevkes<^ the fecond fteck. In the diird 
gen^radon, the defeats, which proceed from the 
influence of the climate and food, combined 
with thofe of influence on the a£lual growth, 
will become fo vifible, that the character of 
die firft ftock will be effaced.' Thus animals 
of a fordgn rac^ foon lole their particular 


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13* buffon's 

qualities, aad, in evety refpeft, reTembie thdft 
of the country. Spaniih or Bsuihuy horfes, 
' if the breed is Aot crofled fref uentljr» become 
in France, French horfes, la thp &co«id gene- 
jration, and always in the tbird* We are^ 
therefore, obliged to crofe ijbe bread ififtcid 
of preferving it, and renew the xace a*t each 
generation, by giving the hories of B^rbary 
or Spain, to the mares of the country^ and 
what is more fingular, this renewal, of the 
race, which is only done m part, produces 
4iiuch better effe^ thaa if the renewal was 
entire. A Spaniih horfii and mare la a foreii^ 
country do laot produce fuch handfome borieSf as 
thofe which are bred from a SpajsiiliL horfe and a 
mare of the country -, this is eafy to be con* 
<:eived, if attention is given to the amendment 
<}f natural defeds which will be produced when 
,a male and female of different couittries are put 
togedier. Each climate, by its influence^ and 
by that of its food, gives a certain conform 
madoa of parts^ which offends ekher'by.excefe 
off defers. In a warm climate, thete will 
be in excefs what will be deficient in a cold 
climate, therefore, when we join together 
animals of thofe opppfite climates, we muft 
expe£^ the produce to be complete : and as the 
moft perfe<£k work m Nature is Aat vi4iich 


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has the fiswvft d^ieds and the moft ptrkSt 
fofflas, tfaofe AsLt hsare the feweft deformities) 
& the produce of two animals* whofe defeds 
exzSdj coanter-balaoce each otbery will be 
the moft perfeft pit>dii£bien of its fpecies, 
they counter-balaoce one anoCiier the bctterj 
in propoftion to the dtftarKc between the coun- 
tries tile animak matched together wtt-e bred 
in;, the compound that refults therefrojn i$ 
the more petfed, the more oppofite the ex- 
ceflfes or defefts of the conftitution of the miale 
^eto the defe<9b8 or exceffes of the temperament 
of the female. Thus the breed is always, im- 
prored by matching^ the marcs with foreign 
horfesK, andtl^.wiU alwayjkJke more beautrful 
in proportion, as the €luml}Bf\|n which the hoxfe 
and majse were bred, are ths more diftant^and, 
on the contrary, the produce wiH be much dc- 
hafedhy fufferii^ horfes of the feme race to 
brecd'togedier^ for they infallibly degenerate 
in a very little time. 

' The climate and food have .no^ fo much in- 
&tence on ihe- human fpecies as on animals; 
and. the reafiin is plain : man can defend hi tnfeJf 
better than any othex animal from the inteoi- 
pejwnceof thecUmate J he jtlodged ^nddeathed 
fuitably to the Usafons^i m his food ^i{^ uevs: is 
more variety, and confequently it cannot to- 
Y<^^- ^' N fluence 

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134. buffon's 

fluence all individuals in the fame manner. 
The defeSs or excefTes which arife from thefe 
two caufes, and which arc fo conftaritly and 
fenfibly felt in animals, are much lefe confpi- 
cuous in men. Befides, as ihere have been 
frequent migrations, as nations are mixed, and 
great numbers travel and are difpeifed" every 
where, it is no wonder that the human race 
(hould appear lefs fubjeft to the influence of 
climate, and that there fhould be men ftrong*, 
well-made, and even ingenious in all countries. 
TJeverthelefs, we may believe, from experience 
much farther back than memory can trace, 
that men formerly knew the misfortunes which 
refulted from aft iances with tRe Tame blood; 
fince, in the mdft'^^ndvilized nations, it has 
Tarely been permitted for the brother to marry 
the fifter. This cuftom, which among Chrlf- 
tians is a divine law, and which is pradifed by 
other people from political views, is perhaps 
grounded on this obfervation. Policy is never 
extended in fo general and abfolute a manner, 
unlefs fupported by phyfical principles : but if 
men once difcovered by experience, that their 
race degenerated, when intercourfe was admit- 
ted between children of die fame family, they 
would foon have looked upon alliances with 
dher Willies as a law of nature^ a&d agreed in 


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iidt filling a mixture of blood among their 
children* In flxort^ from analogy it may be 
prefumedy that in. moft climates men would de^ 
generate^ as .well ad animals^ after a- certaiu' 
number of generations* 

Another influence of the climate and food* iy 
Ae variety of colours in the coats of aiiimalso 
thofe which ace Vfil^y and live in the fame cli«- 
mate, are of theiam^ colour, which> becomes 
a little lighter^ or a litdeds^ker, in the diSerent 
fiafons of the year ; on the contrary,- thofe which 
live in different climates are of diflerent coloursy 
and donajeftic animals vary fo much,, that ther« 
fare b€Mies9..dQg^ &c.. ofall colpurs, while the 
fiags,ha(es^&a« affealmoft unifoonlypf thefame. 
.The injuries of the climate^, always the iame^ 
andiconftaiitl]!^ eating, the £ime fopd^ p^oduc^^ 
•ia wild animab), this uniformity*. The care 
of man, the coimfbrts of ihriter, , the variety of 
food,. e|&ce,s^d vary, the colour in domeflic 
animals; as does alfo the mixture of foreigfl 
£4ce$> when no care has been taken to aflbrt 
■the colours of the male and female, which 
ibmetunes produces beautiful fingularities, as 
we fee in pied horfes, where the black and the 
white are fo whimfically mixed that th^y foma- 
times do not feem.the work of nature, but ra- 
ther the fancy of a painter. 

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f.36 lUFFON'ft 

In couplifig hoffes the colour and bcigfac 
Ihould be attended to; the fliapes ihould be 
contrstftcd, the raee fliould be mixed with op^ 
pofite clifn&tes> and horfes and maies bred ia 
Ae/ame ftud ihould never be ccmpled togpibcim 
All tfaeie are neceflkry 'cautions, and there, are 
fiill feme odiers not to be-negleded;.&r eao- 
ami^e,, broodnnares ought never to he docked^ 
^becade, being unable «o defend tfaemfelvies from 
the fites, they are* ^ondnuaHj torvaented, and 
^e conftant agitataone, A^hicfa the ftiags of thcfe 
inTe^s occafioa, diminifli the iptMatj of 
their mSk,. whkh im great infloenoe on die 
temperament and fize of the ioal, - iriikb in 
Tverjr re4;>cA ¥^ be more vigoioiti jisiIm&xm^ 
4her is ^ore capdbleof niurfing it. It is >a]lb 
preferable to choofe br ood aiaree^ 4ain ikdi as 
have always been kept at grafe^ and {iave«ever 
been hitd-n;^orkcd. Mares Which Raiw been 
kept in fls^les on ^ (bod, aiid are i^riMfds 
puttogra0, do not immedtajtely conceive} flMy 
muft have time to accuftom thcinfi^ves to 4hii 
new Iciftd of nutriment. 

Although the ufual feafon of nmres is from 
the beginning of April i» the end of June, yet 
it frequemly happens, that (bme are <b bcfoiie 
that time ; but which it would be better to fet 
pafs off, becaufe the foal in fuch cafe would be 


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Brought forth in winter, and fuflfet both' ftbAi 
the intemperance of the feafon, and "badnefs of' 
mtik ; and alfo, if a mare does not become 
proud till after the month of Jane, fbt fhould 
not be fuiFered to take horie, becaufe. the foal 
being produced in fUmnier, cannot acquire 
firength enough, to, rcfilt the injuries of the 
enfuing winter... 

Many people, inflead'- of conducting the 
fiallion. to the mare, let him ioofe in a park^ 
where a- number of 'mares are kept,, and leave 
htm at Ubtrty to.fingle out thofe wfcficharetiii 
feafon : this method is good for the mares, and 
diey will breed with more certainty ; but the 
ftalHon is more hurt in fix> weeks than he would 
be weU managed in .as many years*. 

Asfoon as the mares are with foal, and their 
beHies begin to grow heavy, they miuft be fepa*- 
.rated from tbofe which are not fi>, left they 
iliould be injured. They ulually go with foal 
eleven months and feme days ; they bring forth 
ftanding upright,, while almoft all other qua*-' 
drupeds lie down:, in fomd cales, when the 
delivery is difficult they, require affiftance,.and 
when die foal is dead, it is extra(Sted with ropes. 
The foal generally prefents its head fir ft, as do 
all other animals j it breaks the membranes in 
the birth, and the waters flow outabuqdantlyi^. 
^f3 at- 

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138 WrrFO!!*! 

U the bxat time Aere is voided Imral S^S 
fneces of fleflifontiecl'by the liquor of die aHan-- 
toides r thefe jHeces, wfaidi the ancients have 
csiiet the bippdimncs, are no^ a» they iayv 
pieces of flefh &ftened to its bead ; bttt,^on the 
contrary^ iejparated by the amnios.. The mare^ 
licfcs the foai after its biith,. but flie does nor 
meddle wiih the hippomanesi notwidifbUlding: 
die aflertiori of the -ancients^ thatihe devours^ 
it immedtacely. 

it is the ufiial cuftom to bare the mare cover<^ 
cd nine days after (he has foaled :: not to lofe. 
time, and to make d( they can fvom the ftud ;; 
^wt itf^ certain, that iSns mane ha^ng a foal: 
andfcetus to provide for, her ftrength is di- 
vided, and (be is not able to gi?e them lb much-: 
nourifhment as if flic had only one y. it would,, 
therefore, be better,* in order to have cxcdfentr 
liotfes,. to let the mares be covered but oncein^* 
two years; they would laftlonger,- and would: 
not be'& liable to drop their feals; forincom^*- 
mon ftnds it is a gieat thiilg When, in the iihne 
year, half or two diinds, produxx foals^ 

The mares, vAen with foa),.canbear tobe 
covered, though Aere never is any Mb con- 
ception : they ufuaily breed till Ae age of 14^ 
or 15 years, and the moft vigorous not longer 
than i8 • S tdlioin, when they have been taken : 


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If ATintAt HISTORY. S^^) 

tare* of, majF atgender till they are sto years 
tidr or upwards. . The 6ni& lemark hat* 
Been mad^ of thefe aaiaaals ai of men), viae 
that tho& which have began too early, are 
£3oneft incapachated $ for large horiesv which 
fooncr arrive^ at their gvowth than deUcaar 
ones, and are ufied as ftaUiooa at four yean 
eld, ai)e fKqpeniiy incapsdde before they aie 

The duration of die life of horfeg, like that 
hf every odier fpeoiea of animals, is pro^ . 
portioned to the time of their, growths Man^ 
who is> above 14 yeavs in growing, Uves iix or 
isven tsmes as long,^ to 90 or « lOOw* The. 
horie,-wfao attains his full growth in four years,, 
lives &X' orieven' times as long, .that is, to 2$ 
^r 3Q* There are ib few esoceptions to tMs 
^e that we cannot draw any fuseoedents from 
then;, and. as robuft bodes are at their entht^ 
-growth in lefs time than .delicate ones, th^ alio 
iive lefs timej-IUdom exceeding 15 years.. 

it snay be ^fily itm, that in hories,. and 
moft other <}uadrupeds the growth of the hinder 
parts k at ftrft greaw than thofe (»f the anterior, . 
whiMk in man the inferior parts grow kfs nt^ 
&& than, the iliperior; for in. a- child the thighfs 
and legs are, in proportion to the body, jnuch. 
kfs than thpfe of an adult^ on the contrary, 


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14^ Bxif roN** 

the hind legs of a foal are (a long that thqr caifv 
touch its head, which they caaoot do iid)en 
fill] grown. This difFerence (jroceeds le& from 
die ineqiialitj of the whole growth of the 
anterior and pofterior parts, than from the in^ 
equality v( the fore and hind feet, which is 
oonflantly the cafe through all Nature,, and is 
moft fenfibk in quadrupeds* In.ixian .the feet 
are larger than the hands, and are alfo fooner 
formed i and in the horfe the foot ferms the 
greateit part of > the bind leg being compofed 
of bones, correfponding to die tarfiis, meta*^ 
tarfus, &c. It is not, therefore, aftoniflung 
that this foot ihould be fooner extended thaa 
the fore legs, the inferior part of which re«- 
fembles the hands, being cooipofed of the bones 
of the carpus, metacarpus, &c. When a cok 
is juft foaled this difFerence is readily remarked:; 
the fore legs compared with the hind ones 
being much.fhorter in proportion: than they are 
in the fequel; befides,.the thicknefs which the 
body acquires, though independent of. die pro- 
portions of the growth. in length, occafloas 
more diftance between. the hind legs and the 
bead, and confequently. contributes to hinder 
the horfe fro^l reaching, it when arrived at his 
full growth, . 


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In alt aoimals each fpedes differs accord'mg . 
to the diffeirence of dimate, and the general 
rcfidt of this irariet)r fonm and coi^itutes the 
d&fferefit ruces* Of ^e£b we can only par* 
ticularize d»s moft remarkable, udiich differ 
greatly from each other^ paffing the ii^rmediate 
Shades, which here, as in evocry thing elfe, zti 
inSnttR* We ha^^ even^ augmented the nutn«- 
ba awjl codufion, hf.fdsmanng Ae oMxture of 
ibefe bfleeds ; and vm may be find to have 
almo^ inverted Nature try briaginig into tbeb 
diaaatES the facdes of Afiica or A&a, and have 
to imicfa ehadged diepriifiitifire rade of Francd^ 
bf iotroffliictsig hoirfar of ^ coimtnes, that thqr 
jdv not. now to be knourn, there oidy remaii^ 
itigCbme (l^t tnuk^ f»roduced:i^the adaal 
infltseoce of the difn;rte. ^Husfe ttices wbtdd 
be tnudi flronger^ and the difference wtMild be 
jKUffh greater, if the mce of eacfaidnnaite were 
preibrved withoiit-istxtuxie ; Ike &iailidtiieretices 
would be Ids -fhaded, and fetver in mimb^JS^ 
but thcnc' wauid he a certain ntm^r of great 
variety titst all nFraricind might ea/lly diflrin^ 
gtfift; vcirftead of whidi, cuftona, and ^ven ^ 
long experience, are, at prHent} tieoeilary to* 
know the hories of diCerauf ^untries.. Oh. 
Ah fttbje£b we have only the knowledge drawn; 
from the accounts of diilereiK tra^llers, and 

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141 BWfca^s 

the abiefl riding mafters, fuch as NewcalUey, 
Garfault) Guednere, See. and from feme re-^ 
marks that Pignerolles> Mafter of Horfe to 
the King of France, and' Prefident of the AcaV 
demy of Angers, has communicated. 

The Ankbian horfes are die handfomeft 
known in Europe^, thejr are larger and more 
plump than thofe of Barbary, and eqaally well 
fliaped, but as they are not often brought into 
F>rance, few obfenrations have been made on 
ifaeir perfedaons OP defe£bu 

The horfes of Barbary are more common^,; 
Ihey have a long fitit^ necfc^i not too mtick 
ceveceds wkfa/hairj mtd^ weB'divided'fiKnn die 
widiers} dte head is finall and beathiful ; die 
iKarsh»idfomearid'wd}-ptaGed;:^e backfhort 
and ftraight; the flanks aiidi fides round-wtdi- 
out too. much bdly;. die haunches diin, die 
crupper generally long, and the tail placed 
rather high;, the thighs well fam^d, and&l^ 
dona Buv the legs handfome, well liiade,. and 
almoft. widiout hair ; the tendon largc^ die 
fpol.weHYiiade, but frequently the paftem long; 
tb^y are of all coloui^ but moft commonly 
grey/ In their patees, they are i^wkys very 
negligent, an<t muft be c^teii reminded:, they 
are fwift 'and ftr<3*igj rety light, and well 
sjd?Rte.d for. hiuiting. Hhefe faprfes feem the 

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moft proper to breed from ; and leave it only 
to be wiflied they were of larger ftature, fel- 
dom exceeding four feet eight inches high. It 
is confirmed by experience, that in France, 
England, &c. they beget foals larger than 
themfelves. Among the Barbary horfes, thofe 
of the kingdom of Mort>cco are the beft; 
next, thofe of the mountains. The horfes of 
Mauritania are of an inferior quality, as well 
as thofe of Turkey, Perfia, and Armenia. 
All the horfes of warm countries have the hair 
fhorter and fmoother than others. The Turk- 
ish horfes arc not fo well-proportioned as thofe 
of Barbary ; they have commonly the neck 
ilender, the body long, and the legs too thin. 
They will, however, travel a great way, and 
are long winded ^ this will not appear furpridng 
if we confider, that in warm countries, the 
bones of animaU are harder than in cold cli* 
mates, and it is for this reafon, that though 
they have fmaller (hank bones, their legs are 

The Spanifli horfes, which hold the fecond^ 
rank after thofe of Barbary, have along, thick, 
and hairy neck i the head rather large, the ears 
long, but well placed ; the eyes full of fire, 
and have a noble ftatelyair;. the (boulders are 
Chick, ;md the brcaft larger the loins fre-^ 


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144 BUFFOf^'s 

qaently radier low^ rise fides roun^ and 
often too much betiy; the crupper is u&(ally 
round and large, thou|;h ^ome have it rather 
long; die legs thin, free. from hair; the par- 
tem is fometimes long like thofe of Barbary . 
the foot rather lengthened like that of a noitik, an^ 
frequently the heels too high. Spaahlh horfe& 
ei the beft breed, are plump, weH-coated, and 
low of ftature. They^ ufe much motion in their 
carriage, and hav^ great fupplenefs,' fpirit/ and 
pride. Their hair i^ ufually black, o^ of a dark 
(hefinit colour, though there are feme ^ of all 
colours, and it is but feldom that they have 
\vhite legs or xiofes. The Spaniards have an 
averfion to thefe niark$, uid never breed from 
horfesthat have them, chufing only a'ftar in die 
fordiead i they however prefer thofe which have 
not a Tingle fpet, as much as the French do thofe 
y^ith particular n^rks^ But theib prejudices, 
at*e perhaps equally ill-fouwted, fincc there are 
exceeding gotnl horfes widi all kinds of marks, 
or entirely of one colour, Thefe ftnall differ- 
ences in th^e coats of horfes, do not, in any 
mai^ner, depends on their qualities, or thetr inte- 
rior conftitutba, but originate from excernal 
caufes,^ and even thofe fo fuperficialy ihat by 
a flight fcratch on the (kin a white fpot is 
produced* Spaniib bor&s are all marked in 


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the thigh with the mark of the ftud where they 
were bred. They are commonly. of a fmall 
ftatuxe, though there are fome four /eet nine 
or'trn inches in height. Thofe of Upper Ar- 
dalufid are reckoned to be the beft^ though 
they are apt to ha?e the head too long ; but 
this dekQ: is excufed in £»vpur of their excel-* 
lent qualities : .they are courageous, obedientt 
' graceful), fpirited^ and more fupple than thofe 
of Barbary, for which talents they are preferred 
to alX other horfes in the world, for war, for 
fhew, and for &e inenage. 

Thc|J)flndibaieft>£i%lifh hories have la their 
conformation, great reiemblaoce to tliofe of 
Arabia and Barbary, from which, in faft, they 
origin^d; they have, notwitbftanding,. the 
headlirger^ but well made, the ears longer, 
but well |daced. By the ^rs alone an Englifh 
horfe may he ■ known from a Barb ; but the 
great diiFeret^ce is in their ftature, for Englifh 
borles are much larger and plumper ; tiiey are 
frequently five feet high; ar^ of all colours, 
and have all kinds of niarks ; they, are gene- 
rail y ftrpng, vigorous, bold, capable of great 
fatigup,. exc^lent for, hunting and courflng » 
but they want grace and fupplenefs in their 
flioulders. The. race h^orfes of this country 
are exceedinjgly iwift, as indeed ^re the faddic 
VOL. y. O horfes 

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horfes in general ; of which I cannot give a 
ftronger proof Aan by giving an extras of a 
letter I received from 9 Briti& Nobfcman, 
(Earl x>f Morton) dated London Feb« 189 
1748; which ran in thefe words, ^ Mr. 
Thornhill, a joft-mafter of Stillon^ wagered 
that he would ride three times the diftmce 
firom Stltton to London, that is 215 £ngfi(h 
miles, within 15 hours. In undertaidng die 
performance of which, he fet out from Stilton 
in the morning of the 2f th dF April, 1745, 
and arrived in London in three hours and -Bfty* 
one minutes, having taken a hiaj of eq;bt 
different horfes on the road; he immediately 
fet out again from London^ and got back to 
Stilton in three hours and fifty two minotes, 
having changed horfes but iix times ^ fer the 
tliifid fpace he fet offagaini and wi A fevenr.x>f 
the fame faoi&s be completed it in tHree hours 
and forty nine minutes, going over the - whole 
fpace of 215 miles innelevwi hours and thirty- 
two minutes; an example of fwiftnefe that^ 
polfibly is not to be paralleled in ancient ht& 
tory. » 

The horfes of Italy were fonperlf^niiieh 
handibmer than they are at preftnt^ becaufe the 
breed for fane time has been negtQ(£bed;.^not- 
withftanding the Neapolitan h9f&s 9xe flftt 


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faan^em^ e^cially for carriages, ^iid draught 
hor&s^ batin general they have large heads 
and thick notks^fthey are untraSable, aiid 
confequemly not eafiiy managed ; thefe de* 
fc<3s are cimpeniat^ by their noble fortn, 
their. ftMeline&> and the gnteefulnefs of their 

The Danjib.horfes ate (o fuperior in make 
and bcau^, that they are preferred to atl others 
for carriages: ibitie of tbetn are perfectly 
mpi^dedi bi|t th«ir number is fmall ; for th^ 
^ocifbrmatiOA vf^thefe horfes is ield6m reg«i1ar| 
(oo^ ^fcthcBi have tliiQk.i»)ck8> ki^ ihouU 
d^t5|: &m Ioin»long^nd loMT, and the buttocks 
too najrcow fpr the ihicknefs of the. ^e parts } 
butthty are aU graceM in thejr tnotions, and 
in general Y«ry good for wary and for ^ ftate » 
they, are of all colours, and fome are fpolted 
liks t^era wbkh, ace .found no where but in 
Demnarkto . 

QegtnuBf produces very bandfome horfes^ 
but they-' are generally heavy, and Ihort-^ 
breaiA#<i, ik$io^ chiefly bred from Taii^ifh and 
Barbary, Spanifii and Italian horfesf for this^ 
realbnthey ar^ not fwift enough fer eourfiiig 
or bttftting, whilft the Hungarian and Tran- 
filvMiian horfe$} ate,* on the contrary, light 
and good coider8> The Httngariians fplit 
O Z . their 

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their noftrils With a view, tliey fay, of girfng 
them more breathy and^alfo'-td hinder their 
neighing in battk. I hare fierer had it in my 
power to be convinced of th!& fiifty that horfes 
who have their n<^ftr}fs. ffit cannot neigh, but 
k appears me, that their neighing tmjA be - 
weaker. It is remarked, that the Hungarian, 
Croatian, and Polifh horfes have tho^ tsmk in 
their mouths during life* . < 

The horfes of Holland arc, very gooA' fer 
coach-horfes : the beit come ffomtfae provilx?? 
of Fri^fland : there are aMb.fome verf good 
ones 'in die provinces of. Bevgues and fafhr9. 
The Flemilh horfes are grcady ioiferior to ^c 
Dutch : Uiey have almoft all large heads^ flat 
fettj and are ififbjeft'te bamours; andlbefe 
twojaft defejb are eil^tial, opes ift coach- 
horfes. . . .... 

In Frahce there are hories of all kiad^ but 
very few handforae ones. The heft isuUkr 
fabrfes come from the Limofin, which tttrni^ 
ble much thofe of Barbary, and like Ifaetn are 
Excellent for fainnting ; but diey are ilow in 
their growth, requii^ gre^ caie while young, 
and muft not be i^ed tili they are dg^t years 
old. There are alio feme excellent foBisht 
Auvergne, Poitou, and in Moroant 'in Bur- 
gundy^ but next to the Limofiiiy Nomxandy 


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NATnuAi HinToinr. 149 

.&niUbev 010 Aloft boffe»; diey are not To' 
fa0d ht,hlMkig$ buliMre better for war; they 
httre tkidfcr coaia, and fooner jvU^ their f^iil 
g{i)#tli4^ There are otf^iiy good coach-horfes 
ftrougbcr froor- Lower Norm^iviy. if^hich are 
fighur^ ftM jthoTe flf JEMland. Fr«uic1ie« 
ComftBf not fix CQin>try round Bottlpgri^> 
fiimtft; very good draitght^hok&s* Iti general, 
Ae Fronck borfes hays th^ir iboulders too 
ibick^ viiichy ifi the Bdrjbary bor&f} a^e gene^ 

• vjiafdflg doftribcj diofe hories wfaieb ^e 

beft knowii t»B8^ we&dl now nieficion m^ 

travellers' report of foreign horfes vi^tb whicfa^ 

«rb aitmdaoqiBsnted^ There aure good hocfes in 

^ iflfltidlHfiffharAffQhipdagi^: thofeof tl^ ifladd 

«^Gfeie wl»« in gf««r repntafesoii amoqg the 

andents for dieir agility and fwiftnefs^i th^ 

sre at pKftat but ttttle ufed ey^ ki' tiiat o^iv 

trjv from its hting. abnoft erery where aa« 

^i^fai^ aadivtry oKHmtainotts*. The bdihorfts 

m ^thde tflimcbv ^^ ^^ m £arbary^ are:of 

lli9^Arabiaa42wed. Th« i»thre hprfe of the 

InagrioiiLOf MomocBr ase mudufiaaBer than 

^ thorfb of : Arabja^fii bot M»ry Kgfat and vigptous 

^ .Ui^ (ajB^. tfatt tbfrireed of Egypi and Ttogi- 

tada mr pttferabfe to*/ ^ thofo^ of the aeigh^ 

^omxif^^ca^jKUfm ago there 

O 3; werjs 

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were good horfcs aU over BSiFl&y» TKe «dJ- 
celleiKe of there Barbary }ft>rC9s ^opfift^ in ill^ 
never fiumbling^ and inr their ftaadiog jbift 
whilft the rider. cUimounfs t)r bts fidlrhi^ 
bridk. They' walk &iiri.and^^lop ,wi4i ra*-- 
pWity, but d>ey are never fuffiered^to trot or 
amUe : the inhabitants-. of.the country, looiung 
upon thofe paces as rude and ignoble. _ He adds 
that the horfes of Egypt are fuperior to all others 
for dietr height aod beauty^; but; tbefc Egyp* 
tian hbr&s, as well asmoft oif dio^b of Barbaryv 
fpruBg from Arabian hbties^^whidi w^ with«^ 
ouix:ontradi£iion^,the nioft Ipeautiful hpr&s.ia. 
the world;> « 

Accordmg to MiarmoI,^onradier Beon» i^ 
African for (Marmol Jbas copied him ^IbiqA 
wordi for word) the Arabian hories are ^©* ~ 
fcended from the wild 'horfes of the deiiBrts of 
Arabia^ o^f which, in ancient tmes^ targe dEHid^ 
werefcdoned, .and whichhave multipUed-TOkCmiGk 
that all Afia. and Aftica are full of tfosm \ ^y 
are fo fwift as to ouftrip the v#ry <^ricbi 
The Arabians of die^ defert, and the popple of 
Lybia, breed a great number of tfaefe hories> 
for hunting>.but neither* uie. diem ixLtraipeUitfg 
or in their wars. They fend rfiem to pafture 
whilft there is any grals, and when that. §uls 
they feed them with- fiates.aad camels milk^ 


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wfitcb make) them nervous, light, and leaif. 
They-1^ Indies for Ae wfld horfesy and eat the 
flefli 0f tfie yoang ones, ^yhich they affirm n 
very "dclicsilft. Thefe wiW horfes are finally 
and -jurd 'commonly afh-coloiired, though there 
are ^s^ f%me white ones, and the mane and the 
hair of* Ae taai is Ihort and firialed. Otha: 
travellers hive given curious accounts of the 
Ai^1>ian boHes, of which we will only mention 
die principal dfcuriittances. 

tet an Ara&an be ever la poor he has 
hoffe$;.i3!iey ulually ride upon the mares, ex*- 
pdrictstt having taught them that they bear 
&tigue, hunger, and thirft, better than horfer; 
tJieyilrealfd Irfs vitious, m6re gentle, and will 
FemnSn left to thcraftrlves, in great numbers; 
for daysi together, without d&ing the leaft harm 
to each othen The Turks, on the contrary^ 
do not like mare^ and the Arabians fell them 
the horfes whichthcy do not keep for ftaltions; 
The Arabs have long preferved,, with great 
^are^^ie* breed of their horfes; they knbw their' 
gener^ons>:allianceS),and all their genealogies:^ 
' They 

* bf lidswA kaye aftrikiag rnftance in-Bennani^s Zod^i 

which contJiUa tbe following attcfte<) paper : ; 

(Taken before Abdorramany Kadi of Ac^a) - 

^ The oecafibii 6f thii pref«nc writing Or inftniment ie^ 

that at A€ca|.,iA- thf^faoui^ of Badiy legal eftabliihed' judge> 


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13^ BUTFON'y 

They'diftinguifli dieir breeds ihto three cfii!es; 
Ae firRy which are of puf e and ancient race o^ 
bodi fides, they eall Nobles; the fecotid are df 
ancient race, but have been mif-sdHed ; and the 
dnrd kind are their common horfes. The Tat- 

ap^trtd 111 C^uit Thomat tHgat^, Ae,Sd|ilil CeAfiil; 
and with him Sheikhs MondEbn »1 Hag Abtio&h, Shdkh 
of the country of Safad 5 and tjie fatd conful defirjBd| from 
A* af<0ielai^ Sheikha, f roof of the race of the gray hocfe 
which he bought of his, and he afirmed to' 6e Mbnalii^ 
Shadnhl; f hut he was not Atiafied wkh tbit* but defied 
th0.«dtimony of the Aiaba, who bred iht hprfe^ dAd ,kni^w 
iio# kt came to She'rkhs Mond y whtfeapoii there appearwl* 
ecrtain Arabs of repttte, whofe naaoes are vndenaendbtted, 
who tef&fied and deckuredy that the grey horik- whkb tk^ 
(^liil formeiiy bought of Sheikh Morad it Mooaki Shadaki" 
of thepfire race of hOTfet, purer than milky and that ^ 
begimiHig of the aflTair was, that die Sheikh' Siieh^ Sfceifch 
of Alfobal bought him of the Arabs, of tkife tribe of ad.AliK 
hommadity and Slteikh Saieh fold him to Sheikh |4or^ 
Xbft al Hi^j AbdoHah, Sheikh of Safad, and Sheikh Morad^ 
(bM|iim^to the Conful aforefaid j >hen theft itkarteti «^ 
peared tto us, and the eontenta were known^ the laid fetttfi^ 
flian defod a certiikate thereofy and teftimony of the. w|y 
ntffaf wheielipen we wrote- him this certificate for \k^ .to- 
heap as a proof tkeieof. C^d^ Fxidby i% of tkelat^r^abi^ 
lit thr year I135. ^ .^ . 


Sheikh Jjuimat al Faiiban of the Arabs' of al Ma* 
komaudat.- ... '.'''. 

AU£boTak|»a]Kaakfe . A 

, Ibrahim^ his bfotber* 

Ibiokammed al Adhra Sheikh Ai/arifaCr^ 

Khaous ai Kaabi* : -' - - 

t ^# ttmffr tbnr Nfkit rH9^ 

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ter are fold, at a low price: but thofe of the 
firft clafs, and even of the fecond, among 
which fome are as good as thofe of the firft, 
are extremely dear. They never fufFer the 
mares of the noble clafs to be covered ex- 
qQpt by ftallions of the fame quality. They 
are acquainted) frpojL long experience, with 
die 'Whdie race of dieir own horfes, and 
even-^fcb diofe of theirnetghbours, and know 
thejir: names, furnanies, colours, marks> &:c. 
> When.' they have no noble ftallions of their 
ti*^ they borrow on* of a neighbour to coircr^ 
thear. marcs, which is done in the prefence of 
Wittieffes) who give an atleftation iigned and 
fdaleii before thefeeretary of the Emir, or fiime 
other public perfon, in which the names of the 
HMre and liorfe are written down, and their 
whole 'generation fet forth. When the mare 
has foaled witneiTes are again called, and another 
suieftatioii is drawn up, which coDtain& a de« 
foriptron of the foal, with the day of its birth. 
Thefe certificates enhance the value of their 
horles, and are given to thofe who buy them. 
.The price for a mare of the firft clafs is from 
one to three hundred pounds fteiling. As the 
Arabs have only tents for their houfes thofe 
tents ferve them alfo for ftables: the mare and 
her foal, bufl>and> wife, and children,^ lie pro-^ 


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154. furroN's 

ini£:uoufly together; the children will lie on. 
the body and neck ^ the mare and.foa|..with^ 
out being incommoded, or receiyiog Mic Hsaft 
injury; na;^ the animals f^em afraid to move 
for fear of hurting them. Tbefe ij^ares are .ii> 
accuftomed to live in this &aiiliarity that ^y, 
will fuffer any kind of pJay. The Arab^neveif 
beat their mareS) buit treat them kiAdly,^ taliEf 
and reafon with them^ they take great car^of 
them, always letting them Wi4k> ap4 n^nrer yS9 
die fpur without ^e gr^ateft. iie<;e^i .^fepi^ 
therefore, as they fed thor .rid^'3 hedi fJMjji 
fet out with incredibly fwifoififs^ an4 1^^ ^^dgpt 
and ditches with a$ Qiuch.a^Ui9 9sff^wu#f 
does. If their riders hq^|ien. to Ml ^y arffi A 
well trained, that they will ftop ihort.eyi^,JA 
the moft rapid gallop. AU Arabian \i^aifs%^ 
of a middling^fuBe, very eafy ia th<iriiuu;e%43|d 
rather thin .than fat. They are.dreficd. i«iafnn 
ing and evening regularly with, fo much car^' 
that not the fn^eft fpot is left on their ftisaj;. 
their legs, mane, and tail, are wafhe^i .l^e la^ 
is let to grow long, and jfekiom comj^^^ .^ 
avoid breaking the hairs. They have nofbi^ . 
given them to eat all day^ and icldpm af« 
allowed to drink above two or three timMU. 
At funfet a bag is fafteptd louncL JJieirt^jeids^ 
containing about halt a b.uibeLoC. v^rf cleat)' 


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bariey, whiih Is not taken from them till the 
nddttDdrrting when all is cat up. In the month 
of -March, "When the grafs is tolerably high, 
they ^re turttcJ^iit tb pafture. At this time the 
marts arc ciwrereA, and immediately, after cold 
Walter h ^rMrh trpdn diem. As foon as the 
(prkng is (yaft tifey aretakch again from pafture^ 
and 4)at^ thither gtafs n6r hay, and feldom 
ftittv^, ^H Ae reft ©f the year, barley being 
thfeif otf y food. 'They cut the manes of their 
folfe At « year dr eighteen months old, in order 
tdihAk&it grotir thicfe and long; They mount 
thtt^tiiro yieats'old, or tv^ years and a halif 
a^.4lttti6ft, and ttlf this age they put neither 
fadSteiidr bridle on ftem. Every day, from 
mfemihg'tfll night, all the Arabian horfes ftand 
laidled'A'Ae doors of the tents. 

Thc'brettlbf therefiofresisdifperfed through- 
out BaAary; iJie chiefs among the Moors, and 
cv^ii^ among the Negroes along the rivers 
GMtitk itni Senegal, have them of uncommon 
bcadty; Inftead of bartey, or oats, they give 
th^ diaise reduced to ftowfer, which they mix 
vriii nifki when they are inclined to fatten 
them ; ind lit di» hot climate they feldom let 
thcm'ilrirtk. The Arabian horfes are' alfo 
fprcBrf^er Egypt, Tui^kcy, and perhaps Perfia, 
wherft* tiitre Were formefly confidcrable ftuds. 


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Mark Paul mentions x>nt in wKkh ^ere ten 
thoufand white nisnesi and be filjrs, thatin^dsc 
province of Balafcia .there was a great -HUBiiiMsr 
of large nhnUe horreSy tmb dietr /boc& (0 
hard that it was unnectBa^ tx> fliotitlieai. 

The horfes; of the Levar^ as welt Jistkefe 
of Perfia and Arabia, ha?€ tbt ftmg of the foot 
very h^rrd ; they (hoe *them nttfwitilftaqdiQgi 
but widi (hoes fo light 'mi thm dsattiaB^ may 
be driven throigh any, part of thejat .In Tmkqry 
Perfiai and Arabia, the cuftom of Inking. Are 
and feeding them is the fam^*. T]|eic lit^r 
is made of dieir own dang, -wlii^ll i^ Sf& 
dried in the fun, to take off tb^ jfi fi^lj^.then 
reduced ttna powder, and a bed ntsi^ |wi^ it 
in the ftabie or .tent, four or.five ii|ches tbijck. 
This litter lafts sl long ticof, for \fdiei^ipil^ 
is dried! in the fun a fecpnd tii^.ju)d again 
lofes its di&greeabl^ odour. .. ^ . . ^ 

In Turkey there are Jiorffes. of; Arabia, . TT^- 
taiy, and Hun^y, befid^s the i^atiye i^rfe^ of 
the country, wbich are very haa<^ome,,and 
elegant, have a great, deal of fire,.fwiftn^$ and 
fymetry, but are foon fistdgufd* Tbei^ ^ios 
are fo tender diat they cannot bc^. ijb^ cj^rry- 
comb, fo diat they are obliged to ^le^^.br^uih, 
and to wafh them with w^ter. .Thefehofi^f 
althou^ handtoe^ lurc mucb iiiferiorvto iliofe 


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NATUltAjiHVi^TORy. 157 

mlt[ts.tmiitmi AraUiNit Ihift n^ft httiittful iauk 
iteiteftiiadrs of the jBt&. , Tii^ paftqro ofthe 

knt^ ititsobllliiti i9il^ i>)r<lha aidtrr of gprtm- 

ther^ flioft of wkkh ..iwe^ vtq^* baiMlfiiii»v soft 
alMfoti««caU)dil^ tPitttm <Ub ValU pcebrs 
Ae ^ommen iit»fefc.<rfig«fei^ to Ac moA ^jo^ 
f«ibBr-«fl the. lebigdMitof Naples. Tjtff )iie 
rimainiibf dI ai^tfidrfii^ fiw^^i^me are vttf 
ftl4lly^«ttt iiQfiy ^ iai^giNMltia&'.aitd! ftrength, 
illfta^:ttlM fti^^iaiJlhlM bifgcr dun the fiulcUe^ 
ftitfft^- ior-£i}gtoitf. Tbejr hUTe-iinall heads 
arid^^im^ftfeck^i ii^^eon are hatidfbmc and 
ivfeff f)&eM; flith legs, 4ah<Ubme cruppers, 
an(f h^'^obfi ; tWy-afe docile, HyVjy,»iight; 
boM, Mu^^cAiSf ^ «apilH<l bf bearifig^ great 
hanMltps. . They rtt* Very^fWIftj^WiAoYit tvtt 
ihtmUbi^* ThcyA«f^obuft,and«afiiyfcd,bein^ 
kept bnbartef mixed wWi ftrawchoppcd fine, 
ami are only put to grafs for SLhoKxtftx weeki 
fh -*e fpring; Their euto^aite kjng, ati4-di6 
Perilans ilever ^ftiake-geldkigs^ > They vb covert 
ingstd^Afeifid'ti^eir hbffes froi&tfad ji^ums of 
ikheair, and art particiilariy ^66bti\Fe hi Aeit 
dneof tiiemr tbe)^ tna«i(|» 'dftm't^ al Mdle 
only, aiM'^wHfKmtetfiployiiig^^m Nuiabeps 

VOL* V, P of 

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iS8 fitrt»FON's 

q£ &an are tflmi^ortied idiotT^kejs but more 
tnthejndiesu. ThofeteiY^«rsiriio3ie£»lavi|b 
m their piai^ of the .Perfian h<»fes agree ia 
aUowii^ tjiat the ^/iraliitaDS .are. fupemc -for 
their agtlityy^counigeb'ftret^tHs sMKltbeait^iasd 
^t ^3r<a4[e mdrt ;v4l«isdtjievea ^ Perfiii^itlmtt 
flie.harfcs ofthajtcQunlry. \ ,/ a ^' . 
;: viThe horbs :Hicd -ki . the Indies; aee iot igocKL* 
TJbofe ufed hy ^iie.grandees .of Jiiie:apiiQt^, are 
kasportcSt from PfstfisLioA'AxMiu iFh^jt^iHC 
them 8 little l>!the cby^^raiidxin tbei:svfeif^ 
p^e boil^. with Imt^.-iUid/fi^^yiiiiftt^jtf 
oats or bar^r; di^s iacwiftiQieol ftrefigtbei^ 
and. gives tbe(aipinta^\witlio|tt it thiy wo^ 
foon decajr> t^e cUtnate biang contraeyjpi their 
nature, . Tiie Jiativc hor^s^tf lodtft^areYcry 
.fomUi vibrQe ,x>f tl^em ai^ip little^ tha^/T^- 
vermer %^ djkeyoaiiigj^i^iacc jof^^tftc ^^ 
who was about^g^tjr^ars^ age, r^d^^a 
handlbipe litde hoIfe^. whofe M^^d ^ 
exceed that of a large g]:;eyhouiid. . |t, f^\dd 
(t^sR„ that extreme hQt clijoiatesiure contrary 
to the nftuco of ^hprfes. - Thofe r9f. the.^Gqld 
Coaft, Juiday Gieneai to* . ^e alCp x^ry bad* 
iTThey c^^ry. t^ir i heads . and# oedte svery l^w t 
their v^alk is fo tot^ic^,. A2t one would imis^ 
gftiietheywerealwa^ ready tQ.falli lii0y(W|H}ld 
neirer ftk* if |^y woevot. W bf, con^ntnUy 
1 beat 

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hci^j and the greatcftintFt ^ them are fo lopir 
that die'feelQf the, riders almoft Coiich< tbe 
^^kihtl <^* aiv tfjoBffJvnXnQable creatures^ 
and Ofdy 'fit'to besatj^n by the Negroes who 
are a6' fond of their tfl<ilh c$ diejrare cftf dvat 
of dtigs. ' Thb tafte^or horfe-ftefli is CommoA 
to the Negroes, AraKan% *Tarfars> apd ChU 
fld^.^ '^The^ iShinefeSiwiiisian ao». better thaa 
tiiofe of Indh) cho^ arc m^fky fjiirklels, iUr 
t)i9dei and YeryfTtmll^ ttbofe # Cpirea are-iMC 
tnore thm tfareei f^t in* Imght^ In China 
aimoft all. Ihe. hoffes/ao^ivail^ gddtt^s; and 
liusf'fA^ Co timid tbat^ they k:annot be niadeii& 
of ill iiraf; ibchatiti oiay with 
bid* ttntfihe TattarianhDdbfcconqueited.CMmL. 
Thofe'-horfes are. very vfit &x 9nuv thongbcooxr 
m^nly bat<of amodesade fi^ ; they are ilroag> 
vigprdusy'i^iricedy'i^ile^-and'tery fyrilb Theii:' 
boeft«ieJbtasd» hutatho.bJHCKAnoihtoafiarrosR). 
tbetr headi^aili fnudl^' d«ar htcksJiong ao3 con-] 
fined^ aad their kg$ zxtton^taagi ^ith aU^thefe 
defeftsitheyoiajt bajaoafidertdte good bodes, 
for they sare not eaftly cirbd) and .gallop eoc- 
tremely fM. Thfe Tanars Iweiiwitb' difiir 
faorfes' in -tke £une. noaniier* aai th$;Ai'«Matis«: 
When abouc fe?en Diris^)il*iiiQQtbs.0ld ttoy,^ 
ai« mom«pd by chiUiiw^ jyrhojiiuik€L..4lD|pi 
iNkaad gidlap a Jiitd9.>way by .turtts. :Thejs 
P 2 thus 

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tbiis^ break daik bjrdeKiee^ and oblige ^tpm 
to* undtigodong ftftfitg$>'. but- they. fi«i^ 
;nioiiat . tbeiH^fof ^ 4iwdiiiig or ^Wii«gtc3i( tbef 
are^iixor.fsvfcnTeaip oM^ and i dft^ iiM|r mak/c - 
tiiem fupppr|,incndiUe;i«tigtf9, fudif.aa tm* 

fiiig ^ .pai}xiig four ^r .Sv^. daysiwHilOut any 
other foodithai <avhradMdJC>flgrt6^e1rQr7 dgM 
hounay^andatfrt^ ^ CwQ&fejH&ur mdiout 
ibinU»g> &€«.' TM9le4M>rii» tJiA^biaie lb so4< 
buill in theif 4mi*coiiaittf become^ enfesUved 
juddofelefe) whM^ttaii^ortejd to-GhtoaiMr»lh0 
Indka^ bttt tbef fiK^oited.bctlei^ in I%&ti^ 
'STmhRy. Theiikth^Tattart have fibredl ipf 

tiicy Wc<ib ttaH 6fWid .ta< b^ 'ftdd toiFertigmU^. 
TMe bprfes' hAvis-all &a^good-aad ^J^^uh^. 

han^i nuicb-tfae latne^ oMnaiS' aod^ed«rad4«ih 
give- liM^viaris'^^pofiifkau^^ thafehaoitn^) 
Tii^e^ar64iUb ji) CS«affiar wi* ia iMtegne&». 
manjt .hc^cfe^ which' a«ie^4veii hand^eipi.tha^ 
thofe of. l^artary. .vTliere:are' tMo^ ibtneniiiu$r' 
horfes in the JJkramc^* Wabohia^ Polami^aQd. 
Sweidea> botiwtfhavg^tt(»pai<>cailaaia cq> unt<al' 

tH«irqtoaiiHesror4dlfiS^»'« - -^ • : 

f if \(re^cMfial€ Urn a^eiwite^iV^tteMAif^aiid^ 

r .- jl i we 

d by Google. 

KATtrkAt «RT0Rr. i6k 

we flSHU 'finiJ,^ that nbe borfb^* of ^ Greecr, 
efpedaBf th^ of. TAefl% JmdEpirus, were 
heldikijgteat eftean; and "were very ufefcrl in 
war; that ttofe'4>f Ath^acwere.ths largeft 
then known ; Wok ^e kandTomeft came frottf 
Bgj^'Wiiere 4hert ^^a^eat ndmber, and 
Wtere'SoIotnoD fent to buy them, afc a great 
piiee^ dittt in Ethibpa the hof fes did not thrive^ 
en account t>f the g^eat heat of the climate $ 
that . Afabitf atid Afrioa prodiicsd the fbefl 
hor&g^ Irat aiboTe aH th^ ligbfieft and beft cal- 
culated Bridie chace ; * tibat ttmfe of Italy were 
tastieac&fy good ; that hi- %d]y, Gapprsdocta, 
Syria,' ^Armeiim^ Medea, and Perfia,* there 
Wftre excdlent horfes, • remarkable for their 
fv^Sftttefe arid= agflf ty '5 " that 'ftofe of 'Sardinia? 
and- Coriica were fmall, but lively and cou^^ 
titgp&ik$ '€hat thofe of Spain i^nd^led thofe* 
•f PifCMa^ and -were ex-cdient fdr war; that 
A^ "Were in Tranfylvania and in Walachi* 
fwlft hoHe§ witk finall heads, large mknes 
hangilig down to die ground, and biifby tails ;f 
dittC the' I>anKh hdrie^ Were w^ made aiicP 
goodIeat)et^; diat thofe of Scandinavia * were 
fmidt, b^ wd} made and verf agile; that the 
Flanders horfes were ftrong; tbkc-the Gauls^ 
furnilhed'^eRomaf!i9''tfridigoodhorfes for the 
fadffi^i Md-t0'cai>ry but^e^s^ thi^^be G<M)^ ; 
P 3 h(>rf» 

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hoWes wat iS^taaJky -and ^fe^ vvSoills^ #fafi 
«fe was Riade'of llita'it'tk^^iM^^f^tei 
great numbers fit &r Inrar ;. ibA- tiie liorfed <if 
Himgaiy were ;itfa:!vei^ good ^^astflaflljr, tbitt 

Frpar die Asm h£h itt ttUk^ iM^^ 
AnMan barfes have ever^beei% aa^-^e ilffi% 
the &ft hodb ki tiie-wcxildi both^f^ boailtjr 
and goodne&j^ tiiat tt is fipiii lfa«m, inune^ 
diateljs or bjr doe mesnr rf B«4)s^^ti&t liie 
fined horfes.m. Eorop^' iftfid€%' ted' Afia %i^ 
hred> thai Anilna JsrVp^rhapff ttiot tinl]B>^ther 
origtfialt dioiata Jbf h«iffeai but . Ae^ bdBHfafeid 
tty dieir nat^e^ be^a^ if^i^ ^^^ mii&ig 
the breed bj^fof^eig^hcH^y.dM Ar^ taisff 
<are to' pi^r7^th^i^cywft parity i^ifaaa fC^stlie 
dimateis Adtof itfidf M^bdl foi^JblNA%' Ar 
ttati^s^hlCfe ^v^-'dna #Qne effia^ 4)]|4fae 
earn tbcy have t^seiH fi»iii»tipMB^ JmrncmapjaJ^^ 
^Mbte ibdY breed by putting fog|eftbcr «td^^td^ 
mdft beautiful hidividual^^ an^r ot^abc-^i^ 
^a^ty*r aiRi:diaib)r tfiis' attantten^> fisllMI 
fei^ ages^ thty ba¥e impr<xKwddicr4>o«i0s^beytoiril^ 
wilat nature identf w^duld Iiav« done jn liMribpaft 
l^H^oiittable climate*^ We mtiy ttife «oiidi»4P' 
4lM warm ^mat^^adier thin celdy> boe aba«^ 

ti li0ilWK<>tot% i^rjMiaitJ JiiMtt^;aggi^bcMtg 

Digitized by Google" 

4o «W(^wil^ tb^optthaa force i^Qh^&i&twPig 

bones, h^H^i^ muTclesy .mo«« £ria thao 
|i|#fe,>af 9Mr 54u9^e»f ' that ,. althougjb^. heat 
j^gff^ {ijetler. thm cold with, tbofe »)iaiiib> yit 
inrcefivehf^ dp^. not agree with tbcHti. aod 
biUyj ^ <l^ ha^^ ^^^ ^fyofitioa depend 
pbnfAi eotii^Ij^ on the chimSe^ foody cam^ 

; IiiiBi9irfi%^ Acabia,* and many .other «parii'of 
Ibq^ifs^ it. is not Gaftoaparjr ta £0d horie% 
iltboiigh^ ib ^tmerala {muSUceia-Eun^ and 
QUna^^ This, op^atbiv dqpriv^s -tbem cf 
smicb of their ftmigth^ oourag^s- ^ firf) but 
jidsidaDrttbeni ^gesidey^quiieiy and docije* The 
^yJeatmm)i(XfGskimib^Ai^ opemtioor^aits 
^pfkd^MtimOmii^ gve^t* Wl^ ^ c^ beiog 
«|iM% ]Murt(|d^ WIOi nsi^a to. c^ thejr 
^Cjfttffe^t atftcam iii.diAsceAt<ov^ in 
imMn^ipf FfanqC'dieygddJMr^es^tiv^^ 

aAw i% 4iot t^ gejd thsm^talltwa^ (hxee 
ynarsi ^becsufiS) ianotdoiiigi^ii^tbati^,tbcQr 
fntUYt nm^ qf their. ou^idilie quaiitt^. 
lUqiftifS lb»t^:ineverlo^^iniUc^teettijif 


.d'by Google 

theai. But this i» not a faDrf and it is proi^ 
babic tkatcheaadefics gnoamded thb&i^fitioit 
nitiely on' tbie analogy it bears to the fatting 
c^ (he horns of the Aag, geat^-ieOr ^icfay^fai 
lealiiy) never ML aS aftsr cidlcation. The 
geldings it is tme, can never engendefy but 
we have Come tiiAeseseandpiisg of dieir< being 
able to copulate^ . r 

Horfes of 9i\ ooloars (bed ^ir coats, like 
moft animals covered wkhhaiis -once a^year^ 
ufually in the fpring, though fometiBies^ in m^ 
tuomi as they ace then weaker tll^an*^ odher 
times, they (bould have more care, and be moiie 
plentifully fed* There are aUb, hories which 
Ibed their hoo&j this ufiially happens ia humid 
mariby countries, (itch as Holland.. 

Qelding.s ^tnd ; m^es neigh , lefii - £req^ca% 
than hqr^* Their ieoices ^c Dot'i».flfQag9 
but mMoh :more fluiU*. In aU hosibs' we.may 
diftingiifiib five kinds ;of neighing, felatiV&Aj(a 
difFeren|l;j;^aiBon$i in the neigh,o£)ay/tbe>(M«e: 
begins and ends with Oiaip. tones.f tbe^jhorfef 
kicks up at the iame time, ^ut without; attempts 
ing to ftriJ^e. In the neigh; of jdefir^ ^dhecbee 
of love or attaichment, the horie d^a AOt kiok^ 
and. the vpice is dcagge^ljto. a gf eat. lengthy anA 
ends ^ith a deep ibun^ , Thq ^i^igti of '^^fg^ 
during wbich tb^^orft J^cj;^ Vii^l^Jh^'W^ 


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ilb fe^: is : ihoit. and ikafpi diat of ftar^ 
d^Hng imhMbJ]ir.kicics:aMb^ i&fi^aredy longer 

pax(^4ad foemstAs^f it'Came fisomche miArite 

tnly. This neigh is fooiething like- the ftMr^ 

ing qf-'a ^&ii. Tlntef paiii is mocr like 

gi3DaRii^<ar brettittng with •opprefltefiy than of 

neighing n it is. in:a gratfe :tQnd of> voice, and 

Mows^ihft:allmiatifte'«r r^initioiiii It has 

.^Ub^^ Jteea-^Bemadtchi) tfaitriMi^ iribich iieigb - 

£pe^piei]df.from joy^ or defifB> are die.4ieft toid 

moA'gdtotfond. V Horfes^ in general,* have -tho 

VMeiOfonger, ihani i»nr and gddii^ ; from 

thftttidytfaa Einl^;har.tha.Toi«f ^ongerthah 

dte fanak^ At^wd- j'teEiiSi: otltvro.^rears and a 

hal^.whichJs the iige/of- imbe«t)^-tfa)s vtiipeo€ 

maka^ qind female,, ar m inanl&i^. and: odito 

aiHml%beG<mea^miieh m^v^tttG^mi de^. 

. s^ Whtt^i^ ^iMHTfe^ is impaffibnedrwHh ^i^r h« 

flmmbia^ts^aniddeemsttolan^ hteifteW^t 

t^xau aUbr- vt^feen-^eia- suigrj^ and wottU bte;. 

H)»'femetitilea/|mta out^s tD£qg^ to Bcfc, butt 

l^^ifrsquentfy than the ox^ who^ t|cilw{lii« 

flwdmg, is tefs feafiUe to carefibs^ The 

hciAri remembecs ^ treatasent' nhu^ it>ng!sr^ 


tttiak^pirit^ atei^&ra^ inAtteo hi«k<ix> nliikeL. 

evei|)r fiefibi%' hit wfaeit i» indsr mtere* is ^^ 


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i66 ' »b0FFok'$ 

pe£bd«from him ^han be is able to f^omn he 
grows angry, and will not endoavour at aU^i 
inftead'Of whicby the ox, wh(^ is flpw^-and id)e> 
feldom exerts his utaioftyiaad> is notithe»^o£e 
eafdydejc^d* - --' 

The 4ioHe fleeps fiiucb leTs ythfltn 4iian> for 
when he is in . heakh. he does 'liot reft more 
than two or three ^houfs- togedior ;? be then 
gets up to eat; , Wh«n^.hei.h2»beefi^muoh£3i« 
tigued h&Hes down afisooodtine^ after. having 
ca^l but in di^ wfaott. Im* ims mfi^AeGgh^a^om 
dian three- or f<mr\ hoars -kr. the t^iraaty^iotu^ 
There are even fomefhortibs :who>:ncir4sr^Ue 
down, but ileep ftfuidiiig>jwinch is^fimeMes 
the cafe even with' dio& who tfoire diMra^r :& 
hasalfe been rcnmked, 4:hat 'geidings^'ileep 
ofteaer and longer than borfes* ' ' -''' ''<'* 

Qtaadruped3» do not att drihl!. far jAMr^.faitfe 
manner, though they^ all eqtiall)9^%edroo 
ftek n^fth diei faead^for ^ lifqunr^ ^whichobey 
casmotgetany odiorwa^ excefitUigiche txmfeey^ 
maea^ and finoe others^ that havehs^tib) had 
confeqiKttidy ifarink; Uke: men, what a Y^elfebft 
girrai to them which tlhey can:hoUb; foftiR^r 
oaery-it tO' thei^ ttmrths, incUidfig:lfae^ bead^ 
thmwiiig down^'fheii]qudr^:and'6indlowijig;-ft 
b^ the AmgU meA<m tqf tdegltfti&dis^ - iMm 
ufiudiy' drinfci titdie toituunoer^ bec^iife ^is 


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moft coftvaftieflt^ but he* can drinlc manydther . 
wdys, by t^JfltraSing th€f lips to draw in the 
liquor, or dipping the nofe and ttiQUth deep 
enoiigh \ntd il ferthe' tongue to be environed 
therewith,* and then perform the motions ne-* 
eeflary for iWallowiiig ; he ci^s alfi> iake in- » 
fluid by the jipsakme; andjlaft);^, though ivridi 
trioii^ difficulty, ftre^h out the tdngite, ml, 
fofmlng a kind* of Kttte cup, carry a ftnaU 
i}aaMty of ^water kieo tbe mimth* ' > Moft <|aa4 
dniped^ 001^ alfe drink itr fevera} diSbrenC 
vnxf^ i boty like men, 'they ^chufe' that^ ^vhkh 
fe naoft omrenient:^ The dog,'whofe fAouth 
b ^tsf large, and th& tongue kfig and thiA) 
drinks by lap{iingy or lickings forisoing with the 
ixmgue aJdnd^of citp.orifcoQ!^ iHijiic^bffils e^di 
time with a tolerable quaiUity cpf UqttQr,?and fo 
'fetiafieft^isihtifft; and diis modebftprefisrl to 
that of wetting: An nofe. Theborf<^ m>^ 
contrtfy) - wbofe mouth ts^ finally:, and'/whefe 
tsongne-istoolbortandttuck to form: a^frdop^ 
and who dways drinks wth^^oaoreiatKidiC}^ than 
be'eal9y dips, the moutb. and nofe quidcily.aRd 
dneply into the walser, which be liwaHovi^ 
largely, by the fimpje motion of deghit^ion^ 
but tiiiarioroes. hifi\ ito iddnk wtdunit fttdiiitg 
iiis..bre^) . .mibeteas the dog hfeatbesr^iiit bis 
^oaft iidMto ji^4 ji9 -di^tog' :}iuti^ idiettforA 


d by Google 

I6& - •U»rDN*8 

flunild im fttffered to takeTevel-sybdjranghts^ efyc^ 
ckUly after tfHnning;' when refpiiraciein- i^ jbert 
andiquTck^ th^y fliQuld ^t be fuffited-Co/diink 
tbewatei) tda cfAiy hccnvifc ^sA, indjcpendeut 
e( the clnlici -whiek ^oU watfer SneqUe^f oc-* 
eaiions^ it ficnefKmes bni^ oh.itieiihn; snd 
tffiim IkyKdi&faiiJoBjittfm (^ adilbf^ calteditte 
glanders^' <the wabOsfwrti^Ah of tfl^tftafa^t^ 
triiich Ak'SfcxA^of adiniali arib fiibjeA^; fitf it 
is IcROwn,! that .tkeieat JDf ;tKe*^aiidds is m.the 
pititary. meaibv^hcv aail that it is oonfeqis^iiiif a 
real «cld, i^ch'oatifeBan'iiifiaimnatieri ia tint 
meiAbirane. 'Tm^^^n, who give ckTb detail 
of the maladies of jicirftr iti ivhorr^cKmatesy as 
in Ambia, Peffia^ranii'Biaibary, dorniot fay that 
tlieghndei« arec^' fi«l{i]|tip dieteiisr m cold 
climaftQ and it is :£ar this tcatbu -die can<* 
J4^6hi#e ^s»tre$, diat :'this : malady is .boea^ 
iimed by die tddnitfs of. the watery be* 
caufe/the animajis af^a dUiged t^ k«ep.tiic>:iio£e 
and^noftriis a> coiifidar^B^: time vimder water 
^idi'woyld be prevmitedl^ never giving it to 
them cold, «nd- by 'dwayi- ^ipii% the . noflriift 
aftiN' ihoy have drank. ' ASks wbo fiac^ cold 
morethim hMfea^r and* ^o leftaable them & 
ftrdngly iivtbe iM^x\i>r^hniAuvcy areiiot (o fiib- 
je^' to the ^tadfters,' which oiay poffihly be 
owing to their drinkijig in- a diifinent manner 


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HATiniAtlWTOItY. 169 

ihiai hotfes; fa^^ ioftead o^ Hftiag in the 
month and opk deeply into. tte water, they, 
faucdy touch ^ with dieir li^« 

I iball not ipeafc.of the other difea&s of 
bQife$t it would, ^tn ^joiit Natural Hi&orj too 
omch to j<w^ |o the biftDry iof on anitn^ chat 
of its dUbiidersi nevertbielefsy I omnot leave 
the hiilory of |be horfe without regrettiftg diat 
the healA of ^is ufeful animal jbojuld . havi? 
been hitherto ahandotied to the care, and too« 
freqiiendy abford pc^Qe> of ignorant peoj^. 
The branch of. phytic, which the ancients 
called Veterinaria Medicinaf is at prefent . 
fqarcely known but by nan^ I aih perfuaded, 
that if fome phyficiatijt ifoujd turn bis views 
dtis way, and njake ^is ftud^ his principal 
objei£t, he would fo0n find it anftvfr his par* 
pofe, both with td^e& to r^utodofi and profit^ 
toftead of degrading himfelf he Would render 
his name ilhiftrioua, and this brancli of pbyfie 
wou^ not be fo cpnje^ral juid dtfficuit as tiie 
other. The diet^ niaiiners,' and infiuence of 
fentiaient] and all other caufes of dHbrder^, 
being nuMre figiple in animads ^an ia.mao, the 
difeaies muft be lefs cpnipljcated, and cdnfe-* 
quently' more eafity inveftigated, and treated 

' widi fucceJTs, without mefitioning the advan* 
tages that would be deriv^ froih the entire 
vot..v. Q^ liberty 

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17^ mnttWs 

remedies, and to be abk to^dtftHveLiniiliBiil 
feauTy or reproMBh toft, gran eMCQt i^^Nviv:'* 


ARABIA, it. ha§ 2keaij .bjtexi oh^egiff^ 
appeafSftobethe Qfigin^l dua^e. <rf^ ^^.|)M^ 
stni from t^ couqtrj b^u»g fe diry.and >K)9}Eb 
aij9ilite ipai^ cuftoms that , caniiQ^ lii^ fs^Q^ 
ii^.^l^e .iioKtbci;a r«giM^ at )ca& ^fitiH^ff;/^ 
■kQ. Ia different coui&tries ^)^.no[t Qnljjji)^ 
cmp different fi^od, Jwt^ffi?, ajij?,di%5^ 
snafi^ge^ In Arabia^af^d^af^Q^ttiffyFi^^f^i^^ 
evexj are alloiived herbage or. gr^i^^bi^^pfe 
grin^Rsdlaf.jk^ptMpoii da»a ^,'C^'»«i#^ 
whifkiis gjvqn, t^i?l,flWWg Mfd .j^ifpif^i 
they wjjijl^ f^ j^fe^tpf #.J*f^^<S^^ 
\ . yeart 

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NATURAL imrORY. tjl 

oMttbtftly iblbw. 

/ lA l^evfiai th«^ af« s^fiwfs 4Mpit mthe open 
tify being ibaietimes eoi^ervd ^ith cl(Mhes.40 
^eRrW^tfHeih O'onl'^Ale 'itKfctndiiey .«f • iht 
weather. TIk wfaole troop aie«icd«i a rope, 
vriiich IB faftenediittetob end to iron rods fijoe4 
in tbe ^iouiimI;. ihejr liaire alTo ropes tied to 
their hiodiegs^-aodia&eaQd to pegs ipitbekr 
bonU tins latter tenimd is to prev^ot item 
&K»Uidoijqg Ally uijiirjr to <iidh odKr; butnot^ 
wtfhlhnjJHig both Aflennigs, they fiand per- 
bSdf Jt eaTe* 8«4 batte Aiff dent room to lie 
49WII. TheJ^diNasn^iiie^ofttotbiiigliot 
fimdordrytflttft ftr'j^ner} theAnbiani«id 
Mc^uls liner diei( hoilbsriinib fthek oimdvOg 
daoiti» a poikler. It is^ the ciftom ifi iImIo 
i^imtii#« ^ot to let jtbe^; boffes eaft {hmi rim 
ffbtiod, tr'fMHb/hu(^t^c<in|bttlyp^^ tbdt 
bar% and cut'Atsuvf into!? ^gf» ««rftlcKinre tied 
mm4 their necks, - Iia,%^ thejr ^oied tlMf 
graft ^md greu barkf» hut ^sM^ i$ ^tlcien tliat 
thejr fliooldnot have too imsdn* wpona fy^po^ 
fitioft they wouH <bon llaqome ftt and ufefefii. 
They never ufe hridkt oi^ 0mups, hut tefdy 
manage their horfes wi A a tfinglid filaffle ; whipg 
aod ^urs ztc aHb feMom onplpyed, and one 
ortwoftrokeaofthefemiiJr isiiiBcicttt at all 
0.2 ^mes 

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I7» '•^:.imwm%v: 

Perfia are very taU, ftrongt/ ai^;ibpietm«is 
hMf^^aqdi firottk cjb«t)g;fo ^o^ die bef of 

ii9Cft ca ther^meiide, iriuebMiclIss; ^rt^^ . 
adopt da tafy.pabCi^ ^y^oiJKt their looflr^ 

witb^i^fiore cflfev ;- ? -,--., .1 i- vi- v.. j.!'> 
J :jHQde% Jhoifforer, teecdk^^^itett iUi^(Mr«s 
vmrm c^Mttiies^ if "riie^^flane fMidfuigif. £>eib- 
narli;;, Sweden^' aai Potan^ it ii !ireU?]w«wa» 
produce fine and betu^Ad fal^fea^ Ktbofer la 
lc^9Xi^iy9bfiiK^t6^i»^i!^vt9 and wbi^ 
llM9fitquendy bave notfm^bvt (^j^d^^bfto 
fiibf^ i^iH tbcHi^ fcuJJf.- ^r«r ftroipg; jsa4 
viSwrous* In ibis Ifland ^ ft«p|ier4»:,«M 
dieir flotks on bofftbacfe^^for dii^ m^ both 
rlQQty, and tbdr keep is not metti^irvi^^y 
t9cpe»ce» Wbcm not ^miiI^ tbcy areijtiurned 
1Mb iii«» tiiQ moiifitQiiis- wbiere d)6y fooiirbf 
come nilMs^ if ihar o]g^rs^ ivatmnheii^ ihey 
ale httiHed in troops^ and ^^laigbt fwi^ ropqf) 
vrfucb istboaghtneceflaeyMi^n d^^niueshaye 
fi^aled, die owners- <^ v^H^b puta^mrk ,i^ti 
ti^^ibalsy aod xtben t»m tkooi^ into tbe hiq^a- 
taina ag^ for |he fpace rpf Are* yea^s. aad 
it is gemiaUy rcsnaiKbed that thofe left m Ait 
V - i manner, 

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^ NATOill^l'lilSTOItY. 173 

'^ Thfc K6nrtghtt liortter^olWS aJ^itB«ift*tjr 

Mtt4>ti^'> "dl^Tftsibghdt i(arts\tif ^,laifd' flbA^nd 

jki^^md^ t(id[r''MHkld ^ovidftpai&ft- «i^. 
^^ tftifr fciali^ ^ncrdJf ytM^wi lanthia black 
ihnpe along their backs. Thej'iwc frqquchtly 
"afiljftdledfbytht'rt^^atid i£'ift ftrifioariis^pens 
««ip£S antot)|[thefiiiare^ and fba]r%><wiieQiMrdo- 

Wln^V^a^d h^ thb fegacity to attsurk with' h^ 
«^^^f«^ in yh\ch cafe he •aimioA always '& 
<«>fftt^i¥br,* But if We e^rer trdte^ wWr Wftd 
Ifgs S»^li^^ritonttart!5y nAdufcd^ '^^' h^t^iik 
te^ d^^lk^g ^pon Ills baok, wJiich4i6 mht 
4W<sliTftiI5^*hasSvoiried[hknt6deithJi »^*?^ 
x*ri5i^.t(f'©tdtshid hwfes are*alfofmiJlr^fl4iC'5| 
fe^fpW*t^"gia^?aHeflBXrfey^ th«;th'« neawT^Wft 
nppm^'tiy p6tethe'mmfeditftimitfv(f'aw tli'eidi 
Sftlkrfsi-^'Tni^fer c# tte W«ft NdWBmidraw 
fl«StTaii9»«idfe j-'flte'tfjl^f |^nr ot ' theliPltffesJit 
fcH^,<Jiif*^ti* uni^ feSrt^ ftrid wWioai 4itti1'r 
(hey^ar^i'g&iftt^alty ifeif'teiftpemti^'fitt*i.fdoi^ 
a«<}tmrt»«<«flgl4^^ifoUrttafns Wifti *€^ 
ftesdMe^'torpiJ-fl^efto^. --iThe^psftte^geiof 
m e6\Myi^ ai^eli^vHiHt' thi»' hd1«^ are 
' * 0,3 always 

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174 WETM*.W s 

cver^thejr fooit<iDii$ if- -Ats^ sm .tadBcirtD Stotk^ 

ii oitried ts^^dbe Nfii-dland 3ie tbotj T«c9vi3r$;.^ > i^ 
. The JapflMBde hQt68'ai^iifaiaH9<4vdaiiei^ad<b 
tiKiTe ofvOkiiBf altboii^ M«4xii)i^e^ <^ 

frcm fiheniioimtniotts parts 4>f Aofi^ Odumrtt^j 
Tfaofe of Tonqoifv aicootding'to M« RhcM^ 
aie;firiongf of a tolerA^e fire^^aul' very e^ty 
BumaMcL . ' ••' ^^ 

Hc»tfe% as before Femarked, there is efe/y 
reaioD tx> believe were unknown in AaM^tft 
oa its iirft difcovery, but v^on beifi^f dtUlfr 
ported, thither they multiplied in^ a moft fufw 
prifit^ onacsier, efptciallyui ChSi) which^ ad 
M« Frest^.resnarks^ia tfae.more ftifprifiog} 
fuiGe the Indiims lulled maoy to cat^ and nma^ 
bers. through fatigue and frotn want of pii^ee 
cafC.. In the Phillipsne Iflaodsalfo hpriea 
that were taken^ from Europe increafed in aa 
aAoQiflmg manner ki^vei^ji (hort tBtie*< - 'i 
, Horfea are fofieredtoliKeoRldtfi die Ukraine^ 
anu>ng die Coflacks;^ on thBirivncJDon^ here 
timy go in troops of four or. fivciJiundredto- 
gether^ fddcMOd aitencfed.with mxiDe than one or 
two meo^n lnorfeback'; itiey^JBtiveieUom any 
flielter w)ien.:tbe ground, is jeveaicoveped.VQdi 


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KATuatAAiHitfroRr* fjs 

Ijim^ jifbiotr tjlKjDibfsq^c laogyinMh t&eir(4Wt 

Yi^b^jLwinfiefSfBad tbca\bfUIi% afcvrtditjE9, 

iiopi fttibis piea&if e. : He eimos} alfo to %sre a 
f^;)g»}d&:c<tntnuid^ and vogujAtcf) Iheie move^ 
ifmH^ vhen.Art^$;k^d;igr volifies or;r0bbsrs4 
in this Atuation he aiTumes entirely tbeibufiads 
^iA^cgoiom^ins^.ii&i^i «nd .1$. bii%. en- 
gig^/iiuYing jtha whde (ime> ia tcaverfixtg 
xntmi ib^ troops^ and if he percelvH zny oqc 
of'.'lth^kt places he puihes^ tbein witk/hi« 
ftoMUef^ apd a&ually coo^Is ibem to reiitme 
ibcut'ibitiom . .Without bmug arranged by meti 
they xnaFch in. peifeft cerder, and pafiure in 
pei;&^ files or brigades^ without evei: sdjong 
or fepiaracingt Qotwithftapding-thdy are, at pcr« 
ftAlibesfty^ and itridiout the ifmaUeft Montreal. 
It is no k(s,faigal^>.tbat^ieir. chief gebcrs^y 
l^saintaiei^ his ^tuadoafor four or five jextSj <ao]isr:di£bdveiA thAie^iytaipteins.of 
inai&yity dian ibme one. will oooid out of the 
hocd.aad'.^ack. Jiim;-. if he conquers he con« 
t^naes-the catxamal^ bat if iiabdued be is 
toocd to fidl-inoo^thQ \nui|$, a'tid the vidor 


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, <rherfcorfes ffi Firiand^iii'ifoiia^ thid fiiaw 

^ ^ipoti tNt fekrtiging to aH€*hfer«4)DfS' fli^u^ 
^oihifrg;j m this ftiinlicf ' ftey/tdftfiil§e ^W 
^fee wfelte thfere temains iA/ paftMi^j^feft d^ 
itftft^bttbmW^ fca«?e ttey' a!i Ylifefbh^'^ffqRit 

cbri^afcd wiA'fi> Ytjuch oVd^*f-SinH"fcgaKft^ 
dfci fte bwrtcis knovjr exafity '^Ke're i6 *Sfi* 
thSrvhoffe^ t<4xfcri ftey-Mve'otcafiorf fBr ffierS^ 

the f^t^tc&'itttf^ffetd'vvi^ A'^^ r^him 

feScK bf ^emClVcs,^ »sM ' kgifii'' J«i «i^ bW 
tr6b^: ' th'thr^triartrirf the]^^rSn3ITn'iffl^^ 
Ac hicmth' ^'September, Si^eti ' ififi apffroach 

goiarty^prbceeds t6 3Bfe'-'wh'*iB*t, ^ At iftis 


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fatigue they undergo in the winter, togfUlxsr 
m^ ^ £gnaiksihav^aoct ssl proytfioha^ f ery 

fimi|iaf^j^ti9Aer.j|0rfe df^othgndfa. ^ 
-4^/<te.i|ijlBd,^.^-H9k^ <ki9re.'iai;e .wild 

i^f3ipi^,-a^ 10^ auFwl bemg4afc«n,. ^ foAeu 
le^p^ from vecy.: hi^ precipices inta ttie .fta* 
In Ifaeriirighb^uriiood o(lAiff9$ thfrfnnt Ibino 

a^ >3ctrQmciy ^mclttftrkMi^.- Thi ho^rfiss. in 
^* Qmiiiagiy^^re^ ar^ntdcBe Xiau^ sm^.^oug^ 
s»;vt]^ bf %sitt ^e dAugh( iMridir4%)pe» 4)^ 
feldom '6ec^n^ dk)cile| but g^mer^y :r^i9BiA 
ttfddls^ and almoft uninanagestble. ^Ifi.Vii:* 
gima tjiei^e ave aHb horfi^y of dqfaefttc ^ig^iy 
yet, fcom* feeding in the woodi^ are V;wy fc-s^ 
fiDciouSy and shard (a l^e ^en^ ai^d i/irfaen 
caught they remain ^xcee^iiigly ftubbqrJ?« . 

In fiwue |«rts of Tar-tary, thtgr midc^ ufe of 
large, birds of prey to hunt their /wUd hocies ) 
they ^e. taught 'to feise him by the neck or 
head^updn which he btsoff wlth^,the.greateft 
fpeed^ and' continues, running untU be, is quito 
exhaufled, without ^4>eiiigr able to. es^n^to 


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' 1^ BDtFOil% ' ' 

bimfeif hem iiU ionmatoti^ . The^nriM liqrite 
of the Mongotts, and/ K«fc» 'T^tai^ <ai« ^ 
fivift ifhac diey ofiien '£fiiqie^Ae:umiiiw,io&ltl# 
Booft expert tn»icrs;^ithey ^i m i i jiji j ipi^p iie» 
hrgf{ larnikiEfsttogcdKe^aiidaf twttfDantfto^ 
near th^y .mH <Qncoiind^thicm«)-^kHi|[d& {dMfdm: 
ftaoriy take to fi^^ . TkertAm^^efart^Jutu^ 
ber of wild Horfes in Congo; tfacgr^iltiiMtlJuiK 
ken jst tbe Cape of Good Hope, hut the' iow 
kaUtants prfifexring diofc fr^m f criia tb^ on 
firarcdf ever .canght. .J 

: Ifi ihe cadffttrt of lfafe:i«K)kI'BttQ»ckkl^ 
^ fcem Ae obfervatioQs of liocfe-Jbiceden 
k yam 4ihe general. «eceii^^,opiiMi% itec the: 
a»b Ind more sJifiiience ttpon.lhe o&priag 
itMfk the^flnle^ and L thm ftegeftod Am 
aeafiMft idkich^mdisfod jcno ate vier; 4:)ubi^ 
bitf jeafrriinecos aod-ipMerAaMlis .faar^ ifitim 
Cowrifltod BM^ thu dwr Aift 4«e& mt ^^aly lioki 
good inMi dret^otea to 4K>ff^ 1^ 
hiifliiaQ UMBe^^asid 4nv0ver]r ^cciesEof ^inmid% 
that tbe^male hae ii«fi«iM}F {»o»e jnlWio^tCi^' 
^ .SKeeyior foim cf the yooti^ tthao.^i^ 1c^^ 
aude> asid that kein 4$& ki^ho^jie^f <the <aee.< 
Nor iioe9^j(be ireawMc I have niad^* tet Hie' 
fomks (Mofticete ttK^-iuu^of the ^ie^ ttr* 
the kaft •<K)9d?oyert •ii»s> poficieib ^ca^ *Aae 
camuat be AtttHded fttfiter tfattti'her pdBkSiAg 


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Tbi§; pesfj^. fiioililsude ia ,<x>»liQf n^tj^ of tiM 
^$n9.I^i3g|^ ftopiacb^ lot^ftiiMl €e«dui% fatafrt^ 

b^oc^.g^ ctl^ v^yi^ Jh^t^ fe^iani die cntimr 
(](^^^ . fi|gpa{$s this G|iinj]9«» t We nosiji 
4^#^i^(^'^ flight ^ewnsesy ivhick ^te ' 
fou9d.j3#ci^6|i :tiie£^two aiaumisy. to tbe io^* 
fluency of tb^ qUn^»C« aad hfs^ .and to ihe 
for^ti^^l^ (^c^i^ji -of .many gjtneratbsai o£ 


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l8o BV»FOM'« 

jatiiigi hxn^ at hft^ p f o Aic cd a nor aad fixti 
fpecies ; er^ rather a fucocfioa of individitala 
alike^ ail ridaied in ibe faoK t n aa a cr» fiifli* 
ctendy differing frcNO a korfe^ to be looloeJ 
upon as anodier l{wck$. Wlnt ifipeflr* ao 
fimEour diis idea is, tet hprles vaiy awdi aiQis 
than afies in tbnr colour; thej hate code* 
quently been lot^jer doaieftic, foice all do* 
meftic animals vary much mare in thdr 
colour than wild ones of die finae fpecies. 
The grealter number of wild hories, of wluch 
travellers fpeak, are iinall, aad bzv^ like the 
aft, grey hair and die tail naked and frizzled at 
the end: There are aUb fome wild horfes, and 
even domeftic ones, which have a black ftripe 
on the back, and other marks, wbkh nwiy 
refemble bodi wild and domeftle afis. 

Again, if weceniider the difference of the 
temperament^ di^Kifiddn, and manners; in a 
word, the organization of thefe two ammals, 
and, above all, the impofibUity of mi»ng the 
breed, (b as to make one common ^leciesi or 
even an intermediate ipecies which may be re- 
newed ;. it am>ears a better iburnkd opinion to 
think that thefe animals are of a fpecies equally 
ancient, and originally as eflfendnlly different as 
they are at prefent The afs difiers materially 
from die horfe in die finalliieft cf die fizct 


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MATV»AliJ»;?TORV. ?8l 

Viq|4M^-ll£jtb^J)e^ l?Og|b of the c^r?^ hv^ 
1Mb. eL&eiki% PfMi^^Ai #/:?jt r^^l?^*? 

4ii&> liwfiit ^. AOn^s. f^m? . qngif)^}^ from 
^£ini«.|bpdp.?: aire, 4lV^ -V-tfi^ffw?. %pily» 
•or not ? JMod Ijay* 1^31 npt^^jyayv, be^n,,diiF«r 
;icnt amtQuUi • ..'T' ;, . .... 
]■ ;.TAis^g|pi«ftip||of.wbig]^ pllAV)fPJ>^^s will fiad 
itke^^geaqr^tt^s dificuItjzirr^Wt i;oo&quence^, 
4«nd. which yi^ Ixpat of .in ^xSax^mkkf «l>ec^uie 

-^OMdUbf .cMititfe, UDde^' J^.ntiw ^iot, of .view. 

If from- the tnip[¥^e yariety q( apUoated brings 

^whidi^peoj^ tbe^niv.^9 M^.^fenTefAa fiiima], 

^or evpi the iwly. jrf pa% rtot^iCerye^a^ ^./w«l^ 

W2g^ <f com^Ubn^ the .otb^r oigani^ed brings, 
W^ fludlivid thai: eadirpdObf^s ^aa indep^i^dent 
cx(^Bce> aruih^hat all ^ary, .by.difiirent gijida- 
tioaS) ^dmoft.ip.iji^Aityi Afi^pxi&s alfo, at 

^tfaeffanle tiipe^ ». primitive suid^jgeiierjil defign, 
which we may rtrace yery- for, ,s^iid jj)f fVs^bich 

,tiie'|(hrdatioiis .are. much flower rihi|p Ithofe pf 
the fon») tiHi/<;t^rrap{K(reiit nlations, for, 
"fpi^y^ ti' ' ' without 

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itl BtlFFON'S 

Uritiiout mentioning the organs of dtgeftiofl, 
circuladbk), and generation, ^hich appemin - 
to all animals, and ivithout which they could 
neither fubfift nor reproduce, there is even ia 
the parts which contribute moft to the variety 
of the exterior form a prodigious refemblance, 
which Bcceffarily calls to our minds an origind 
defign, upon which all feem to have been pro* 
je£bed and executed. The body of a horfe, 
for example, which, by a fingle glanfce of the 
eye, appears fo different from the body of a 
man, when it is compared part by part, inftead 
of furprifing by the difference, only aftonifhes 
1)y the Angular and almoft perfect refemblance. 
%n hStj take the ikeleton of a man, bend 
downwards the bones of the pelvis, (horten 
thofe of the thighs, legs, and arms, lengthen 
diofe of the feet and liands, join the phalangeSf 
lengthen the jaws, by ^ortening the frontal 
tone, and extend die <pine of the back, diis 
ikeleton would ceafe to repr^fent the remains 
of a human figure, and would be the (keleton 
of a horfej for it is eafy to tuppofe, that in 
lengthening the fpine of the back and jaws we 
augment, at the fame time, the number of the 
yertebres, ribs, and teeth; and it is only hy the 
,liumber of thofe bones, which may be .looked 
iipon as acceflbry, and, by the prolongajtion> 


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ihc fhortening, or jun£lion> of the others, that 
die (keleton of a horie differs from that of the 
human, body. We fee in the defcription of 
the horfe thefe fa<£ts too well eftabliihed to 
doubt s but, to follow thefe relations fiill farther^ 
let us coniider feparately fome ef&ntial parts of 
the ftruiSlures for example, we find ribs in all 
quadrupeds, in birds, and in (ifh ; and we find 
the veftiges even in the ihell of the turtle* 
Let us alio confider, that the foot of a horfe^ 
fo difierent in appearance from the hand of a 
man, is, notwithftanding^ compofed of the fame 
bodes> and that we have> at jhc extremi^ of 
each of our fingers, the fame little bone re« 
iembling a horfe-fhoe» which temunates tht 
foot of tKat animak From this we may judge 
if this hidden refemblance is not more marveU 
lous than the apparent differences ; if this con^ 
fiant conformity and defign followed from man 
to quadrupeds, from quadrupeds to cetaceous 
animals, from cetaceous animals to birds, from 
birds to reptiles, from reptiles to fifh, &c« in 
which the efTential parts, as the heart, inteflines, 
(pine, fenfes, &c. are always found, does not 
imply, that, in creating animals the Supreme 
Being has followed but one idea, and varied 
it, at the fame time, in every pofEble manner, 
R a ^ that 

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184 wxrroM*f • 

that m^ may equally admire the magnificence, 
execution, and fimplicityof the defign. 

In this point of view^ not only ther afe and- 
Borie, but man, moidd^s, quadrupeds-, and alf 
ammsds, may be looked upon ar -making but 
one family J but ought we, therefore, to con- 
clude, that in this great and numerous &mily, 
which the Almighty has conceived tod created* 
from nothing, diere are (mailer' families pro^'; 
)e£ted by nature, and- produced* by time? fonw 
df which ^rtr compofctf only of two individuals,- 
as ththorfe and: the afs-j othfers of fivcral m- 
dividuds, as the wtazei,^ the pole-cat^ the 
ferfet, &t. and* alfo that in' vegetables there ar^^ 
AmiUes of ten, twenty,' thirty pl^ts, &c. I? 
lihefdfainiltes'exifted, in'-feit, they could oid/ 
Be fornied by the mixfure, the &<:b6ffivd varia- 
tion, and the degenation of the original fpeciesi 
^d, if we admiti for once, that there' aW h^' 
ihilies in plahts and animals, that the a(s is' of 
the family of the horfe, and that he Only differs' 
bec^ufe he has degenerated; we may fey, with' 
as much propriety, that the monkey belongs la 
the family rf man, and he is a man degenerated jf 
that man and the monkey had true one <com!-' 
mon Origin, likevthe horfe' and afsj tiiat eacif 
femily, •as'well'in animals as* i^r'-Ti%etabIes^ 
conie from the femenorrgin^ aad even that all 

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animals are come from one fpecies, which, in 
the fucceffion of time, by improring and de- 
generating, has produced all the races of ani* 
mals which now exift* 

The naturalifts, who have fo eafily eftabliihed 
families and vegetables,, do not ieem to have 
conlldered, th& w;aple extent of theie confe- 
quences, which would reduce the immediate 
produiSl of the creation, to any number of in.- 
dividuals however finally for^ if it was once 
proved, that animals and vegetables were ' 
•really divided into families^ and that there was 
a fingle inftance of one {pedes having been 
produced by the degeneration of another;, if it 
was true,, that the afs was only a horfe de- 
generated) there would, be no bounds to the 
power of nature, and, we might with equal 
leafon fuppofe, th^t from one fingle individual 
being, in the courfe of time, (he might have 
fptodaced all the organized bodies whicltare now 
^read over the univerfe.. 

But it is certain,rJ>y revelation,, that all crea^ 
Jtures have equ^ly participated in. the favours 
of creation^, that the two firft of each fpecies^ 
.were. formed by the. hands of the Creator, and 
we puglit to believe,, that they were then nearljj 
iiich as they appear at. prefcm in their defcen- 
dants» Beiidesj^ fince Nature has bc^n obferved 
: I.*.. * R J ^with* - 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

a86 mttotf^ 

with attcntToii) from tht time of Arinodc to tlte 
prefenty not a fiogle new fjpecies has beea feuiy. 
notwithftafiding the rapi^ mctioa thut drags oily 
or diflipates the parts of matter^ nbtwithftandiil^ 
the infinite munber of combifiatioiis which 
muft have been in the fpace of twenty centuritSy 
notwhhftanding the ^Ditukous coupKags (fS 
'different animals^ from which nodiingbas eves 
refultedbut vitiated aod fterife individuals^. anA 
fuch 2^ haire'noHbe^n ^fe to become a ftock 
for new genen^Jlonsl- Were the exterior and 
interior refennblance in (bme anloiais ftiU greatet 
dian they art between the hosfe and die 9&f we 
t)ught not to confound Atto aiumals, nor give 
them to one common origtni for [if they, ijs. 
fad, came from the fiune ftocky we ought 
bring them back to thetr original ftate by new 
alliances, and undo by time^ what time is abeadf 
fiippofed to have done. • •> 

We muft alfo confider^ that altfaougk nature 
proceeds by gradual,, and frequently by imper* 
teptibie degrees, the ihitdrvidsf are not always- 
the fame. Hie nu>re exalted the ifcdes the 
fewer they are. irt number, and the Ihadetf by 
which they are fcfparated, arieniore conli»cuous> 
&e fmaifer fpecies, oil the contrary, are ver]^ 
Numerous, and have more affiruty- to each 
other, fo that we are tfad mote tempted to coo- 

, fount 

(' Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ifettiij ArtfA* tagedier in dKf lame 'fimSy ; Init 
%elli6ii)d not fiNrgtt'tiuit thefe fiuniUes are our 
cwnvfori^ ^ dut we lum» made them feftbecale 
«f owr monbrie^ that if we cannot coofpahea^ 
&e real reladcMis^of all beingp, it is <Hirfelves> 
notnatme diat is ki faulty niio iaiows notdiefe 
preeended&nnlies ; and^ in £i£t> oontains onl]f 
individuals. -• ' 

' An indtvidual is a ieparate detadied beings ' 
and has^nodiifig in dbmoion with, other, beings 
ttcepting that it refianUes, or rather difitrs 
fr«m tbeffir AU fimilar individuak wiiicb exiSr 
on the earthy are confidered as compo^Qg the 
{pedes of diofe indKiriduals.' Notwidiftanding^ 
it is nei^r die number nor eolk^n of 
fimilar individuals^ which form Hie ipecies^ but 
the conftant Ibcceffion and renewing of tHefe 
individifids which conftitute them ;< ftir, a being, 
which exifted for ever Would not be a fpecies^ 
Species then is an abftrad and general term,, 
the meaning of which can oi^^ br determined 
tai- by confidmng nature in dwr- fuc^efion of 
lime^ and in the conflant deftru£tion .and re*^ 
newal of beings. It is by comparing the pre*^ 
lent ilate of nature w^ diat W th» patty and. 
a£lual individuids with fonneri AAt ba$ given 
IIS adear idea of what is called ipecies ^ for a 
tompftriiM of the Aumber or reiemblance of * 

individuals - 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

.indmduals, IS only- ah acceflbry idea, aifd fr^ 
'qitendy independent of the firft y for, the a(s 
•refembles the horfe. more than the barbet the 
greyhound, notwithftanding the* latter are but 
ene fpeeies, iince they' produce fertile indU 
yiduals, but the horfeandiafs are^ certainly of 
different fpeeies,- fitice ^ey produce together 
vicious and unfruitful individuals. 

It is thien* in Ae chara6ieriftlc di verfity of the 
^cies, that the (hades of nature are the moft 
fenfible and beft marked ; we may even fajv 
that thefe (hades between the (pecles are the moft 
equal, and leafb variable, fi»ce wq may aly^ays 
clrawa.Une of fepar^tion between two fpeeies r 
that is, between two fucceffi^ns of individuals^ 
who reproduce and pannot mix, as we may 
alfo unite into one L fpeeies two fucceflions of 
individuals whiah would reproduce by mixing* 
This is the moft fixpd point that we have in 
Natural Hiftory ; all other r^fetnblances, and 
differences that we can make in, the i^omparifon 
'0f beings^ are neither ^ft) eofjftanfo^re^j nor 
€ertain. Thefe interv^lsrare the only, lines of 
feparation that will be' fo<in4ia<th^is ^ork| we 
fliall not dividp^Qii3gS:>^iriv]fe th^, they are 
in B£t :. eaqh 4>9<^iesi ^^ (ucce^A of indU 
viduab which I'eproduCe aM cannot' mix, <will 
be con(ider^^ap^. and treatfd /efpi^ately^s 


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lAid we Aall only make ufe of fiuxuiiesylcmdni 
drders, iand clafle^ wbich are: macked out by 
Nature herfclt 

Specks^ dien, being nbtbiiig oiare dianaL 
conftant Ikcceffian of. individuajs alikct and 
IfFhich re[MX)diice, ought qplj to extend tx> am«»< 
mals and vegetables, and that it is only aa 
abttie^f the teraii, andconfounding ideas whea 
dbd-Jto {Mint but ths-di^reot kipds.of mine^ 
ndi»^ 'JWfffliouldnokthBcubqkxih.ironaaon^ 
i^itt, ^amlivad aft^n^tii^r fpesies^ .but only aa 
tW difoent' metatsr and Oioald. be diftio^ 
gttiflMd' by lines of ieparatioa difiereat .&Qjm 
tboTc made^ ufe of with sefysStto anii^ala wsi 

.: But br leturn to thadegeperattoa of b^iogl* 
and particularly to diat of ammala Let uft 
exBBiiar more neairly fljll, .the flepa of. natiir^ 
in the variety which flie ofSacstoour vtew^.^ 
anc^ as dieiuimaa fpecies is b^&^ known to us» 
let us obferve how far thele Aepi of variiitioft 
eadsnd. MeB> differ in colour fromJiIack. ta 
white, they differ alfo one half in. their.height» 
bulk, li^tnefef ftrength, Sec and above all ia 
their underflandiqg»i but this lafl: qualigr 
having noting to do wid» mattery ought not 
Mo be coAiidered bepa The others.are tfab 
tfual t«uiatioi» of natnreit pcciceodipg fronb 

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the Influence of climate and food ; but, thel^ 
differences of fize and colpur do' not prevent 
the Negro and the White, the .Laplander and; 
Patagonian, the Giant /and Dwarf, from 
mixing together, and producing fertile in«». 
dividuals ; and confequently theie men, fo dif-^ 
ferent in appearance, are all of one if>ecies>: 
fince this conftant reprodu&ioo is thatwhid^: 
conftitutes diftio^k fpecie&; Befides theffc 
general variations^ there are others m(»re ^par^i 
ticular, which are alfo perpetuated ;fuch- as! the; 
At enormous legs of the m^n who are caUed: 
ctf the race of St. Thomas, in the ifbhd of 
Ceylon; the red eyes and white hair of .d[ie: 
Dariens and Chacrelas, the fix fingers smd.toes^ 
in certam families, &c. Theie iingular vz* 
rieties are either accidental de&ults or exceHes^ 
which originating in fome individuals are pro- 
pagated from race to race^ like hereditary de** 
feds and difeafes ;; but thefe differences ihould 
not be regarded as forming feparate fpecies,. 
fittce the extraordinary races of thefe mea 
vntk large legs, or fix fingers, may mix with 
the ordinary races, and produce fertile individuals- 
The fame, thing may be faid of all other de- 
fbrmities communicated from, parents to their; 
children. Thus for the errors of Nature, andi 
the varieties. anu)ng^ men extend^/and. if there.- 
*-•- ; , ■ .arc 

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are individuals which degenerate ftill inore9 
'ihofe Individuals reproducing nothing, nei- 
dier aker the conftancy nor uniformity of 
Ae fpecies. Thus man conftitutes but one 
and the fame ipecies, and, though this fpecies 
is perhaps more numerous, inconftant and 
irregular in all its actions, yet the prodigious 
diverfity of nourifliment, dtmate, and fo many 
o&er combinations as may be fiippofed, have 
not produced beings different enough^ from 
each other to conftitiite new. fpecies, and at 
Ae ikme time ib. like ourfelves,' that we are 
not able to deny but that we are of the fame 

If the Negro and the White could not pro- 
create together, or if their bffspring remained 
unfruitful, they would be two diftinA fpecies; 
-Ae negro woifld be tonian,^what the afs is to 
the horfe ; or raflier, if the white w-s the man, 
the negro would be a diftin£l animal like the 
monkey, and we might with reafon think, that 
the white and the negro ihad not Ae fame com- 
mon origin. But this fuppofition is denied by 
Ae faft ; for fince zA varieties of men can com- 
municate together and tranfmit their kind, all 
men muff have come from the &me ftock, and 
9te of the iamc femily. ' 


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When'two Individuals of the &mt fpecies 
cannot produce together,, it is poffibtyocca^ 
'fioned by fome flight diiFerencc of teoi^ni* 
^ment) or accidential fault in the organs of ge« 
' Iteration. For t^ individuals of diftbrent 
ipcciesy to produce other individuals -iifhich do 
not rtfemUe die one or the other inxio fixed 
particuUri .and can confequendy prodiice nq« 
.thing like diemfidvefiytt^re n^eds but a cer- 
tain degree of conforniit7^-1)et^Kmi the« forms 
of dieii; bodies, and their organs of-generadpt}. 
'£ut what an^iautienre nutitbei: of combinations 
lare even mtOfCbvyy even to fuppoie^ that two 
animals, male and female, of a certain fpecies, 
.have Co much deg^entted as to form- a new 
'ipecies, and are no4onger able to produce vntft 
^y of their own kind .but themielves ! And 
ralib tofuppofe that the produ£ttoa of thefe tv9p 
^dfcgenerated animals.ihould follow. exa^Uy the 
'fiune hwa which are obferved in,tb!e procrea- 
tion of perfe£l animals^ for a degenerated. ani- 
.mal is itfelf a vitiated produ^Hon ^ and how can 
a' vitiated,' depraved origin, become a new 
.ftock, and not only pro^ce a conftant fu^- 
ceffion of beii^s, but even to produce • them 
in the fame manner, and by following the 
fame laws which reproduce-animalsi the origin ' 
(Q{ Vi^ch are pure and uncorrupted i 


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: Although we cannot deihoniftrate that the 
produ£ti6n of a new fpectes, by degeneration^ 
is a thing impoffible in nature, yet. the number 
of probabilities to the contrary render it in* 
credible, for if fome Q)ecies have been pro- 
duced by the degeneration of others, if that of 
the afs abiblately originated from; the horfe it 
can only have happened by a fucceffion of im- 
perceptible degrees^ and there muft neoeflarily 
have been a great number of intermediate 
animals, the firft of which would Imve diifered ' 
but (lightly in itsnatqre from the. horfe, and 
the latter would have .approached, by degrees 
to that of the afs. Upon the ground of thit 
fuppodtion we might alk what is become of 
thefe intermediate beings? Why do, \ye not 
fee their reprefentatives, their defcendants^ 
and why do the two extremes alone re^ 
main? > 

^ The a(s is then an afs, ind net a horfe j]e« ' 
generated^ a horfe with a naked tail. The 
afs is neither a ftrange^,- an intruder, nor a 
baftard; he has^ like all other animals, his fa* 
mity, his fpecies, and his rank;Jiis blopd is 
pure and untainted, and although his race is 
Jefs noble, yet it is equally good,^ equally an- 
cient, with that of the horfe. Why then i^ 
there fo much contempt for an animal fo good, 
VOL. y. S fo 

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194 iuTFoif'^ 

fe patUftt, f6 ftesdy) and fo ufeful i Do men 
de^xiie, even among animals^ thofe which ferve 
them bcft) and at the finalloft expence? We 
educate the horie, take care of, inftni£l^ and 
exercife him, whilft the aft is abandoned to tho 
power o( the loweft fenrant^ or the tricks of 
(Children, fo that inftead of iniproving he mnft 
lofe by his educfeition, and if be had n6t a fund 
df good qualities he would certainly lofe tfaem,. 
by the manner in which he is treated* He is- 
the fport of 'die nifties, who beat him with- 
ftaffsf abufe, overload, and mske him work be-* 
yond hfs ftrength. We do not confider that 
die afs would be in himfelf, and, widi rtfyc^ 
to us, the moft beautiful, bcft-formed, and 
moft dtftinguiflied of animals, if there were no 
horfe in the world ; he, however, holds the 
feooiid inftead of die firft rank, and it is from 
th^t only diat he appears of no value. It 
is comparifon alone degrades htm ; we look at, 
and give our opinions, not of himfelf but com* 
parativf ly with die horfe. We forget that he 
is an afs, that he has all die qualities of his 
nature, all the gifts attached to his fpecies, and 
only think of die figure and qualities of die 
^horfe^ which are wanting iii hmi) and which he 
ou^t not to havet ^^'"^"'>v 

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He is naturally a» lHimU«t patient, ^nd qtxkt^ 
86 ^ horfe is proud, ardent, and impetuoas t 
be fciffers wkh conftancy, and perlu^s with 
eoiirage, chaftifement and bif^Hira; : ht i» tHo*^ 
derate bolh as to tti« qcupllty and q«tafity cf 
his food I he is conlented wkl^ tb« hardeft and 
moA <fiiagr«6able herbs^ whiqh'lbe horfe> and 
pther afiiiiials, w31 kave wi A ditdaiii 1 ho ia 
very delicaf^ wich refpedl to bia water^ for he 
WiU drink AOae but the clearefl^ a^d from 
rivulett which he i» acquainted witb| be driiike 
ai modoriitely ^he eatiy and does not put hia 
mik in the Water tiitonk^ fear^ as S^tbe £iy^ of 
theflndi^cif hia^ara: ascarcxs ii<^ taken 10 
too^b bkxt he fikqueaily rolii on the grafc^ 
Ibiftles, aad ift Ae ikft^: Wbkaut legar^b^ 
bit kmd far lies damk ind r^ik is often at. he 
fSaiiy and Sttamf^j to leproaoh Us nmftec for 
tte little care Vo takca <j£ btlD» for he'nevef 
wailDWSi ia the mud or in the water; .he e\ren 
feirs t6 wet his feet, and wiU turn out of hia 
toad to avoid it ; his legs aielaUb drier and 
cleaner than tboTe of die hor&; ht is fulbeptihk 
of edueationy and fotai have heen feen fuffi-* 
ciently <fiicipUned £br a public Ihew* 

When young they are /prigh^y, handfome^ 

light and even graceful^ but they ibon lofe diefb 

qualivits either from age or bad treatment, and 

S 2 become 

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196 * BtFFdK*^ 

become flow, ftubborn and headftrong. The afs 
is ardent in nothing but love, or rather when 
under the influence of that paflion he is (o 
furious that nothing can retain him; he has 
bceja kn6wn to exhauft himfeU by exceflive in- 
dulgence, and die fome moments afterwards* 
As he loves with a kind of madnefs, he has 
alfo the ftrongeft attachment to his progeny. 
Pliny aflTures us, that when they feparatc the 
motherfrom her young, (he will go through 
fire to recover it. The afs is alfo ftrongly 
attached to his mafter, notwi^iftanding he is 
ufually ill-treated ; he will fcent him at a dif-^ 
tance, and diftinguiih him from all odier men. 
He alfo knows the places wliere he has lived 
iuid the ways which he lias ft^uinted. His ' 
i^yes are good, ^d fmeU acute, efpecially with 
T^ard .to females; his ears are excellent^ which 
has alfo contributed to his being numbered 
among timid animals, who it is pretended have 
all long ears, and the hearing extremely deli- 
cate. When he is overloaded, he ihews it by 
l6wering his iiead and bending down his ears ; 
when greatly abufed, he opens his mouth and 
draws back his lips in a moft di&greeable man- 
ner, which gives him an air of derifion and 
fcom. If his eyes are covered, he remains 
inotipnleis i and when he is laid down, and 


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las bead fo £xed^ that one eye refts on ,Uie 
ground and the other beiqg covered with » 
piece of wood> he will remain in that fituation 
widiouc endeavouring ,h> ^ up* He walkS|, 
trots, and gallops like the horfr, but all hie 
modans are fmaller and nuieb ilow^er. Hcf 
can however run with tolerable fwi^efs^ but 
he can hoU it oflly for $, fmtJl fpaic<, and what<» 
cver4>ace he uies> if he is hard pteiled> he i^ 
foon iktigued.. 

The boric ni^ighs, btrt the aTs brajs I which 
he does bjr a long diiagreeable and discordant cry» 
bj idtemattve difcords of ifaai^ and flat* He 
fiddom cries but when he is preffiid hj love or 
appetite,' The (he*a6 has the voice clearer 
and more ihrills thofe that are geUed,. bra/ 
very low, and though Aey feem to, make the; 
fame eiJbi^ts,. ^d the fiune motions of the throaty 
yet their cry cannot he heard very fer^ 

Of all the animals covered with hair> the 
afs is leaft fubjeA to yttmAni Which appHremily 
proceeds froiii the pecuHaor hsurdncfs 9iid dry* 
nefs of the fkin, ahd<*for.the fasie taifbn he is* 
lefe fdnftb'Ie than the kerifc to die whip, and 
ftinging of flies. 

At two years -anl a half oM the firft middle 
kicifive te^ib iail out^ and the others on each 
fide foon follow i they are renewed at the iam» 
S 3 time>^ 

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19$ Bt7FF0K*S 

time, and in the fame order as thofe of the* 
horfe. The age of the afs is alfo known by 
his teeth injthe fame manner. Fr<»n the age 
of two- years and a half, the afs is in a ftate 
to engenders the female is'ftill more early and 
quite as lascivious, fo that unle& Ihe is beaten 
to allay her ardour, fhe feldom conceives. 
The ufuat time of her being in heat is May^ 
or June ; when pregnant it foon goes offy and 
at the tenth month, milk is found in her dugs i 
fhe brings forth at the twelfth, and frequently 
there are found (bird pieces of fleih in the liquor 
of the amhois, refembling the hippomanes of a 
foal. Seven days after delivery fhe is capable 
of receiving the male, fo that wejnay &y (he 
is conftantly rearing and engendering. She 
only produces one foal, and we have fcarcely 
ever heard of her having two. At the end of 
five or fix months the foal may be weaned, and 
it h even neceflary if the mother is pregnant. 
The^ flallion afs fhould be chofen from the 
largeft and ftrongeft of hiis fpeciesj he myft 
at leaft be three years 'old, bxit fhould not ex* 
ceed ten ; hfe legs fhould be long, body plump, 
head long and light, eyes brifk, noftrils and 
cheft large, neck long, loins flefey, ribs broad, 
rump:flat, tail fhort, hair fhining, foft to the 
touchy and of a deep grey. 

• ' . The 

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The afe, like the horfc, is three or four 
years in growing, and lives alfo like him 25 or 
30 years ; it is faid the female ufually lives 
longer than the male; but, perhaps, this hap- 
pens from their being often pregnant, and at 
thofe times having fome care taken of them, 
inftead oi which the males are conftantly won* 
out With fatigue and blows. They fleep lefs- 
than the horfe, and do not lie down to fleep, 
except when they are exceedingly tired. The 
male afs lafts alfo much longer than the ftallion j 
die older he is the more ardent he appears, and 
in general the health of this animal is much 
better than that of the horfe ; he is lefs delicate 
and not near fo fubjeft to maladies. The 
incients knew '^of no difeafe they had but the 
glanders, and which, as we have already 
faid, they are much lefs fubjedl to than the 

There are among afTes different races, as 
among horfes, but they are much lefs known, 
becaufe they have not been taken the fame 
care of, or followed with the fame attention ; but 
we cannot doubt that they originally came from 
warm climates, i^ riftotie affures us, that there 
Were none in his time in Scythia, nor the other 
northern countries, nor even in Gaul ; which, 
be fays, is too cdd a climate, and adds, that a 


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909 , KTFFOIf ^k 

cold climate either presents them from pro- 
creating their fpecies, or caufes them to de- 
generate, which is the reafon they are fmall and 
wealc in Ulyria, Tlirace, and Epirus. Thejr 
arc ftill the fame in France, though they have 
been for many ages naturalized, and though the 
Qoldnefs of die climate is much kiSened within 
thefe two thoufand years, by the number of 
forefts deftroyed, and marfbes dried up ;. but it 
is more certain, they have been but newly in- 
troduced into Sweden and the otheii? northern* 
countries. They appear to have come ori- 
ginally from Arabia^, and to have pafled from 
Arabia into Egypt, frcm Egypt into Greece^ 
from Greece into Italy, from Italy into France, 
and from thence into Germany, England^ 
Sweden, &c. for they are, in faft, weak and 
finall, in proportion to the coldnefe of the 

This migration fsems to be well proved 
by the account of travellers* Chardin faysy 
** that there are two kinds of .affes ip Perfia, 
die affes of the qountry, wbich are floW 
s^id heavy^ and whicl^i are only made ufe of 
to carry burthops, and a face of Arabian 
afies, which are yety beautiful^ and certainly 
the firft ailes in the; world ; th|sir flcin is 
glofTy, their heads bigh^ aad have high light 


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ftct) which they raife with grace, walk well, and 
are folely employed to ride on. The faddles 
■which they ufe with them are like a bat^ round 
- on one fide, flat on the other ; they are made 
of woollen x:loth, or tapeflry, and have harnefe 
and ftirrups, ^lid the rider fits on them nearer 
the crupper than the heck. There are fome of 
thefe affes which even coft. about 18 pounds 
fterling, and there are none fold under 25 pif- 
toles. They ar© broke like liorfes, tut are 
taught no other pace than the aniBle 5 the man- 
ner of teaching them, is by tying their hind and 
fore-legs of the fame fide with two ropes of 
cotton, which are made to the length of thiS 
ftep the afs is to pace, and are fufpended by a cord 
fkftened to the girth. A groom mounts and , 
excrcifes thlm in this pace morning and even- 
ing. Their noftrils are Jlit in order to 
enable them to breathe more freely, and they 
go fo fad, that a horfe muft gallop to keep up . 
with them." - 

It is to be regretted, that the Arabians, who 
have fo long taken care to preferve the breed 
of their horfes, had not paid the fame attention 
to the afs, fince from the above it appears that 
Arabia is not only the fir ft but alfo the beft 
cKmate in the world for both. From Arabia 
they have puffed into Barbary and Egyptj 


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where they are h^ui^tne and high in ftature# 
la the Indies, and in Guinea, they are hkrgery 
ftronger, and better than the horfes of thofe 
countries i there are a great number of them 
at Madura, where one of the moft confiderable 
and noble tribes of the Indians pay particular 
hoooage to them, becaafe they believe that the 
ibuls of all their nobles pais into the bodies of 
afics i in ihort, ^s are found in great num«* 
bers, in all parts of the eaA, from Senegal ta 
China, and wild zSks me more comD;K)nljr 
found than wild horfes* 

The Latins, after die Greeks, have called 
fiit wild'afs msigiry whith animal muft not ba 
toniounded,' as fome naturalifts and traveQera 
have done, with the xebra, becauie die zebrs| 
18 of 1 (fiffereHt ^ecies from the a6. Tbo; 
onageri cir wild s^ 19 not ftriped Uke th« 
xebra, and is not near Co ekgant in figure. 
Wild afles are found in fome of the illands of 
the Archipelago, and particularly in that oi 
Cerigo y thet^ are alio m&aj in die defdrts of 
Lybia and Numidia* They are grey, and ruri 
fo iaft that the horfes of Barbary only can beat 
Ihein Jft hunting* When dicy fee a man they 
give a loud cry, iuen themfelves about^ and 
throw up their legs, then flop,, and do not at^ 
tempt to fly till h« comes very near them r 


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they are t^ken in fnares made with ropes, go 
in troops to pafture, and their fle(h is alfo eaten. 
There were, in the time of Marmol, wild 
ifTes in Sardinia, but they were lefs than thofe 
of Africa^ Pietro della Valle fays, he faw a 
wild aft at Baflbra, whofe figure differed in no 
refpeft from a domeftic one, only of a lighter 
colour, and had from the head to tail a ftripe 
of white; he was alfo much livelier and fwifter 
tban^ the aflfes ufually are. Olearius mentions, 
that one day the King of Perfia made him go 
up with'him to 'the top of a little building, in 
form of a theatre, to eat fruit and fweetmeats} 
ihztj after the repaft,' 32 wild aflcs were 
brought in, when the king amufed himfelf for 
fome time by firing at them, botfi with bullets, 
and arrows, and having wbunded fome, he 
afterwards permitted the ambafladors, aftd odxer 
lords, to do the fame; that it was no fmall 
diverfion to fee thefe aflies with a number of 
arrows fticking in them, and, from the pain 
they felt, biting and rdling oyer each other; 
that when they were all killed and laid before 
the king they were fent to the royal Idtchen at 
Kpahan; the Perfians letting fo great a value 
on the flefh of thefe wild afles that ftey have a 
proverb expreffive of it. But it does not ap- 
pear that thefe. 32 wUd affes were all taken in 


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the forefts, and therefore .it is probable they 
were afles brought up in large parks, for the 
pleafure of hunting and eating them. 

Neither afles nor horfes were found in 
America, although the climate of South 
America is perfedlly confonant with their na- 
tures, Thofe which the Spaniards have tran- 
fported from Europe, and left; in large iflands, 
and on the Continent, have greatly multiplied. 
In fome parts they are found in troops, and are 
taken in (hares like wild horfes^ 

The he-afs with the mare produce large 
mules, and the horfe with the fhe-afs proi- 
duce fmall mules, differing from the firft in 
jmany refpedls ; but as we fihall treat of mules 
in a particular chapter, we fliall finifh die hif« 
lory of the afs with that of its properties, and 
the ufes to which the animal may be put. 

As wild afles are unknown in thefe climates 
we cannot in reality fay whether their flefh is 
..or is not good to eat ; but it is certain, that the 
flefh of the domeftic afs is extremely bad, and 
harder than that of the horfe. Galen fzys^ that 
it is a pernicious aliment, and occafions difeafes. 
The milk of the afs, on the contrary, is an ap- 
proved and fpecific remedy for certain com- 
plaints, and its ufe has been tranfmitted to us 
/r9m the Greek. . To have it good we (hould 


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chafe a yoang healthy {he-aifs) full of flefli, (hat 
has lately foaled, and has not fiflce been with 
the male : the young one (hould be taken from 
her, and care muft be taken to feed her well 
with hay, oats, barley, and grafs, whofe qua- 
lities may have an influence on die difeafe, with 
,particular care not to let the milk cool., nor 
even to expofe it to the air, which will fpbil it 
In a little time. The ancients alfo attributed 
great virtue to the blood, &c. of the afs, but 
-which experience has Tiot confirmed. 

As the ikin of the afs is extremely hard, and 
¥cry elafiic, it is ufed for different purpofeSf 
iuch as to make dmm^, fhoes, and thick parch- 
ment for podieiibooks, which is flightly yar- 
ttifhed over: it is alfo with affes fkin that 
the Orientals niake tUf^ir fagri, which we call 
fiiagreen. It is aUo probable that the bone** 
of affes are harder than thofe of other animals^ 
fiiice the ancients made their beft founding 
flutes of them. 

The afs, in proportion to his fize, can carry 
the greateft weight of any animal ; and as it 
cofts but little tOvfeed him, and he icarcely re- 
<iuires any care, he is of great ufe in country 
buflnefs ; he alfo ferves to ride on, as ail his 
paces are gentle, and he ftumblc5 lefs than the 
VOL. y* T iiorfes 

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ao6 buffoh's 

horfe : he is frequently put to the plough in 
countries where the earth is light, and his dung 
is an excellent manure. 

THE ox- 

THE furface of the earth, adorned with it$ 
verdure, is the inexhauftible and common fund 
from which man and animals draw their fub- 
fiftence. Every thing in nature that has life, 
is nourilbed by that whiph vegetates ; and ve- 
getables, in turn, exift on the fpoil of every 
thing that has lived or vegetated. To live, it 
is neceffary to deftroy ; and it is only by the. 
deftruftipn of beings, that animals can live 
themfelves and multiply^ God, in creating 
^ the firft individuals of each fpecies of animals 
and vegetables, has not only given form to the 
di\(l of the earth, but alfo gave it animation, 
by inclofing in each individual a greater or lefs 
quantity of a£iive principles, organs, living 
piplccules, iiijsgfcpable ^pf being, deftroyed, an4 


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common to all organised beings. The mole- 
cules pafe from . body to body, and are. equally 
the caufes of life, apd the continuation of it, 
to the noiirifliment and growth of each indi- 
vidual. After the diffolution of the body, 
after its reduflion to aflies, thefe organic mole- 
cules, on which death has no power, furvivCf 
circulate in the univcrfe^ pafs into other beings 
and produce life and nourilhment. Every pro- 
du£lton, every renovation, or increafe by ge- 
neration, by nutritioii, or by growth, implies a. 
preceding deftru£kion, a converfion of fub- 
ftaiiice, . a^ tranflation of thefe organic . molecules 
which never multiply, but always fubfifting in 
an equal number, render nature always equally 
alive, the earth equally peopled, and ever 
equally refplcndent with the primitive- glory of 
Him who created it. 

• To take beings in general,- the total quan^ 
tity of life is always then the fame > and death, 
which feems to deftroy all, deftroys nothing of. 
that primitivq life, which is common to all or- 
ganized beings. Like all other fubordinajte 
power$> death attacks only indivldualsi ftrike». 
only thQ furface, and deftroys the form;, but 
can have no power ov^r matter, and can do no, 
harm to Nature, which only aj^)ears to more 
advantage. She does not permit him to deftroy 
T 2 the 

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the fpecies, but leaves individuals to bis powcr^ 
to (hew herfelf independent both of Death and 
Time ; to exerciie every inftant, her power, 
which is always a^vev to manifeft her pleni- 
tude by her fertility^ and to make the univerfe,. 
in reproducing and renewing its beings, a 
theatre always filled,, and a fpe&ade always new*. 
That there may be a conftant fucceffic»i of 
beings, it is necefirry there ihoiJd be a mutual 
deilruiSlion ^ that animals may fubfift and be* 
nourifhed, vegetables, or other animals muft be- . 
deftroyed ; and as, before, and after the deftruc- 
tion, the quantity of life remains .always the 
fame, it fhould, as if it w^ indifFerent to naturer 
which fpecies were more or lefs confumed ; like. 
ar> economical mother, however^in tbemidftof 
abundance, {he has fixed bounds to her expen- 
ces, and prevents unneceffary wafte, in giving 
but to a few animals the inftin£k of feeding on 
fiefb, while (he has abundantly mvdtiplied both, 
the fpecies and individuals which feed on^ plants 
and vegetables. She (eems to have been prodi- 
gd to the vegetable kingdom, and' to have be- 
llowed on each great profufion and fecundity ;; 
greatly perhaps to fecond her views, in main- 
taining and even eftabli(hing this order on the 
earth j for in the fea, we find almoft all the 
fpecies are voracious}, thej^livc on their own* 


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kfftd, or on others, and devour perpetually, 
without ever deftroying any particular fpecics,- 
becaufe the fecundity is as great as the depre- 
dation, and becaufe all the confumpcion turns 
to the profit of reproduftion. 

Man knows how to exercife-his power on 
animals 5 he has chofen thdfe whofe ftefli ^ 
pleafes his tafte,. has made them his domeflic 
fkives, and multiplied them more than nature 
would have done -, and by the pains he takes 
for their xnicreafe, feems to have acquiredarright 
to flaughter them; but he extends this right 
much farther than his wants require ; for he 
alfo makes war with fayage animals, birds, and 
fiihes, and does not even confine himfelf to^ 
diofe of the climate which he inhabits, bat feeks 
at a diftance, and even in the midft of the ocean,^ 
for new food. All nature feems infufficient ta 
fatisfy the intemperance, and the inconftant 
variety of his appetites. Man alone confumes 
more flefb than all the other animals together 
devour ; he is, then, the greateft deftroyer ; and 
this more from cuftom than necefiity. Inflead 
of ufing with moderation the bleffings which 
are offered him, inftead of difpofmg of them 
with equity, inftead of increafing them in pro- 
portion as Ke deftroys, the rich man places all 
his glory in confuming, in one day, at hi* 
.table, as much as would be neceflary to fup- ' 
T^ port 

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port many families: ht equally abuies hoAi 
animals and his fellow-creatures, Xome of whom- 
remain ftarving and languifliing in mifery, and 
labour only to fatisfy his immoderate appetite,, 
and more infatiable vanity, and who,.by deftroy-- 
ing others through waxitonneij^ deftroys him- 
felf by excefs. . ** 

Neverthelcfs, many^ like fome other animals, 
might live on . vegetables ; and fleih, which 
feems (o analogous to fleib, is not. a better 
nourifhment than corn or bread ; that which' 
contributes to the nutrition, developement,^ 
growth, and maintenance of the body, is not 
that vifible matter which feems to be the tex- 
ture of flefh or herbsy but of thofe organic 
particles which they both contain, fince the. 
ox, by eating grafe, acquires as much flefh as 
either man or beaft, that live on flefh and 
blood. The only real difference between thefe 
aliments is, that, in an equal quantity, flefh^ 
corn, and feeds, contain more organic particles 
than grafs, leaves, roots,, and other parts of 
plants; of which fail we may be certain by 
obferving infufions of thefe different matters, 
infomuch, that man, and other carnivorous 
'.animals, whofe flomachs and inteflines are not 
fufEciently capacious to admit a great quan* 
tity of aliment a$ once^ cannot eat herbs enough 


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to receive a <}uantity of organic particles fuffi** 
eient for their nutrition;; and it is for thiv 
reafon that man, and thofe animals which have» 
but one ftomach, can only live oil flefh and* 
corn, which, in a finall bulk, contains a great ^ 
quantity of thefe organic and nutritive par^icles^ 
while the ox^, and other animals, that cheMr 
the cud, who have many ftomachs, one ,oi 
which is very capacious, and confequently 
can contain a large mafg of herbage, can ex^ 
tra£t therefrom a fu£5icient quantity of thefe 
organic particles for their nourifliment,.growth) 
and multiplication; the quantity here compen** 
fates for the quality of the food, but the founda- 
tion is the fame: it is the iame matter, the 
tame organic particles, which nouriihes man^ 
the ox, and all other animals. 

Some may obferve that the horie has but 
one ftomach, and even that very fmall; that 
. the afs,. the hare, and other animals, which live 
on herbage, have alfo but one ftomach, and, 
confequently, this explanation, though it feems 
probable, is not well grounded. But thefe 
exceptions, fo far from controverting,, appear 
to confirm this opinion, for although the horfe 


.* The tttm ox li generally applied t« cattle in fentral, 
but when ufe4 in iti confined fcaf; we iball timk it mih 

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3fi mjvroi^s 

has otie ftoftiach he has pouches^ in the In^ 
teftines9 fo very capacious tiiat they may be 
compaTred to the paundi of ruminant animals ;' 
;lnd hares have a blind ^'ut of fo great a Ifength 
^d diameter that it is at Ibaft equal to a fe- 
€iOnd ftomach ; thus it is not aftbnifhing that*^ 
thefe animal«^ can live on herbage alone. We 
Und in general it is wholly on the fixe of the 
ftomach and inteftines^ that their manner of 
feeding depends^ for mminatihg quadrupeds, as^ 
&e ox, fheep, goats, camels, &c. have four 
ftoipa<ihs^ and the inteftines of a prodigious 
length; thefe five on. herbage, and that alone 
itiffices them, Horfes, afles, hares, rabbits, 
guinea pigs, &c. have but ope' ftomach, but 
they have a gut equivaTent to a: fecond, and 
live^ on herbs and corn. Wild boars, hedge- 
kogs, &c. whofe ftomachs and bowels are lefs 
capacious, eat but Httle grafs, and live on corn, 
fruits, and roots. Thofe, fuch as the wolf, 
fox, tygef, &c. which have the ftomach fmaller 
than other aniiijals, in proportion to the fize of 
their bodies, are obliged to chufe the moft 
fuccutent aliments | and thofe which abound 
moft with organic particles,, and to eat flefli 
and blood, corn and fruits. ^ 

. It is on -this ncceffary and pbyfical relation, 
then, much more than pn the varieties of taftc, 


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KATURAL HlsraRT. 113 

that is founded the diverfity which we fee in 
the appetites of animals^ fen: if neceflitjr did 
not determine them ofteaer than tafte how' 
could they devour corrupted flefli with as much 
avidity as that which is frefh and juicy? Why 
do they cat equally of all kinds of flcfh ? We 
fee that domeftic dogs, which have it in theic. 
power to chufe, conftantly vejeEt certain meats,^ 
fiich as . the woodcock,, thruih, pork, &:• 
whilft wild dogs, wolves, foxes, &c. eat equally^ 
the ilefh of the hog^ woodcock, birds of all 
^ecies^ and even frogs, of which I once found 
two in the ftomach of a wolf- When they 
can neither get fieih. nor fiih they will eat fruity 
carn> grapes, &c. but they always prefer that 
food, which, in a fmall portion, contains a large 
quantity of nutritive or organic particles proper 
for the nouriihment and iubfiftence of the 

If thefe are not Efficient proofs let us con*, 
fider the method made ufe of to fatten cattle* 
They begin by caftration> thus flopping the 
paf&ge thrdugh which the organic mplecules 
efcape in moft abundance; then inftead of 
leaving the ox to his ufual paflure, of herbage 
^loney they give him bran, com^ and turnep^S in 
a wofd, more fubflantial aliments than grafs. In 
a little time the flefh, juices> and fat of the 


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^14 BUP^Ol^l'S 

animal atrgments, the fat abounds, and, frbrff • 
a flefh hard and dry, formls a 'viafid fo fuccu- 
lent and good, that it is die chief of our b'ci^ 

It alfo refults from what has been faid, that 
than, whofe ftomach and inteftines zr6 not fey 
capacious with refpeft to the fee of his body, 
could not live on herbage alone; yet it is proved 
by fiafts, that he can live onvegetaMes, corn*, 
and feeds of'planfsj fince tbfere are . whole na^ 
tions, and particular orders of men, who are 
forbi<i hf th^il" religiiWito eat of any thing that 
has had life; bat there'exi^Ies,-thoQ^' &p-» 
ported on the atrAority of Pythkigotas, and re- 
eohimWhded by fome phyficfans,- do not appear 
iufficient to convince us, that it wcmld bectbfit 
the heahh of mankind, orth^t the human fpe« 
.cies would multiply in a greater proportion, if 
they lived on vegetables and bread ; the rather 
aspeafahtsj whom the lu?Curie^, and the lump - 
tUoufndfs of the great, reduce to this mode of 
living, languifb and die much fooner than per- 
fons in a middle ftation of life, to whom wants 
sgid excefles are equally unknown. 

Next to man^ animals which live on fle(h 
only, are the greateft deftroyers r they are both 
the enemies of nature, and the rivals of man. 
It is onl)^ byi acarefulT attention, that our flocks 


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NATURAL HrrroRY. ai5 

jind fowls can be fheltered from birds of: prey, 
the wolf, fox, weazel, &c. and it is only by a 
continual war, that wc can preferye our ^grain, 
fruits, and even cloathing from the voracity of 
rats, moths, mites, &c. for infe<Sts are among 
thofe creatures which do more harm than good. 
The. ox, (heep, and thofe other animals which 
feed on grafs, are not only the beft, moft ufeful, 
and the moft precious to man, but confi^me and 
poft him Icaft. The 03c, above all the reft, is 
the moft excellent in this refped, for he gives 
.as much- to the earth as he takss frppi it, and 
even, enriches the ground on which he lives ; 
while the horfe and the greatcft part of other 
animals, in a few years impoyeriib the bed: 

Bat thefe are not the only advantages that 
this animal procures to man ; without . the ox, 
the poor and the rich .would haye muchdiflL. 
ciilty to live ; the earth would remain uncul- 
tivated, the £elds, and even the gardens would 
be dry and fterile ; it is on him that all the 
work of . the cpuntry falls, he is the moft: 
ufeful^ domeftic of the farmer, i^nd doe# 
all the labour of agriculture. • Formerly 

^ be 

P Modern pradice, at leaft-in Engiandj profes thatwithr 
ill, the fupecior^ualitUsof ^he«X; he ii oot entitled to thU 


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jjix6 wtffon's 

he fonned the only riches of mankihcl> 
and ftill he is the bafis of the riches of 
ilates, which only flourifh) and are' fupported 
by the cultivation of the lands, and the number 
of their cattle -, iince tbefe are the only real 
wealth we poflefs, all others, even gold and 
iilver, being only arbitrary reptefentations, and 
are of no worth but what the produce of the 
earth can give them. 

That the ox is not to proper- as the horfe, 
«fs, camel, ice for carrying burthens, the 
form of his back and loins clearly demonftrate^ 
*ut the thicknefs of his neck, and the broad- 
nefs of his (hoiilders, fufficiently indicate his 
<]ualification for the yoke. Notwithftanding it is 
* in this manner'that he draws with themoft advan- 
tage, yet in fome provinces of France they oblige 
iiimi to draw with his horns ; for which they 
give as a reaibn, that when harnefled in diis 
manner he is managed with more eafe. His 
head is very ftrong, and he may draw very 
well when fo yoked, but certainly with much 
lefs advantage than- when he draws by the 
(houlders. He feems to be made on purpofe 


-ptrticular encoaiuni} finer in rotnjr parts it ii found the 
horfe cui be much more advlntageoully employed in the 
4:u1tu re of Jandf. and even in fome countries the icfvice of 
the ox la Chat refped is ^ice exploded* 

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for the plough? thc^fizc of his body, the flo^Jt 
neCs of bis motions^ the fkoi^tnefs of his tegK^ 
»nd even his.:tranyquSIity and^ patience whm^'hd 
laboiHS, -concur in ijiakihgliim proper for the 
cultivation of ijie ground, and more c^piible 
than any other animal of overcoming the con- 
ilant refiftance that die earth oppofes to hi$ 
efforts* The h'orfe, although perliaps as ftrong 
us the ox, iS) however, lefs proper for this work) 
his legs are too long, his motions too. great 
and fudden, and he is alfo more impatient, and 
more eafily fatigiied; we take from him his 
lightneft, all the fuppleiiefs of his motion, and 
ali the grace of his attitude, when be is put to 
this laborious work, which requires mibrd 
coiiflancy than ardour, and more ftrength and 
^weight than fwtftriefs. 

In thofe fpecies of animals which man batf 
formed into flocks, and whofe multiplication is^ 
hk principal objefl, the fipnales are more? 
ufeful than the maks. The produce of the 
cdw, is a benefit dmoft perpetually Renewed ;. 
the flefh of the calf is hcaldiy and delicate, th^ 
milk is excellent-food at leaft for children $ but-> 
ter relifhes the greatefl part of our viftuak, 
and cheefe h the common food of the country 
people. How many poor families are reduced 
to live entirely on their cow I Thefe fame men 
VOL. v. U who 

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who toil from morning to riight, groan with 
anguiih, exhaufted with continual labour of 
cultivating the ground, obtain nothing from 
die earth but black bread, and are obliged to 
give^to others the flour and (ubdmce of their 
grain. It is through them that the harvefts are 
abundant^ thqugh they partake not thereof. 
Thefc men who breed and ntuhiply our cattle, 
-who take care of, and arc confVantly occupied 
with them, dare not enjoy the fruits of their 
labour; they are debarred from the ufe of flefli, 
and reduced, by the nccefHty of their condition, 
or rather by the brutality of the great,*to live 
like horfes, on barley and oats^ common, 
herbs, &Cj 

The cow (fg. 21 J may alfo be ufed for 
the plough, and though flie is not fb ftrong as 
the oXf yet (he is often made ufe of to fupply 
his place ; but, if employed for this ufe, care 
ihould be taken to match her with jan ox of 
the fame fize and ftrength, or with another 
cow, in order to preferve the equality t)f the 
draught, and to keep the plough in an equi*, 
liblrium between the two powers attending' to 
falili&te the labour, and preferving the tillage 
more regular. From fix to eight oxen are fre- 
quently made ufe of for ftiff land, but more 
efpecially ia /allow grounds which bieal»up 


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hf JSBmrJiay. ttarg: 

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HI large clots, whilft two cows are fufficient to 
plough light and fandy foils. The ancients 
confined the 0;^ to 120 paces, as the extent of 
the furrow, he was capable of tracing without 
flopping; after which ^hey fufFered him. to take 
breath a few moments before he went on with, 
the fame furrow, or began a frefh one. The 
ancieutstoolc 4elight in the ftudy of .agriculture, 
and gloried in ploughing themfclves, or at 
Icaft i;i encouraging the labourer, and fparin^ 
him .and th^ ojr as much trouble as pofTible; 
but among us, thofe who enjoy the gre^ft 
^hare of /the bleffings of the earUi are .thofe 
wha.knQvrUeaft howto efteem, 2|nd tp en- 
f;cHiragq,the sLt% of coltiv^tion. ^ 
; The bull i^g 20.) ferves chiefly for the prp- 
paga,tion of his fpecies, and though we can make 
him, fubmit to work^ y6t we are lefs fure of his 
obedience,^ and muft be on our guard againft 
. jthe. improper ufe he may tnake of hi§ ftrength* 
Nature has ma4e hiqi indpcile and h^tughty} 
in rutting jtime he^ is unmanagable, and fre- 
quently, furious ) but by cadraiion thefe im- 
petuous motions ceafe, whilft it robs him of 
none of his ftrength; it rather renders -him 
larger, weightier, and more proper for the 
work for which he is intended; it has alio ari 
effect upon his difpoiltion, and makes him more ^ 
U 2 , tame 

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aao 9uffon's 

tam: and. patient, more docile and Icfs troubIe« 
fome to the rtH ; a number of bulls would prove 
an unruly herd, wbicb man coold neither tame 
nor guide* ... 

The countfy peo^e a iopt different modes 
for'caftration, t^t they in> general confider the 
befl time when-^ animal is between eighteen 
months and two years of age, as they ieldom 
live when it is peifonmd more early, yet thofe 
who do fiirvive the opemtkn^ if performed while 
young ^aWes^ always become die largeft and 
^tteft oxen. If left to a late period diey »« 
taiti all the impet^ious feroci^ of the male fex, 
and ^a (fcareely -goyemaUe. The females 
are commonly in ieafon from about the iSth 
of April to the. 15th of July; Aey go nine 
months with y^MiBg» and brin^ ferlh at the ^ 
ginning of the tenth ; therefore calves are 
always jrfenty during the iprmg and fiunmer. 

The buU, like the ftaltion^ flkouU be chofen 
from, the bandfemeft of his fpe<Hes} he fiiould 
be large, in?ell inade^: and full of flefh; hta 
eyes black, bis looks haughty and iterc^ 
forehead open, head ihort, horns thick, fliort» 
and bhck, ears fliort and fbft, muzzle large, 
hofe ihort andilraight, neck flefliy and duck) 
fliouMers and breaft largej loins firm, back 
ftraight, legs thick ai)d mufcular, tail long and 
' . well 

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well covered widi hiir, ftep firm and Aire, smd 
his coat of a reddifli colour. The cows fre- 
quently ret^n die fitft, fecond, or third tlmey 
and as foon as they ar^ with calf the bull takes 
no more notice of them, although they^havc 
.ftill fome appearance of ardours but this ufually 
goes ofF as foon as they have conceiyed, and 
they alfo refufe the approaches of the bull. 

Cows are alio fubje£t to abortion if put ta 
the plough, and not properly managed ; and 
care fhould be taken to prevent their leaping 
•over hedges, ditches, &c. they ihould alfo be 
put into the richctt paftures, which, without 
being too humid or marfhy, afFord plenty of 
herbage. For fix weeks before they calve they 
(hould be more fed than ullial^ giving them 
grafs in their ftalis, if fumtnef, and, during 
the winter, bran, lucerne, . faintfoirfe, &c. 
They fhould not be milked from that time 5 the 
milk being necefTary for die noUrifliment of 
the foetus. There are- fome cows in which 
the milk ceafes a month or fix- weeks before 
they calve, but thofe which haveimilk to the 
lafl are the befl mothers, and the befl nurfes. 
.The milk, towards the time of calving, is ge- . 
nerally bad, and in' fmall quantities. Mure 
tare is necefTiry to be taken of the cow al: and 
U 3 after. 

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after lier ddiyccf than ^ the marei beii^ «pf« 
parentlj more weakened and fiitigued. . She 
AwAd be put Jnto a ftaUe and kept warai^ 
giving her good litter, and feedmg her well, 
daring ten or twdve days, with bean>flower> 
C(Mti, oat8, &c. mixed with fait water, and 
plenty of lucerne, faintfoine, or good grais. 
This time is fuficient to re-eftablUh her 
ftr^th, after whicii fhe may be brought by 
degrees to her iifoal manner of living and 
pafturing. Not any of her milk fhould be 
taken for the two firft months, but left folelf 
to the calf; befides, ffae milk at diis time is not 
of the bejl qiality, 

Thecalf Ihouldbe left with its mother for 
ftv€ or fix da]^, that it may be kept warm, and 
fuck as^often as it has occafion ; it may then be 
removed, for it would weaken the cow too 
much if it was always kept with her. It is 
fufficient to let calves fuck two or three times 
in a day; and to fatten ffaem quickly, they 
Ihould every day have ra^^ eggs, and boiled 
milk and bread.. At the end of four or five 
weeks calves thus taken care of will be ex« 
cellent eating. It is. fufficient to let a calf 
fiick, defigned for the butcher, thirty or forty 
days^ but ^bok which are intended to grow 


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"tip ftmid he fbiScTed to feck ht two monthsr 
at leaft ; the more they are allowed to fuck tfab 
ilrongcr and larger cattle they become. Thofe 
brought ibrdi in Apri), M^y, a&d Jutie, are the 
fitcbft to be raifed ; for talv^s ^icli eome httr 
never acquire ftrength enough to refift the kw 
juries oiF Ae following winter, and sibnoft all 
langaifh and perifii with the cold. Before the 
milk is entirely t^ken frotfi thefn, th^ty fhould 
have a little good grafe, or ikintifbine, cut fine tor 
accuftdm them by degrees to their jfuture food; 
after which they (hould be entirely. ieparated 
from the^ mother, and not fuffered to go near 
her, either in the ftable, or field.' To the^ 
latter they fhouM be tSaken every day, and fuf- 
fered to remain from morning to iright during 
the fummer ; but as foon a2s the cold begins iit 
autumn, theyfliould be tak^n 6ut kte in the 
morning, and carried home foon in the evening; 
and during Winter, as cold is extremely hurtful 
to ^em, they fhould be kept warm in a clof^ 
Well Uttered ftable ; and with their ufual food> 
they ibould haVe faintfoine, lucerne, &c smd 
not (uffered to go out, except in mild weather. 
Great care muft be eiken of them for the firft 
winter^ as it is the moft dangerous time in their 
lives i for they get ftrength enough during the 


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A)4 »UFFO»'» 

following fummer not to fear die ccM of a ie« 
cona winter.* 

At 1 8 months old, the cow arrives at puber- 
ty, and the bull when he is two years ; but 
though they can engender at this age, it is bet* 
ter tp keep them afunder till they are three 
years old. . Theie animals are in t^eU greateft 
vigour from three years old till nine;, after this, 
neither cows nor bull& are fit for any thing but 
to fatten for. the daughter. As at two years of 
age they are almoft at their full growth, the 
length of their lives is alfo, like that of moft 
. other animals, feveA times that^ or about four-. 
^ teen years ; they feldcnn live beyond fifteen. 

In all quadrupeds the voice of the male is 
Wronger and deeper than that of the female ; 
and I believe there is no exception to this rule; 
though the ancients fay, that the cow, the cx^ 
and even the calf, have deeper voices than the 
bull ; bjut; the contrary is certain, fince he can 
be heard mi^ the fartheft. What has afford- 
ed grounds to think ^^that his voise is leis deep, 
is, that his bellowkig not being arfimple found, 


* It ii evident here that our au^oi did not^ draw hit "conr 
clofioM from a general vieyi •£ the fqbjed^ but polfibly ra* 
tber from the practice followed in France* which ^ in maoj 
ca(es» with regard to cows and calves, it diametrically ^pofiM 
to that purfttcd la England^ both ia nf^tdt to food aad ma* 


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but compofed of two or three cm^vcs, the 
h igheft of which ftrikes the ear moft focciblj, 
and the others are not perceived, yet if we 
give attention thereto^ we hear a grave ibundt 
much deeper than the voice of the cow, axy or 
calf, whofe lewings are alio much ihorter^ 
'Fho bull only bellows when he is enamoured ; 
the cow more frequently laws through fear and 
dread, than from any .other caufei 2aid the 
calf bellows from pain, wasti^f food^ or a de« 
fire of being with its mother. 

The dulkft and moft idle animsds are not 
thofi? i«kid& fleep the foundeft, or the longel^ 
The deep cf the ex is (hort, and nut very 
found ; for lie awakes at she leaft m^ifc* Ht 
uTually liefron his leftfde, and lihe kft kidney 
<8 sdvrays larger and &tcer than the right. 

OxM^ like other domeftic^ animals, differ 
ta colour; but the red appears the moft 
common c^our > and the redder they are, the 
more they are efteemed \ (otBt prefer the black 
-«*ile others aflett that thofe of a bay colour 
laft longeft j thatthe brown are foonerfttigucd 
and fhorter lived ; that the grey, brindled, and 
white, are not proper for work, and are only 
fit to be fatterrcd'for flaughtcr. Bat whatfoever 
be Ae colour, the coat pf the ex Ihould b6 
ihining, tklftk, and foft to the touch ; for if it 


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is rough aiid uneven, it indicates the anioial is 
i>ot well,, or at leafl of a weak conftltution. 
An dxfoT^hc plough fliould be neither too fat 
nor too. lean; bi» ht^d ihquld l>e ihort and 
thick, b'$i»r».4affg^'-)v»(h » f^C evfiii coat, his 
horns ftrdog^ &imfa§i.»ni oi aimiMing fize, 
his fqrdiejtfl bigh^ bi& eyes large and black, his 
muzzb jargp aodl AftTi bi» i^ftrUs^wtde, hi^ 
teeth .wbrts dnd-eyeii« tus, lipa blacjp, his neck 
fliort^ ht9<&cw2der»4uck 9iBd.ftrQng^ hisbreaft 
large, bis.dewlafv 'that isy .the ibre part of . tbf 
neck^ long, i2aid baaj^ng down (o his knees; 
bis loiiiis inerji Ia^ge> bis:beU]rfpaaiou$Lawl pro^ 
faineitt, bUs .flanks thkkt hi$ hAftinches longi 
his ntn^ fouf|d^;his legs- and ibighs big sind 
tiervous^ lus.<t>ai(k.firaight and^AJIy his t^iil 
hanging dpwQ ;to the ground, and -cqyeired witl^ 
«fine tuft of curling hair, his feet firm, his 
.ikin thtfik ^n4' pUablfi) ai«i. his mufples larg9 
aod elevated.; be fhould ^cr be feeble of the 
goad, ^beydiei^ <to fh^ aail» ^ well trained: 
but it, i& ;oQjy#y.4egiiB§% ^ beginning earljs, 
^that we n^ F^^k^ him fub^it wiUiiigly to the 
yoke* At the age of iwo.y^csand a half, or^ 
three years at mpft, we £hould begin to ufe him 
to fubjedionj if. it. is inferred later, he frCf 
quently becomes unman^eable. Patience^ 
gentleiiers;^ and carefles, are the gf^y methods 


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to beufed; violence aod ill-u&ge only fcrve to 
make him fuSlen and untradtaWe for ever: he 
fhould be 'ftroakeS and cateffed, and frequently 
fed with boiled barley, bruifed beans, and 
other noutiflimg food of the fame kind, mixed 
with a little fclt^ all of which he is very fond ; 
he fhould be frequently tied by the horns fome 
days before he is put to the yoke; and hefhould 
ttt firft be yoked to the plough with another ox- 
of the fame foe which is already trained. They 
fiiould be tiled together at die rack, and led 
to the fame pafturage, that they may become 
acquainted) ^and ' habituate thehifelves to the 
fame cd^rnon motions. The goad fhould 
never be Ufed at the beginmng, as it would 
only ferve to make hinl angov^rriaWe* He 
fhould only work t little ^t it time, for he is 
(bon fatigued when ;rK>t perfeftly broke; . arid . 
for the fame reafon, he fhouM theh- have more 
food than at another thne; '^ '' v 

The ox fhoufd ^wly bewwked^^fiom three 
years old to ten; and he&6u!dthen' be taken 
from the ploi^h to fat«>i% ^sr thfc flcfli Will be 
better than }f~4ie be kept longer. 'The age of 
this anhnal i$ kno^h by his teeth and horns. 
.The firft front te^A fall out when he is ten " 
months old, ztid are repUced by others which 
ire larger and not fo white ; at f 6 months 
: thofe 

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2^^ BUFF01^% 

thofe on eich fi^.of the middle t^etk drop out^ 
and are replaced by others ; and at three years, 
.dd, all die: tncifive teeth am r^aflWed s tbef 
are then all lbng» White, ankl . eren ; and, in 
{Proportion as the dJriUlvahces in years, they 
decay, and' become unequal and black. It is 
the (ame widi die bijdl and cow; tb that neither 
ftx, nor caiftration makes any alteration in the 
growthr or fall of thq teeth, nor does either 
make any difference in the caftingrf the horns, 
for they ^I off at Aree years equally from the 
«ar, bttir, and cow ; tbefe are rq>Iaced by other 
hotns^ which, like the fccond teeth, &Uoff no> 
inore, otfly thofe of the ex and cow grow 
longer than thofe of the bull. The growth 
of thefe fecond horns is not uniform. The 
firft year, diatis to fey, the fourth of the ani- 
mals age, two little pointed horns f[^rout, which 
are eren^ and terminate at the head by a kind 
of knob ; the following year this 4cnob grows . 
from the ){ieid, pufhed oat by a cylinder of 
horn, vMdi forms and terminates alfo by 
another kfiob, and fo on ; for as long as the 
animal lives, the hoiDS continue to grow; 
tbefe knobs are eafily diftinguiihed, and by 
which his age may be eafdy ktfown, by adding 
three years to the number of intervals between 
the other knobs* 


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The horfe eats ilowly, but almoft continually; 
Ae oxy on the contrary, eats quick, and takes 
in a fhort time all the food which he requires s 
after which he lies down to ruminate. This 
difference arifes from the different conformation 
of their fl:oma(?hs. The ^a-, whofe two 
lirft ftomachs form but one vaft bag, can» 
without mcorivenience, receive a large quan* 
tity of graft, which afterwards, by chewing 
digefts a* leifure. But ' the horfe, whofc 
ilomacfa is ftngle and fmall, can receive but 
a fmall quantity of grafs, he therefore fills 
it in proportion as it digefts, and paffes into 
the inteftineS, where is performed the principal, 
decompofition of the food. Having obferved 
in the ^ and the horfe, the fucceffive produdl 
of digeftion, but, above all, the decompofition 
of hay, I remarked in the ox, that at the 
entrance of that part of the paunch which 
forms the fecond ftomach, it is reduced to a 
kind of green pafte ; that in this form it is 
retained in the plaits of the third ftomach $ 
that the decompofition is entire in the &urth 
ftomach ; and that (carcely ?iny thing but the 
dregs paffes into die inteftines. In the horfe^ 
on the contrary, the food is not decompofed 
at all, either in the ftomach or m the ftrft in«> 
teftineSf where, it only becomes more flexible^ 
vot.v. X and 

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t^o buffon's 

and fupple, macerated with the liquor with 
which it is furrounded, it arrives at the caecum 
and colon, without much alteration; it is prin- 
cipally in thefe two inteftines, of which the 
enormous capacity anfwers to that of the 
paunch of ruminant cattle, tiSit in the borfe is 
'performed the decompofition of the food ; but 
this decompofition is never fo intire as that 
vrhich is made in the fourth ftomach of the ox. 

For thefe reafons, and from the infpe&ion 
of the parts, it feems eafy to conceive bow 
chewing the cud is .efFe6led| and why the horfe 
neither ruminates nor vomits. Chewing the 
cud is but a vomiting without nraining, oc- , 
cafioned by the <e-a&ion of the £rft fiomach 
upon what it contains. The ox iillshis two 
firft ftomachs, or portions of the paunch.' 
This membrane aSs with force on the food it 
contains; it is chewed but a little, and its quan- 
tity is greatly increafed by fermentation. Were 
the food liquid, this force of contradUon would 
occafion it to pafs into the third ftomach, 
which commui^cates with the other by a narrow 
<;onveyance, the orifice of ovhich is fituated 
in the pofterior part of the firft, and almoft as 
high as the,oefophagus| thus this conduit can- 
5^ot admit the food) until it has become fpme* 
ivhat fluid. The dry parts muft, therefore, rife 


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up again, into the cefophagus, the orifice of 
which is larger than that of the conduit ; in 
fsL&y they go, up ag^ainto the mouthy and the 
animal again chews and macerates them, im- 
bibes them afreih with its.faiiva, and thus by - 
^degrees liquifies them fiifficient to pafs into the 
third ftomach, where it is again macerated be- 
fore it goes into the fourth 3 and it is in this 
laft ftomach that the decompofition of the hay 
is finifhed, which is there reduced to a perfe<5): 

What' chiefly confirms the truth of this ex- 
planation is, that as long as th^ animals fuck, 
or are fed with nuik and other liquid aliments, 
ttey do not chew the cud; and that they chew 
the.cud much more in winter, when they are 
fed with dry food, than in fummer, when they 
cat tender - grafs. In the horfe, on the con- 
- trary, the ftomach is fmall, the orifice of the 
oefophagus is narrow, and that of the pylorus 
very large. This alone would render chew- 
ing the cud impoffible, for the food contained 
in this little ftomach, though perhaps more 
ftrongly comprefled than in the ftomach of the 
otCj does not mount upwards, finqe it can eafiLy 
defcend through the pylorus, which is very 
large; and it is not neceflary that the hay 
fbould be reduced to a foft running pafte, be- 
X 2 cau& 

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23? buffon's 

cauie the force of the coiltra£tion of the ftomach 
pufhes the aliment through whea almoft dry. 

It is by this difFerefu:e, then, tfaat the ox 
chews the cud, and that the horfe cannot per^ 
form diis operation. But there is ftiil another 
difference, in the horfe, which hinders him from, 
shewing the cud, and is the reafon why he 
cannot vomit; the paflage of oefophagus being 
placed obliquely in the flomacb, the membranes 
of which are v«ry thick, makes a kind erf* gutter 
in chem fo oblique that it muft clofe flill mope 
inftead of opening by the convulfive motions 
'of the flomach. Although this difference, a$ 
well as many others we obfenre in the con*- 
Yormation of -the bodies of thefe animals, de* 
•pend oil' thdr t conftant naturej ncverthelefr, 
there are in the developement, more particularly 
-in the foft parts, differdlices^conftant in ap- 
pearance, but which may, and a^hially do, vary 
from circumftances. The vafl: capacioufhefe 
of' the ox's paunch, for example,- is not en- 
tirely owing to Nature; it is not of that fize, 
•in its primitive coriformation, but attains it by 
degrees, from ^he large quantity of aliment 
it receives; for, in the calf, which is iK>t very 
young, hut has eat no graft, th6 paunch Is 
much fmaller in proportion thaft in the ox. 
^his capddiottfhefs of die paunch proc^odft, 

" <- ^ then. 

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ifcen, from the extcnfion which is occafioned 
by the large quantity of aliments, of which I 
was well convinced by an experiment that ap« 
peared to me decifive. I brought up two 
lambs of the fame age, one on bread, the other 
on grafs, and when they were a year old, on 
opening them, I found the paunch of the lamb^ 
which had lived on grafs was much larger than 
that which had lived on bread. 
' It is faid that oxen which eat flowly are more 
capable of working than thefe which eat quick, 
that oxen fed oii high and dry lands are mora 
lively, rigorous, and healthy, than Aok which 
Kve in low humid grounds; that they are all 
ftronger when fed on dry. hay than when fed 
with grafe; that they me$t with more diiHculty, 
on the change of climate, than horfes, and thar^ 
'for this reafoxi, oxen for the plough fhould 
never be purchafed but in their own neighs 
bourhopd. . 

In winter, as oxen- do- nothing*, it is fuffi:- 

eient to feed tlienir on ftraw, with a litde hay ^ 

- . but at the feafon they work they fhould have 

. more hay than ftraw> likewife a little bmn, or 

X 3. a few 

* Thii U not the cafe in England, as in many counties 

the /aniier« excepting in hard weather^ fiads It the beft time 

to keep them in full employ* 

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^34 BMfOV^A 

a few <xtts. If hay is Icarce ibey fliouH bavfr 
frefli-ctit gra(s» leaves > of afli) elm^ oak, &Ci 
bjt this fiDod ihould he given in a finall quaiw 
tity, becaolb the exce(s'of it^^beiag «rhat diqf 
are veryfoxid of, joccafiom tfaom to void Uoody 
tirine; bat. lucerne,/ fitintfoiae, lupins, turnip^, 
boiled barky, &c. are very gpodfor them, and 
as they never eat more than is neceflar y ttiq^ 
ihould always be fupplied widi as' touch 9^^ 
they will 'tak& .They ihiould put to 
pafture till about the' middle of May i they 
ihould be kepC at pdflure all the fummer; and,, 
about die middle of Odober they fliould bq 
brought back to M<lc>'> only obierving not to 
t:faange them .too iuddehly from green to dry- 
food, or from dry to gceen, b^t to bring thesi. 
to it by dcgrcct. • 

Great heat incommodes thl» animal moit- 
perhaps than great eold. During fummbr they, 
ihould be brought to work at day-break, taken^ 
to the flable, or left to £3ed inthe wbods,. 
.during the heat of the day, and not yoked^ 
again till three or four in the afternoon. In 
fpring, winter, and autunui, they may be worked- 
from eight or nine in the morning, till five or. 
iix in the evening. They do not require fo- 
'much care as horl^s, yet td keep them healdfy 

• ailA 

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, 'KATVtUU&HItTORY. ^35; 

mad vigorotis they Aiould be rurried every dayi. 
fild their hoofb carefully greafed and waihed;. 
ihey fhould be taken to 'drink at leaft twice 
a»day; they are fond of water that is frelh 
and' cool, while the horfe loves it muddy and. 
luke-warm^. • 

Nearly the &tne ^od and care are requifitt * 
fef the cow as the ox $ but the cow that fuckles- 
acquires more particular attention, as well in 
afae chufing as in the management. It is (aid)./ 
ibat black cows give the beft. milk, and that 
\diite cows give the moft; but of whatever 
colour, fhe ihould be flefhy, have a briik eye,, , 
and be light ia her walk ; (he {hould be young>. 
her milk plentiful, and ;o£ a^ good kind ; ihe 
.Ihould be milked twice ^a-day in fiimmer, and 
jonce in winter ; . and, if we would increafe the 
;quantity, Qis moft be fed with more fucculent. 
food than herbage. 

Good milk is neither too tibick, 4ior too 
-thin;, its confiftence ihould be fuch, that a drop 
ihould preferve its roundnefs without running. 
In colour it fhould be of a beautiful whitf : 
that which is inclinable to blue or yellow is 
worth nothing y its tafte ihould be fweet^ with- 
out any bitternefs or fourncfs* It is befl in- 
the month .of May, and during the fummer> 
than in winter ^ and it is never j>erfc£lly good 


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^^6 WTFcnfi: 

but when the cow is of a proper age, anj ii» 
good health. The milk of young heifers is 
too ^hick, that of old cows is too dry, and 
during the winter k is too diick. The milk of 
the cow is not good when fhe is in feafon, near 
her time, or has lately calved. In the third and 
fourth ftomachs of the calves which fuck, there 
are clots of curdled milk, which,, dried in the 
air, ferve to make runnet, and tha longer it 
is kept, the better it is,, ancj it requires but a 
finall quantity to make a great deal of cheefe^ 

Both cows and oxen love wine^ vinegar, aiid 
felt, and they will devour with avidity a fea(bn«- 
ei iallad. In Spain, and fome other countries, 
they place near the' young calf one of thofe 
ftones, called faiegres, which are found in fait 
mines ; they lick this i&lt ftone all the time the 
mother is: at pafture, whichr excites the appe- 
tite, or creates thirft fo much, that the moment 
the cow returns, the young calf fucks with^ 
great eagernefi ; and this makes them grow Sit- 
ter and fader than thofe to wJhich no (alt is 
. given. For the fame reafon, when oxen loath 
their food, they give them grafs foaked in vine- 
gar,, or ftrewed witji felt;, fait may alfo be 
given to them, as it excites their appetites in 
order to. fatten them in a fhort time. It is 
ufual to put them to fatten when ten.years old ; 


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if we ftay longer^ thjsre is Ids certainty of fuc« 
cefe, and their flefh is not fo good. They may 
be fattened in all feafons, but futnmer is gene-* 
•rally preferred) becaufe it is attended with left 
expence; and by beginning in May or June, 
.we are almoft certain.of having them fat before 
the end of ,0<Sfcob&r.. When we begin to fat»- 
tea tlieqi they, mu^ not be ifufFered to WQrk 
any longer. They fhould drink much oftcner^ 
and have . fucculent food ia abundance^ fome^ 
times mixed with a little fait, and be left t« 
chew. the<:u^ at leifure, and to fleep in the cow« 
Jioufe during the heal: of tlie day» In four or 
five months, if thus attended to, they will beu 
come Co f;^t tb^t it wi^l be difficult fbr. them to 
4 walk,. or be. conducSted to any diftance but by 
XmdU jc^rAtes* .Cows and bulls, wi^ioie teftif- 
cles;^e tWifted, may alfbbe fat^ned) but the 
Jlefli. of the cow is drier, and that of the bull is 
"redder and harder than that of the ox, and thfe 
latter has always a ftrong disagreeable tafte* 
Bulls, cows, and (fxetty are very apt to lick 
' . tbemielves, efpecially when quiet and at reft;. ' 
.and as this is ftippofed to prevent their fattentng, 
it is ufual toi-ub all parts of dieir bodies which 
4iiey can reach vnth their own dung. When 
^tbis* precaution is not taken, they xaife up the 
• hair of their coat» with their tonguesy and fw»t- 

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238 BurroN's 

low it in large quantities. As this fubflance 
cannot digeft, it remains in the ftomacb, an4 
forms round fmooth balls, of fo Confiderable a 
fize, as to incommode and prevent digeftion* 
Thcfe balls in time get covered with a brown 
cruft, which, though nothing but a thick mu- 
cilage, becbmes hard and fhining j They, are 
or^ly found in the paunch, and if any of the 
haiis get into the other ftomachs, they do not 
remain, but feem to i^afs oiF with the alt* 

Animals which have incifive teeth, fuch as 
tiie horfe and the ais, in both jaws, bite ihort 
grafs more eafily than' thofe which want thefe 
teeth in the fuperior jaw; and if the fheep and 
goat bite the clofeft, it is becaufe they are fmaU> 
and their lips are thin. But oxerij whofe 
lips are' thick, can only bite long grafs ; and 
it is for this reaibn th^t they do no harm to the 
pafture on which they livei as they only bite 
off the tops of the young herbiage, they do not 
ftir the roots, and the growth is fcarcely check- 
ed; inftead of which, the fheep and the goat 
bite fo clofe, that they deftroy the ftalk and fpoil 
the root. Befides, the horfe chuCbs the fliorteft 
and moft delicate grafs, leaving the largeft to 
grow for feeds; but the ox eats thefe thick 
ftalks^ and by little, and littlei deftroys the 


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coarfer grafs ; (o that in a few years^ the field 
in which the horfe has lived becomes poor, arid 
that on which the e^ has broufed, becomes an 
Huprovcd pafture. 

Our oxen^ which we muft not confound 
with the buffalo, bifon, &c. feems to be ori- 
ginally of this temperate climate, great heat, 
or-exceffive cold,^ being equally injurious to 
them. Befides this fpecies, which is fo abun- 
dant in Europe, is not found in the fouthern 
countries, and is not extended beyond Armenia 
and Perfia; nor beyond Egypt and Barbary in 
Africa. For in India, the reft of Africa, and 
even in America, the cattle have a bunch on 
the back, or are animals of a diiFerent fpecies, 
which travellers have called oxen. Thofe 
found at the Cape of Good Hope, and in many 
parts of America, were carried from Europe 
By the Dutch and Spaniards. In general, 
Countries which are rather cold agree better 
with our oxen than hot' clirnatesj they are 
larger and &tter in proportion as the climate is 
humid, and as it abounds in goodnefs of 
pafture. The oxen of Denmark, Padolia, 
XTkraine, ^and Calrauck Tartary, are the largeftj 
diofe of England, Irdand, HoHsind, and Hun- 
gary, are larger than thofe of Perfia, Turkey, 
Greece, Italy, France, and Spain i and thofe 


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240 buffon's 

of Barbary arc the fmalleft. The Dutch every 
year bring from Denmark a vaft number of 
large thin cowS, -which give more milk thaa 
thofe of France.; and it is poffible they are of 
ijhat breed of cows which has been carried 
into Poitou, Aunis^and Charente, for thofe 
cows are larger, and much thinner, than com* 
mon cows, and produce double the quantity of 
milk-and butter. They have milk at all times, 
and may be milked all the year,' excepting four 
or five days before they calve. Though they 
eat no more than common cows, their pafturey 
however, muft be excellent ; .and as they are 
always lean it is certain that all the fuper- 
abundance of their food turns into milk \ in- 
ftead of which, Common cows become fat, and 
ceafe to give milk when they have lived fome 
time in rich paftures. With a bujl of this 
^reed, and common cows, a baftard kind is 
produced, which is more fruitful, and abounds - 
more in milk than ti^e common race. Thefe 
baftard cows have frequently two calves at a 
time^ and they give milk all the year. Thefe 
milch cowsf form a part of the riches of Hol- 
land, from which place they export butter and 
cheefe to a* confiderable amount; they give 
as much milk again as French cow^, and fix 
limes as much as thofe of Barbary. . 


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KATURAt HfSTOItr. t^t 

tii England, Ireland, Hdland> Switxerlanc^ 
and other northern countries, they fiilt airf 
fmoke the flefli of the ox in lax^e quanttdesi 
hoih for the uie of the navy and for the ad<« 
vantage of commerce. They export sl(b froia 
thofe countries large quantities cf leather ; the 
hide of the ox, and that of the cal^ ferringibr 
an infinite number ^ ufes. The fat is idfii 
very ufeful. The dung of the ox is the beft 
manure for li^ht dry folls^ The horn df this 
anhnal Was the firft inftrument ever made xxSt 
of for drinking, or augmenting founds; the 
ifirft tranlparent matter ever ufed for windows 
and lanthorns. It is now foftened to make 
1)0X63, combs, and a thouiand other things, 
£ut I mud conclude, for, as I faid before 
Natural Hiftory finiOies where die Hiftory of 
^e Arts begin* 


OXEN are very numerous in T^rtary and 
Siberia ; and at Tobolfki black cattle abounds^ 
In Ireland I formerly remarked that both exm 
and cows were without horns ^ but this I find 
roi. V, Y applies 

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24^ . ^jjuffon's 

applies only to the fouthern part, where there 
16 either fcarcely any grafs, or is very bad, which 
gives ftrength to my pofition, that horns arife 
from a fuperabundance of nourifl;iment. Ad- 
jacent to the fea the Irifh boil their fifh down 
extremely foft, with which they feed their cows, 
and of which they are very fond; and it is 
iaid t]fQ milk h^s not the (malleft difagreeable 
fmell, or tafte therefrom* 
~ In Norway, both cows and oxen are very 
diminutive j but on the Norwegian coaft they 
are bigger, probably owing to their having 
better paflure,\and being allowed to range at 
perfect freedom; for they are left entirely to 
' themfelves without any guides^ unlefs the rams 
may be fo called who accom^pany them in winter, 
and who fcrape the fnow from the ground 
both for themfelves and companions, to get 
at the grafs. Living in this wild fkte they 
fometimes grow very fierce, and are only to be 
caught by means of ropes. 

European cattje have multiplied in a mofl: 
aftonifliing manner in South America. In the 
vicinity of Buenos- Aires, they hunt them merely 
for their greafe and- hides, and frequently kill 
large quantities. The coaft of Brazil produces 
very indifFcrent cattle ; they are fmaH, arid their 
Aelh has a had favour, laoft probably owing to 
^ - the 

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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ene/ravtd tor Barrf Bufi^m, 

PuhHiiud fyJJ.BMr. DecSLij^i. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the bad quality of their pafturage* There 
are great numbers of oxen in feme parts of 
Africa. The mountains are covered with wild 
cows from Cape Biarit to Sierra Deona ; their 
colour is generally brown with black horns, 
and they are fo exceedingly prolific, that both 
Europeans and Negroes "find it neccffary to be 
perpstuatlydeftroying them by hanting. There 
"are alft? wild cows of a dark <?hcrnut colour in 
hiany^ parts of Barbary, and in the deferts of 
Nutnidia > they -are fmall, run faft, and fre- 
quently keep ift flocks of one or two hundred 
together. • - 


IT doea not admit of a doubt, bat that all 
animals which are now adJually domeftic were * 
formerly wHd. Thofc whofe hiftory has al- ' 
ready beeh given, afford a fufficient proof of it • 
for there are ftiJl wild horfes, affes, and bulls. 
Can man, who has conquered fo many mil- 
#Y 2 lions 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

244 BVFFOV^ft 

lions of iadividuak, boaft of haying fiilx&edf 
an entire ^ecies? As they were all created 
wicbout his participadon> is ic not reafonable 
tp bdieve that Nature enaUed them to exifl 
9nd multiply widiout his aid I If we confider^ 
8everdiele6> the weaknefs and fiupidity of 
^ flieep»-and refled^ that this animal^ with- 
^ut defence, cannot find iafety in flight; that 
ke has for his enemies all devouring animals^ 
vhidi feem to feek him in prefEaience, and to 
devour him by choice ;.diat formerly this ipe* 
cies produced but lew i and that die life of each 
individual is butfhort;. we (hall be tempted to 
diink„ that from the beginning iheep were 
confided to the care of man ^ that they had oc« 
cafion for his prote^oii to fubfift, and of his 
care to multiply ;. efycfialhy as there never were 
any wild fheep found in the defer ts. In all 
places where man dooi not rvl^ the lion» tiger> 
and wotf reign by force and cruelty j^ and thefe 
auiimals of blood and carnage^ live longer> and 
multiply iafter than flieep. In fliort^ if we 
were now to. abandon the flocks^ wfaidiwe 
have renderedib numerous^ they would ibon be 
deftroyed,. and their Ipecies entirely annihilated 
by the voracity of its numberleis enemies* 

It-appears, therefore, that it is only by the~ 
help aod car^ of man ibe^p have been prcferved^ 


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aiid that they could not have continued to fub- 
flft of themfelves. The female is abfoIutel7 
•without refource, and without defence. The 
ram has but feeWe arms ; his courage is nothing 
but a petulance ufeleTs to himfelf,* inconvenient 
to othcFs, and which is deftroyed by caftration. 
The wedder is ftill more fearful than ewes. It 
is through fear that fheep gather fo often in 
'troops J the fmalleft noife, to which they ar6 
unaccuftomed, makes them get clofe together ; 
and this fear is attended with the greateft ftupr- 
dity, for they know not how to fly the danger, 
nor do they even feem to feel the hazard and 
inconvenience of their fituation. They con- 
tinue obftinately fixed wherever they are, and 
for neither rain nor fnow will they ftin To 
oblige them to change their route, or fituation, 
they muft have a chie^ who is inftrufted to walk 
firft, and whom they will follow, ftep by ftep. 
This chief, however, would remain without 
motion if he were not driven off by the (hep- 
perd, or the dog which guards them, who, in 
faft, watches over their fafetyi defends, direits, 
feparates, aflembles, and in fliort, communis them every motion that is neceffary 
for their fafety. 

Of all quadrupeds, then, fheep are the niofl 

inlienfible, and have the leaft xefources from 

Y.3 ' inftina. 

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mftin£t* Goats> /which ia. nuny tbwigy 
rcfemUe theoii. have mudi moire -£igacity.r 
They know how to condu£t them&lves^ 
and to avoid danger^ and are eafily &ini^ 
liarized to, new objeds;. the fheep neither 
knows , how to fiy from danger,- nor to face 
k; let their wants be ever ii great, t^ey never 
come to man for affiftance lb willingly as the 
goat; and, which in animals appears to be the 
laft degree of timidity^ or infenfibility, the^ 
female wiU fuffer her lamb to be taken away 
without ihewiflg any figns of anger^ or trying. 
to defend it^, nor by the fmalleft diiFerence in 
her bleatingy exprefles the finalleft degree of 

But this ammal, fo contemptible in itfelf, fo^^ 
wanting in fentiment and interior qualities,, is ta 
man the moft ufeful of all animals. -Of itfelf 
k at the iame time fbrniflies us with food and. 
doathing ; without reckoning, the particular 
advantages we have from- the milk, the fat,, the 
ikiny the bowels, the bones, and even the dung*- 
This animal ieenis to evince that namre has- 


"^ The iKneity df tkis chafi^ o^ iAdilEerence, will b* 
doutbted by all who have pafled o?«r the fertile plains o^ 
Sfigland, while fhele fleety flocks were grating in the fpriogp^ 
fince, infen&ble indeed muft be that breafty which has not 
A3I the teador reipoaiet^of lfa«hleatiBS ewe, aa4 h» diftaiK 

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pwm k nothing but what is Sot the adyantagt 
and coarenteticy of ouou 

Love, which in aU animals is the mod 
l^enenil arad lively fcnbtum^ - feems to be the 
tMdy one which gives any vivacity to the raow 
When be feds aiqrAK^h emoti<His, he becomet 
petulant, fights, and will fotnetiines attack 
even his own ihq^herd. The ewe^ howeveiv 
even at thofe times, does not appear more 
animated ^ and has only inftim^ fufficient not to 
irefufe die approaehes of the male, to chuie. 
her food, and to know her own lamb* . Xnflin^ 
is mofe certain as it is more mechanical 
The young lamb, among a numerous flock^. 
will fearch and find out its mother, and will 
feize its t^t, without ever being miftaken* It 
is alio iaidy that iheepL^are fenfible to the plea- 
&res of mufic^ that they brouze with mor^ 
affiduity, are better ia health, and fattea foonec 
when they hear the fhepherd's pipe ^ but it 
appears more probable that muiic ferves to 
amufe the (hepherd,. and^'that it is to thisfoli* 
tary, idle life, that Atre owe the origin of the 
art. '^ ^ 

TheTe anlmals> whofe underftandings are .£> 
fimple,. are alfo of a very weak conftitution. 
They cannot walk long}. traveUiiig weakens 
luid exhauft» them i and when they run, they 


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14* buffok's 

pamt, and are foon out of breath. The great 
heat of the fun, is as difagreeable to them, as 
too much moifture, cold, or fnoW; They are 
fcbjed to many dtforders, the greateft part of 
which are contagbus. Super-abundance of 
hi fometimes kill them, and always prevents, 
the ewes from having young. They fuffer a 
great deal in breeding, have frequent abortions 
and require more care than any other domeftic 

^ When the ewe Is near her time, fhe fhould 
be taken froni the reft of the flock, and watched 
in order to be near to help her in delivery; The 
lamb frequently pre&nts itfelf crofsways, or 
b3rthe feet j and, in this cafe, the-mother*s life is 
in danger if (he is hot affifted. As foon as iDhe 
is delivered, the lamb fhovAd be lifted on its 
feet, and' the milk drawn out of the mother's 
teats; this firft milk being bad, would do much 
hurt to the lamb, and therefore it is neceffary to 
ftay till .the teats are filled again, before it is 
fufFered to fdck. The Iamb is kept warm", and 
fhut up for two or three days with the mother, 


^ THere appears in the text a degree of unufual afperitjr 
a^ainil this harmlefs animal^ and all its iroperfediens fecm 
]{i^red in glaring coloursi but in this^as well as in feveral 
other partlcttiars, Cme exaggeration is adopted^ fince YcarM 
any domestic animal, art the tiipe of bringing foitb, re^uirU' 
lci»aAAaace tbaa the ewe docs m gejieraJ. 

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that it may learn to know her. For a few 
<bys, in order to re-eftablifli the ftrength of the 
ewe, ibe ihould be fed with hay> barley wetted, 
or bran mixed with a little fait. The water 
ihe drinks ihould be luke-warm, with fome 
'wheat or bean flour, or millet put into it. In 
four or five days fhe may again be ufed, by^de^- 
grees, to her common manner of living, and 
may be put amongft the others, only obferving 
not to take her too far, left it (hould overheat 
her milk. Sonietinae after, when the lamb be- 
eiiiS to have ftrength, and to fkip about, it may, 
with (afety, be fufibred to follow its mother 
into the fields. 

It is ufual to fend thoie lambs which appear 
veak to the butcher^ and to preferve thole 
vhich are the largeft, are moft vigorous, and 
have the thickeft fleece s the firft lambs are 
icarcely ever fo good as thofe of the following 
litters. If thoiie lambs are wanted to be reared 
which are brought forth in October, November, 
pecember, January, or February, they are kept 
in the ftable, and only let out to fuck morniiigs 
and evenings, until the beginning of April. 
$ome time before letting them out they^ 
ihould daily have a little grals for the purpoie 
of accuftoming them by degrees to their new 
jQOuriihment. They may be weaned as early 

as . 

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%<fl buffon's • 

as a month old, but it is better to let them fucJ: 
for fix weeks or two months. Lambs which 
are all white, and without fpots, are always 
preferred, becaufe white wool always produces 
the beft price. Lambs flxould not be caftrated 
Before they are five or fix months -old at the 
carlieft, and then the operation Ihould be per- 
formed when the weather is moderate, either 
in fpring or autumn: it is done two ways, 
cither h^ incifjon, or by deffroying thcveflels,' 
which terminate in them, by a tight Kgature. 
Caftration makes lambs fick and melancholy, 
and to prevent the'Jifguft which gehferally fuc- 
ceeds they fliould have bran given them mixed 
with a little fait For two or tiifee days. \ 
' At a year old, rams, ewes, and.wedders, lofe 
the two forc^ teeth of the under jaw ; they have 
to incifive ones in the upper ; fix months after 
the two neighbouring teeth fall out atfo; at three 
years of age they are all replaced, are then 
tolerably even and pretty white, but as the. 
animal increafes in years they become uneven 
and black. The age of the ram is aHb known 
by his horns; they appear t}ic firft year, and 
fometimes at hrs birth, and a- ring is added to 
them every year after as long as her lives. In 
general th'e ewes have no horns, but in their 
vplaces two bony prominences; notwithftand»- 


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3ng there are fome which have two and even 
four Horns. Thefe ewes are like the others ; 
their horns are five or Jix inches long, but lefs 
twitted than thofe of the ^ram, and when they 
have four the two anterior are fliorter than the 
other two. The ram is capable of generating 
at eighteen months^ and the ewe to produce at 
a year old ; but it is better not to couple them 
before the ram is three aud the ewe two ; as 
before that period the young will be feeble and 
weak, which indeed is generally the cafe with 
their firft produftions. One ram is fufficient 
to attend 25 or 30 ewes 5 he fhould be chofen 
from the ftrongeft and handfomeft of his fpecies; 
he fliould have horns, for there are fome rams 
in our climate which arc without, but they are 
iefs vigorous, and lefs proper for propagation*. 
A good and handfome ram fliould have a large 
thick head, a wide forehead, large black eyes, 
broad nofe, big ears, thick neck, long high 
body, large loins and crupper, and a long tail. 
The beft rams are the white ones, well covered 
with wool on ihe belly, the tail, the head, the 
ears, and quite up to the eyes. Ewes which 
have wool in the greateft abundance, moft 


• This does not always hold good fincc the Lincoln flieep 
;ire without horns, and are at the fame time as fine and a« 
large as aay io Englandt 

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bufhy, whiteft, and moft fiHcy, arc the beft for 
propagation; efpecially if they are large, have 
thick necks, and walk nimbly. It hasalfo been 
remarked, that thofe which are rather lean than 
ht are the moft fuccefsful breeders. 

The ewes are commonly in feafon from the 
beginmng of November to the end of April ; 
but they conceive at any time if fupplied with 
ftim dating food, fuch as falted water, and bread 
made of hemp-feed* The ewes su-e allowed 
to go With the ram two or direc times, after 
which they are feparated from him; he in- 
variably attaches himfclf to the oldeft ewes, 
arid defpifes the young -ones. Daring the 
coupling feafon great care muft be taken not 
to expofe the €wcs to rains or ftorms, for 
moifture prevents conception, and a clap of 
thunder often produces an abortion. A day or 
two after copulation they may return to their 
ufual mode of living, for if the (alted water» 
hempen bread, and other hot foods, are con- 
tinued it will prevent their produce. They 
carry their young five -months, and drop them 
at the beginmng of the fixth. They com- 
monly bring forth but one lamb, though they 
ibmetimes have two: in warm climates diey 
jproduce twice a year, but in France, and thofe 
which arc colder never mor^ than x)nce. The 

- ram 

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Tarn is admitted to the ewes about the end of 
July, or beginning of Auguft, for the purpofe. 
of having lambs in January; in September, 
Oftober, and November, he is given to a 
greater number, from which we have plenty of 
lambs in February, March, and April i there 
are alfo quantities in May, June, July, Auguft, 
and Septemberi'and it is only in 0<3ober, 
November, and December, that they are fcarce. 
The ewes have milk for fix or feven months ; it 
is tolerable nouri^ment for children and country 
people, and makes very good cheefe, efpecially 
when mixed with cows milk. Tlie time for 
milking the ewes is juft before they go into 
the fields, or immediately after their return. 
In fummer they may be milked, twice a day, 
jand once in winter, 

£wes fatten when they are with young, be- 
caufe they then eat more than at any other 
time. As the/ often hurt thenifelv^s they 
Jiave frequent abortions, fonaetimes become 
barren, and often bring forth monfters j never- 
thelefs, if they are well taken care of they will 
produce through life 5 that is for ten or twelve 
years, though they commonly begin to grow 
old and ufelefs by the time they are feven or 
eight, ^ The ram lives -till^ he is twelve or 
fourteea years old, but is unfit ior propagation 
VOL. V. - Z after 

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254 ' B^FFOK'S' ' 

after he is eight. He fhould then he caftratcd, 
and fattened with the old ewes. The flcfli of . 
the ram is always ill-tailed, that of the ewe 
infipid, while that of the weddef is the moft 
fucculent and beft of all oiir common meat. 

Thofe who wifh to form a flock with a view 
to profit, buy ewes ancl wedd^rs from the age 
of eighteen mondis to two years, an hundred 
of which may be put under Ae care of one 
ftiepperd, and if he is carefiiland affifted by a 
good dogj'hc'wih lofe tut few. When he 
condufts them to the fields' he (hbuld ilways 
go firft, accuftdm them to the fodrtd' bf his 
voice, to follow him without going alMfe among 
the corn, vines, and cultivated lands,* where 
they do confiderable damage. Hflls,^ or plains 
above hills, afford them the'lfeft arid nribfl: 
agreeable paftufe, and they feould' never be 
fuffered to brouze in l6w and niarfhy grounds. 
In winter they flioald be fed in the liable on 
bran, turnips, hay, ftfaw,^lucfcrnei t^feine, 
leaves of afii, elm, &C. SOidxmlbfs the leather 
is very bad they ihoulii tfe' afiowfi ' ta go -out 
every day for the fake of cxiercif</;- Iii the cold 
fealbn they fhould not he takfen to the fields be- 
fore ten o'clock in th^ morning, aUd reinain for 
four or iive hours j they fhould thfeil be 'made 
to dxiak, and about' three o'clodc mi the after- 

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noon be reconduflied home. In fpring and 
autumn, on the contrary, they fiiould be taken 
out as foon as the fun has diflipated the moiflure 
and hoar-froft, and pot taken back again till 
near fim-fct» It is fuificient \n thefb two fea- 
fons if they drink once a day, and thatjuft he* 
fore they return to the ftable, where there muft ^ 
always be forage for them, though in a fmaller 
quantity than during winter. It is in fummer 
alone that, they ought to find all their food in 
the fields, where they fhould then be condu<Sle4 
twice a day and taken twice to driok; they 
.fliouldbe led out in the morning while the dew 
is on the ground, allowed to feed four or five 
hours, and after drinking led back to the foId> 
. or fooae ihady place. About three or four 
o*clGck itt the afternoon, when the cxcefEvc 
heat begins to diminifh, they may be again 
. taken imp the fields and allowed to flay until 
.the 'night comes on^ ^nd vyere it laot for the 
danger of the wolf, it would be better to leave 
them a\it all night, as. they do in England, 
which would fliajc^ .them more vigorous and 
healthy. As violent h^&t grqatly incommodes 
them, and the fays pf.lhe fun will give them 
the vertigOj they kept, when 
broufing, . with their heads frpm the fun, (b 
that their bodies may form a kind of fhade. 
Z 2 ^ And 

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2S6 BUFFOW^S ' • 

' And it is aT(b very*neceflary, to preferve thetr 
Wool, that they fliould?nbtft(i foffercd'to ktd 
amoi)gth6tns," 'hilars, <5> briffle^y- : > - * s ^ 

In dry and "^hfgH '^roiirtdv 1ivHt?€^^<?^^*lRymc 
and othetbifefiferorii/ plants ^t)6ttn$-^e flefli 
of thetiiefefJ^is'bf sr''fttuch b^ttfip ^^*Utty t!ian 
when fed*ort low phih^ ind 'humid vaHeys-; 
unlfefs' near the fta 'coaft, w^ierc^ll the herb&gc 
havirjg imbibed a degree oF'^faknersj'it rchders 
the rfiutton fupdrfbr to thalt f^ 6n iny bftir 
'paft:are;it gives alfo ia pleafmg •fiaVour t<> the 
milk arid adds to its quantity. 'Nblhl rig 4s 
more plcafing to the taftfe cf thefe SEntifea!stlia» 
ialt, h6t Is there ^riy thirig more ' fafottiry tor 
'them when ghreii in moderation : in tbrUe Jyf a<95s 
tbty-put a bag offak, or falt-ftone, h^to the 
'■fheep-f6ld/ the which they will i*l-*lict by 
turn^' • • \ ' ' . , 

Every year 'thofe growrt oP a proper age to 

fatten flfouT^ be picked out of <he ftock, as they 

^requiiAj a tfifFerent treatment. If iwfirifttftery 

iheyfhould W taken to the fieW' before (ua- 

rife'that ihey tnay feed on the. grfeifs whUethe 

dew remains • upofn it. Nothing contributes 

mefrfe to fatten flieep thah water taken in great 

quantities, and nothing retards it oi^rc than the 

•heat 6( the fonj for whioh reafpit they "fliould 

be takeft im<i fiie'Dikde by hinc ' o^:lock in die 

* morning^ 

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NATURAL Hi^Tomr. 55 7 

morning) before the voilent heat comes on, and 
a^litdc fait {hould be given tlieoi to excite theiff 
appetite for wat^n About four o'clock in the 
afternoon they ihould be led put again to fre(h 
and moifi: paftures. This care purfutxl for 
two or three months is fufficient to make them 
Acdxy ai>d fat; bat thi$ faty which originates 
from the great quantities of water drank by the 
animal, is only a. kind of purfy f^A^clIing) and 
would foon occafion the rot; it is therefore 
neceflary to kill them immediately when they 
acquire this falfe fat; even their fleli, inftea^d 
, of having become firm and JMicy,. is frequently 
the more flat and infipid. If « we would have 
good mutton^ befides feeding, them in the dew 
and giving them plenty of water, it is neceilary 
th^ {hau)d bave more fucculent food than ' 
grafs. In winter, nay in all feafons they may 
be fattened by keeping them iaftab^s aodfeed^^ 
ing them with the flour, of barley> o^ts^ wheats 
beans, &;;. mixed with fait to inake ^m drink 
more frequently. But whatever . niode is 
followed,, jt (hould- be do^ quickly^ and the 
iheepihould be killed immediately, for they 
cannpt be fattened twice,, and almpfl alt die 
with dife^kfes of the liver*. 

We frequently find worpnt in the livers of 
animals y a. dcfgription of thofe found in iheep 
: « Z 3 and. 

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258 BUFFON** 

and oxen is contained in the Journal i'd§^ 
Savans of i669^ and in the German *Ephi-i 
merides. It was ♦ thought ' th^f «hefe woitn* 
we;ie peculiar tb- ahithals which chew the cxidy 
but M. Daubef ton difcoverei feme Iri the liv^ 
bf an afs, and it is fSrobaWe thejr wright be 
found in thofe of many oth^r anifiials< la ha^ 
alfo tecft fard that butterflies are Ibmetimes^ 
found in the livers of Aeep; and' in conforma- 
tion of this JVf. RouilW favoured tec wiA a 
letter of M» Gachet de Beaufort,, containing. 
the following obfcrvations : ^tt has long been 
remarked, that our Alpine wedders- frccfuentljp^ 
lofe their flefb on a fudden; thM! their eyed 
turn white and gummy^ that their blood b€-» 
ccmes ferous, having fcarcely any red globoles^. 
their tongues parched, and ther? nofes ftu^d- 
with a yellow purulent mucus* It is true this 
does not afic£b the appetite of the aninia], but 
makes him^extremely weak, and termiiiatea ia 
his ' d^ath. From repeated di&^tions it* had 
been difcovered, that animals fo* sffe&cd have 
always butterflies in dieir livers, Which butter- 
91^3 are white, and furnifiied witk wings 9 
their heads are/ nearly oval, hairy, and about 
the fi^e of thofe of the fiik-womi fly. Above 
feventy which I fqueeced out of thp two holes 
convinced me of the truth of this fiiA.'f From 


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KATOTiAL HtrroRY. i^g^ 

iMs defcription of M. Be^urort I cannot ^d^i 
Bait myfelf as. pofitLvely icoiwinced. of their 
being butterflies^ beoaufe kheyhava fo near a.. 
j^fembSftnjCQ. to thie cqvfjm^rk woriins found ia 
Ag iiVera pf ifaitqp) wbi^bfare fidt^, bxpad> and * 
ef b SkBguhf a igwe, a& to ^gtar a^ firft 
rather leaves th^a worms. 

It is cqftoniary foj^ fhcep to be (hora every 
year j and in warm countries vtrhere tfeey. appre- 
hend tio danger frpoi leaving the animal quite 
bare, they do not flieer the virojl^ but tejy: it 
QiF, and thofe frequently And a fufficiency (q 
bave two« crops in a year. In France, and ia 
colder climates, the fleece is iborn only once 
a y^ar, and then » part ef the wool is perr 
mitted to remain by way of preferviiig the 
animal bom the intemperance of the weather* 
This operation is performed in the month of' 
May, after the fljeep have been well, w^cd t^ 
render the wool as clean as pottle* The 
month of AprH is too cold, a&dif delayed. to 
July^ there ivould not befufflcient time for the 
wool to grow to preierve them- from the cold 
of the following winter. The wool of the 
weddcr is gene i ally better, aiid in greater abun* 
dance than that of the ewe or ram ; diat on, 
the neck aiKi cop of th^ back,, is muchfuperior 
to that on the thighs, beliy^ tai^. &c. and. that 


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^6o buffon'Is' 

taken from the bodies of dead) or difeafed 
animals, iis by mutli th€ worft. Wlritewool 
is prrfcrable to greys brown, or blacky .becaufe 
in dying it will take.any colour, and that which 
b fmooth andileek is |feax3rtiiaci«iiie Juried > it 
is even faid^ that (heep whofe wtiolisr curbd are 
not fo good as the others. Folding fheep is of 
grear advantage to the hthdy aisd when it is 
wifhed to imprpve any* by this means, the 
ground muft be inclofed, and f be Aoek fliut in 
«very night during the fuiimier; the dung^ 
urine, and heat of the animals, will foon en« 
rich the moft exhaufted, cold, and infertile 
grounds. An hundrisd (heep in one fummer 
will fertilize eight acres of land for fix years. 

The ancients h^ve remarked that all animals 
which chew the cud have foet, but this is onljr 
^ue with the (heep and goat , and that of the 
iheep is more abundant, whtteF,^ drier, and 
better than that of any other; Suet differs 
materiaHy from fat or greafe, as the latter re- 
mains foft, but the foriner hardens in cooling. 
The fuet amaiTes in the greateft quantities abouc 
the kidneys, anddiereare always more about 
the left thafi the right^, there is alfo a great deal 
m the epiploon, and about the inteftines, but 
that is not near fd firm and good as that of the 
kidneys, Cat],; axid utberearts of the hodj^ 
i - - ^ Sheej^ 

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Sheep have no: other fac than fuet, and this 
matteDis.W prrfdomiiwtltiJriitJieijr-bcidies, that 
their fl*fli>IisitoY«r^vvWtlh il-j-^^v^i^tl^iJiiWood 
contsunftra i o^nfidGhklQnq^^aitit^fv! i^^^. thei^ 

aippta^i0oe^t<>^thiiMi;^fti^y^^>l)f^9/^ .That 

'«rfp«niMj^H&c id0gyihor^r'a|ftivWi |M»ebabIy of 
dH;iimm^5 1yhich;h«fVQr:»oe; ftibe^y lk[UAfi^p by 
«ticl,/4Wid,heco»>e9 mcn?^, a^.ciKWe |Luid^ftK>m 
Ihoiiiioimid klcolna^ 0^ o6fjtihe4>c]dy,iv but that 
of: lAe ram^ '^oal^) and^ {let^jar) > bf, r aU ^aiViDals 
vhiob^.hiv^ fuelc^ hardens, anc} k)fe% all it$ 
£u«lie}9V(lijLiiiu h^at.' I difepv^rcdr tb^ib di,f-» 
isinncds ivvjieat enaatimng thei-r diiferent liquors 
wuhtthcmlcFofoopi^. TbaJ ol the/amfixe*a 
fewr^ aioittcnt» , after it is out of /da^e body,'^nd 
¥im ofder Iid difcpver (be; living orga^ik: «moI^ 
«ule8^ ! of- which it contains grea* ,numbcr«i 
3ieat nm& be applied to keep it . in a ftate . of 
.1 The 'flaiVDiir of the ileft>;.tbe 6ntn^k of 
diewooly the quantity of the <ii^t^^Rad ^ven 
:tfaff.:fi2e:of -the rflwep jdiftir gruSdy irj»di|Ferent 
cotftories. At Bfirri^; in Frafacc, they abound j 
ithofa ofjthe eitvirons^ of Beauvcis, and feme, 
other parts: fof 'Noniiaddy> are the fatteft> and 
bave^ thegpjeateft.^uaaitiry -of faet- Tb^y are 
very; good ia Bimgundy} but the ]k& aijs thoie 


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which arc fed upon the downs in our maritime 
provinces. The wt>o\ of Italy, Spain, and 
England is finer.than the wbol of Fraace. I», 
Poitou, Provence, in the environs of Bayonne, 
anci feveral other parts of France, there is fotne 
flieep which appear ta be of a foreign race* 
they are larger, ftronger, and have a greater 
quantity of wool than thofe of the. common 
breed. They are aJfb more prolific, generally 
producing two Iambs at a time. The rams of 
this breed engender with the common ewes and 
produce an intermediate race. In. Italy and 
Spain there is .'a great variety, in their races of 
Iheep, but they fliould all be regarded as form- 
ing one fpecies with our common fheepi which 
though fo riumerQus does not extend bcyoni 
Europe. Thofe animals with large l)road tails, 
fo common in Afia and. Aftic?, and which tra- . 
vcllers have given the name of B4rbary fheep; 
appear to be of difFcrent fpecies from our com** 
mon fheep, as well as from the pacos and lama 
of America. 

- White wool being moft efteemed, thofe 
Iambs which are black or ipotted are com- 
monly led to flaughter. There are fome places 
however where almoft all the (beep are black; 
and white rarns and ewes will' frequently pro- 
duce fpotted Iambs. In France there are only 


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; ) 

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I I 

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•white, black, and fpotted ; in fpain there is a 
reddilh kind, and in Scotland there are fome 
of a yellow colour : but fhefe varieties in co- 
lour are more accidential than the difference 
and variety of the breed, which notwithftand* 
ing oniy happens from the influence of climate 
and the difference of nourifhment. 


1 WAS favoured with the drawings of two 
Walachian Sheep* (figi 24, 25. J by Mr, Co- 
linfon a Fellow of the Royal Society of London> 
^ whofe horns are very different from ours, but 
I was never able to difcover whether they were 
of the ordinary kind in Walachia or fome ac« 
cidental variety. 

, In Denmark, Norway, and in the northern 
parts x)f Europe, the fheep arc very indifferent ; 
and it is cuftomary there to improve the breed, 
to have rams frequently imported from Eng- 

' * The annexed reprefeatations weretaken from two of thefe 
iWing animal 8y the property •of Mr. Clark j andaa the nkeneff 
was ftron^ly attended tOy will be found more «6rrt£t than 
ibt draw'mgi copied into the works of oAr author* 

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264' BU?FOW*S 

land. la the Iflands near Norway the ih^ep 
are conftantly left in., the fields, and they are 
much larger and produce better wool than thofe 
who are attended by nieo. Pontopiddon afTerts 
that thofc. Iheqi. which Hmc in perfe<a liberty 
alwa^^, fleep on,.tb^ fide, of die Uiand from 
whence the wind will blou^. tl|e fiext tiay^ and 
this is conftantly attended to by the mariners. 

The Iceland iheep have larger and tiiicker 
horns than the common fheep of theie clitxtates ; 
fomc of them have four ar fiv;e horns, but this 
is not common, and when they find. any. fo 
ornamented, they' are fent to Copenhagen and 
ibid at an high price, as gceac rurittieft. ' * 


THOUGH the fpecles of animals are all 
feparated by an interval which Nature ,a^nnot 
overleap, yet fome refemble others in fo many 
refpe(^s that there feems only a neceflary fpace 
to draw a line of feparation. When we com- 
pare thcfe neighbouring fpecics, and confider 
lihem rdativdy to ourfelves, fome appear to be 


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of the greateft utility, and others ieem to bo 
only auxiliary fpecicS) whick might in mzny 
rcfpeSti {etve in the place of the fermer. Thu^ 
the afs might nearly fttpply ^ pbce of thq 
horfi^ and the goof that of the jSieep. The 
goaty like the &ee|H fwniflies bodi milk and 
fuet ia great abundance. ~ Their hair, though 
coarfcr than wool^ can Cerve the purpofe of 
making very goo^ cklh ; their (kins are more 
vai^Mc dian thofe of « the flieep ; and the fiefh 
of a jpoung kid nearly re&mbles that of lamb% 
Thefe auxiliary fpecies are wilder and more 
robttft than the priocifM^ The a^ and th^ 
goat do not require nesyr fo much care as the 
horfe and the fheep, for they every where fin4 
ni6aa9^ of fitppor^ and brooae equally on the 
moft coarfe as on the moft delicate plants $ 
they are leis zSoSkcd by die influence of the 
climate, and can do better without the aid of 
man 9 the lels dependence they have on us the 
more they feem to belong to Nature; and, in- 
ftead of cOnfidering theie fubordinate fpecies 
as degenerations of the principal fpecies; in^ 
ftead of looking on the afs as a degenerated 
horfe; it might with more reafon be Ciid, the 
Jhorfe is an ^ brought to perfedlion, and that 
the (beep is a more delicate kind of goat^ 
which we have taken care of, brought to per- 
Vol. /V. a a feilion 

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l66 BtJFFON*S 

fedioD, and jpropagsted for our crnn ufe ; aikfy 
in general) ^€m A^'iftbft^MttfbdiJ^eciesj efpe- 
ciall^ iknSt^ ikml^i&'^kA^^ 

which ?HbcHU^'\b(j||tfi«lar'iiioi^ 

hf- NirtuhrWe'^tttly 3l6g^dr«iNi3wlieQaii£«ql 

Althotigli "ih^ gdat %^r^4HKfi^ !Q)#rtei»,oMd 

fteia&'te froiil the**(»fc, yetitto ^babfeaWB 
a$ wHUrtglytiohple Mdi the' ilrt'erfa^Ulc^lWte 
With the maiti the ram' with /tiie&d-goat'iti 
Ae &ne manner as the horie VnVti tt94t»3a^ 
Btit thotigh thefe couplings happttf ^^erjM fm- 
quent, and are fometimes prolHie/^t^^fal- 
termediate fpecies has been formed' beetvetor fie 
gdat and the flieep* The tworfjpceies a^e ^dif- 
tin£l, remaining at 4fae fiime'diftanee firttn each 
other; no change has been effected- ^ ^ 
intermixture, ho newdr tei4dte'la^'faas'«riftn 
thbrefirom $ at 'moft 4my ^\re only pfodK:$d 
Indii^aiial 4iflfer^M<^s,' wfaitlh l&mi M iriduMtore 
oh Hii^lhtty «P tack )>#{midve f^ies, 4sii^ on 
tfae'cbhtrar^V c^finn tte f«ali«y of diet^ ifif- 
fci-eht diihuaerlftfcs; 

TRH^e %re, howcfi^j iianf eaife iir wfifch 
We ca^nc^«ftkl^i& tMfet:hatwQeh) Mr pto^ 
xiounce i^n their iSSttMflS^ ikith certaihty : 


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there are others in. wl^chjyp.^e obliged to 
fufpend our Opinioo^^ mAMa 9^9!^ Wf^^^^ oi 
other? we hav^ m|^i^e)(|D$^y^ ^^!^Sg^f<^^ 
our guide -, ^ khMVfi^^ ^(^bc^^MiVfemimy 
arifing linoin th^)«oii«»ri^iiogigiJ^9Q^..iic- 

flpeaing viorofcfW.rfeSl ^im4(^^^^ -9f : the 
doubts refulting from the ina^^^i^acy ^.tbcxfe 
'ili|[K>.h^v«fndqikV9iHred. ta. pbferjp N^^e^^the 
g)rtfUqft^tfb(bi}le(o.thf^dv;^^ l;m)>«>- 

IfidgdJ^onri igooranire .^f .^ gfj»afi wi^b^r. of 
laffilfts «9bidi iime )¥is 119^ d^iclofed tqucbv^^a^d 
wktc^eatl only be rev^edrjto )?Qft^ity ^y-c*- 
.perifgkrfs, find the moft accurati^ ptp^efvation^^ 
ki.. the meftA. lime we ftray ia jdarkjQ^% ^- 
plescfl; between. prejuAlices and probahiIi|ief» 
igimsM.evm of poffibi^des,. a^'eyery.m9«i^ 
iDeot. CPD&MtBding tbes opinioms^ qfr99fia^witjli 
the aS$' of Nature. Jgiiaa^plefiir^e- iu .a^a- 
daops J but,.' witbom qwittiog omr iubje<3;, we 

. gethoBi thotigh. m ^ Sil\lrp>:ic^x^y(kf^ 

ixi gsoisraly wii>Arr«^ b^^^% tbof^^pfQicluced 
. from the he-afs andmar^/Qri(h^:tt%wif.^ ihe* 
. afti^ 2|Ke ;ftBBrile(„i;||utTd44%/c«>ii^9« ^Vfffi have 

no .&IUJlJdtiM|;aili[fi9lllKu.^^ 

aff««i^;lh^:.tbe li^iti^uej^ at ^ven years 
Aa 2- oid^. 

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old, and 'that it can pr6duce with the marc; 
they fay alfo that the (he-mule is capable or 
toric^t«!»A,"btrt: that fhe tztbifyt^Ying he^^fruit 

td pferfsafton.^^* Ut^mtt^rj^^^km^to^m^ 

Sroyxyp^nBfid tiie tMft Wfli6feffi6te,%Ke 
they bl*U«* the rea! flaHnaf&iW^inlVhdir'aiid 
'the theory* bf ^h«r gfencfrifion r *ftd ,t!hdugh 
Sve knew diftinBHythc'^ie^'cf aj^thcr'^- 
"mals Hvhich' {inrhuiri'US^ yet%6 afe -igtiinB* 
;what Irhlght W pfoilidttl Bf -aniA^^inlltftW^ 
^ong tliemfel^fes, 6ir ^ith'ftyreign''^fe^iffi«M. 
'We are butiirinformeJ of the3umar,'an ^- 
'mal faid to bd the producre tDf a ^?6Wdftd ah 
'sriS, or a mare and a bull. W^ 3fe%11b1^»- 
itntwhethtr Ae fefebra would hot prdadCe'^rttti 
' the hbrfe ot the*^, orAe%rt)a(!itiifc*fiatrtPy 
ram with a common ewe j whether Ihe'-^tf- 
" mbis goat te iatiy ffiing more *tfcah a cbiwiion 
goat 'in a VHff ftate, df whether an'intettnBfttflfe 
would iSidt fbtm ah^ inteVifn^Jh»!cr raee^; 'wh^Aier 
thi^ ftiottkies ^ ^f diffevent^l^icsi orj^^lleC 
thjft of the dbg; it l^ 'ohd^ iTid^ Ite famfei^^feit 
yitm'^f^ gte^ nudAlei^^f dfflbWnr W^i^a*-, 
whether^' the' dc^cari piWuce 'With fli^'fc^ attd 
thtf WfcVj th^ fti^ with'%c'tow,'&c.f -^'Oar 
igtW^dfe ''IfH 'Mbit ofnh^fe'fe^fe ft-almdftStt* 
VindHki^ and^th^e^ feXperi ttmy iMhJtfh ^Wbtftd de- 
decide them requiresln^re time, care, and ex- 
"^ pence,. 

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pence^ tbaa die life and fortune of moft men can 

. Oa the^ determinatiqii of tbele £a&Sy how^ 
ever^. depends. oiu; knowledge} of.^^uun^Is^ the 
exan^ dt^n^on of their ijpecies^^.(be inteUi«> 
g^ce of their genuipe hi^ory and manner of 
I3«ating them. But fince we are deprived o^ 
JcQpwIcdge.f^ necefTary, fince it is not poffible 
tQ proi^ed upon pofitive b&s^ we cannot do 
better than go ftep b^ ftep, to confider each 
animal individualiyr to look, on thofe as diffe« 
sent fpecies^ who do not procreate. together^ and 
to.f«rite their hiftory in feparate articles^ re»- 
ferving to ourfelres a power to unite or fepa*- 
£a<e> aiS. we (hall acquire a more perfe<^ know** 
ledg^grom our own. experience,, or from that 

It is^. for this reafon that though^ there are* 
naai^.. animals which refembleL the. (heep and 
g0at,iwe have t^kenjiotice of only, the doirieftic 
kinds. We ai:e ignocant whether, foreign Jdnds 
.would intermix apd form new races, wi^h our 
cpmmon ^ciesi we <ai^ therefore authorisied. 
to^onfidfsr them ^s diH^nd) fpecies^. till itr can 
Ite. proved that^thefe. foreign kinds caiji procreate 
with the jCpmmon ^ produce fertile individuals : 
this dflgree^Alone oonftituting: thofeality.of what 
A.a X ihould; 

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a7<5 «urFON*s 

fliould be denomifuiteii ipecm hoA in the aiu<» 
mal and vegetable kingdnms. 

Tiie gaarlttis iNrtunAjr iriom ^lagadty than 
-dielbeep andocJn A»f Wsep foinitfblf: He 
com96 to iiiioriif^hiinfrlf 4uid i& eafyfimiiiaazed ^ 
be is^feiifiUe of^ dartfies-^aml capaUe* of cnoch 
attadMDeitt f teid^^er ftrong^ ligli^ agile and 
kfe tktiM tfiah the flieej^j' hi$ teliv'e)}^ eapri^ 
cioufii and laAfivJods^ ahd it re<|^e9^i»ih lrott«- 
ble t^ e6nd§a them im<v flocks:' ^^1%^ aie 
fondofftrayinglmafolitude, df'cMmbing'Aeii^ 
and nigged places^j to ftaiid and e«9eniOofle|^ 
on the top$ ^ rocks ot brinks df j^ree^ioes^ 
Thie female feeks die mate i»iih eageme&and 
m^auLt i ihe is robluft and eafily feppefttd, eat-- 
ing almiift alt kinds ^ lierbs and lrei«)^>ibw dif- 
agreeing with her. The botfly temperament^ 
ifhirh in all animals has great iiilliueliee on^e- 
difpofitbn^y does not feem te Afk!t ^flen^ iit 
Afl goat from 4hat of the flieep.. Th* interior 
organkuition of theTe tm> fpecies of animsds-is 
almoft'entiWly the fame j they are My pMiTy. 
and multiply in the feine manAeis and have tte 
£u»ie'dtfesdfes, ^tepting. a feW- to whidi the 
goat is »ot fiibjeA. - The geatf is neit, like die 
ibeepi afl%£hd vfiA too fr^at a A^gMie of^heat^ 
but voitiiitariif e3t|4(ea triadbtf tN^^iii^ iiiNiUtft 

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rays of the fun, asid ffeepQ therein without fuf- 
feringa vertigo^ or vtf other: inconvenience^ 
He isnot akrmecl by rarnt or florms, but zp» 
pdars lei!£bIe>of theirigorlof cold. Tbeexi> 
t&mt moveiatoldi itt, alt^ead^ remidbecly depend 
]e6 ontheknmfernftadon Qfehe body^ than on^ 
*die ttnagAmd variety^ 1^ their fenfimooB, for 
which reafoCt they are flfK^re Itvely.^nd lek re^ 
gttliU' iflt the gQ9t thanf in the flieep. The in* 
conft$kflCy of bi$ dtipc^ition i^\ ft^ngly oiarked* 
by4he irregularity of his actions; he walJc.*^ 
fto^sihort, runs, /kips, jumps, advances^ re- 
treats, tbtew% and conceals himfelf, or flies off^ 
, and all this firoo^ mere caprice, and^ without 
any odier <aufe .^an what arifes from the 
ilAt0)ficftli£y of his teii^>er^ the fupplenefs of 
hi« i^rgam and itrength ^^ nervouAiefs of his 
frame are Icarcety fufficient.ta fupport the pe* 
fulanceand rapidity of bis natural motions. 

That thefe anioaials are naturally fond of iaen^. 
and thateveii in utwAabiled countries, they 
ftet^y iK> feirage ^difpof^ons, the -following 
afieHcdote,4^ s^-iEli^^ong confuripation. ilac^l6gB^ 
an Ei^fk vaSkl having, put into harbour /at 
Ae jffland of BonavjAa, t\¥Q negroes went on 
hmr^i and offered ^(be Captain as many goats 
as h^;^hQpfed tci carry awayj . he expiir^ng a 
&rpris&eat tbisofier» the negroes Informed him 


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Vfl ' buffonV 

there were only twelve perfons on die ifland^ 
and that the goats multiplied fo faft as to be«> 
come exceedingly troublefoi^e, /or ii^B^ pf 
being bard to, be caught, they followed ,t^pt 
about with a degree ^ cbS^josus^ |ike ^oj^i;^ 

Tiie male ^^. 26^1goat UpiS»aW^ of eng^^de^ 
iog ata jfear^and ^efemalesai^venmoii^ol^^. 
but the fruits of Ais early coupling are gPne- 
vallyweak aodfdefeAiire, .jind there^re they are 
commonly .re;ftrained until tbey are .eigbtefn 
m^n^ or two yeass. The^*goat is hand* 
fome, vigorous, and ardent; and one is fufjp 
ficient to accompany i,5p females for two or 
three months;, but this- ardour, which foon' 
cpnfumes him, does not laft more than three or 
four years, and by "the age of iive or fix, he 
becomes aged and enerv^ed. Th/srofore, in 
choo/ing: a..male for propagation^ he fliQuld be 
large, haodfome, and about two yesirs pld ; 
bis neck ihQuld be ibort and tbick, his head 
light, his eivshangipg downy his thighsthick, his 
leg&firm, his hair black,, thicky and foft,and his 
bcu;d long and bufhy. The. choice of the female . 
(Jig.T.'j) is of lefs importance,, only pbferving 
that tbofe with large bodies, thick thighs, who 
walk lighv have large udders, .^d foft. bulby 
hair are the^moft preferable. They are ufually 


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Be Goal 

fHh&fktdfyJSJUwrNoH u<.i7^. 

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•• \c.:v, JLV !>'•• rrnrj^tr •!- 

^t •.■ 

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n feafoii in September, Oftober, and No- 
vember, though they will couple and bring 
/orth at all times. They retain^however, much 
furer in autumn; and the months of O^ber 
and November arc preferred, becaufe the graft 
will be young and tender when die kids begin 
to eat. They go about five months with young 
and bring forth at the beginning of the fixth i 
tfaey fuckle their young a month or five weeks ; 
fo that about fix and twenty weeks may be 
reckcfiied fi-onf the time of their coupling 
to the kidsfitffi beginning- to feed on paf- 
ture. - . 1 . . ; 

When kept among flieep they do not mi* 
With them, but afways precede the flock. They 
prefer feeding feparatelyj are fond .of getting 
upon the tops of hills, and even upon the moft 
Aeep and craggy parts of mountain's* They 
fihd a fuf&ciehcy of food on heaths, barren and 
uncultivated grounds. Great attention is ne- 
ceflary to keep them from corn, vines, and 
young plantations, as they are gi^j^eftroyers", 
and eat with avidity the' tender Tarks, and 
young ihoots of trees, and thus prove fatal to 
their growth. They avoid humid and marfhy 
fields, or rich paftures : they are feldom kept 
on flat lands, becaufe it does not agree with 
them, and it makes their fleih tU-tafbd.^ Iii 


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274 buffon's 

moft warm climates goats are ratfed in great 
numbers, and never put into the fiables. In 
France th^ wou)d pf^i^ic^f jP§| j^epvf d from 
the inclemeo/fVrjpf ti^^iV^i^^m't.i^^ l^ir^ofetpe- 
ccflkry 4P,,mf th^m X^m ikk\i^% feW9?fj 
though. 9Mpl\^]]ir^ M^hfixcf:^r,m^.^d^^ 
moi#4^-.j$.5(^/, lM|U?^l,fft |lvw^,^ti|gfj^ij^^ 
nevei; jjp fiiffei^^ip lie ^ff^xi ^ir own 4W8fe 

early IP 4bp ff^pipfdj^^ i$^ ^ 

grafs, , .^h^, thpHgH i*^^ ihrYffg 

^^9fr j^«^ goat?- Aj^ Aqf are.ipitraa^ilflc 
mi yimi^px^ animals ;tbe moft afiiv^^ ajod 
fobuil|^^;nwcan|F^t jQMpage m9rf t|^ fil^ of 
th«n^ ,T^ ihqi|14 never he Xu%[ed.jta^o 
0S*,<IuriiJ5;^ih<^^ca:Jb»ar froi^i ^ij^ bf^l^fpf jp 
tb^ jftable^ andied .wt^ he^gp> f y^l lh rf ^ (^ 
of tffiesi gathered ja;^ .autumn, :or.. on. c^bljj^g^. 
turp|p% apd ^tber roo|5^ ^ The ^ory, tj^^^^cat 
^the^eatjpr js,ths}r g^aiidfg^.^in^^^tQ^gnr 
creirfe t^ieirflpijk i^\lfnt^^.^\gxp ffl^dg 

felt, iji,4;Jieii:,,j5^. JiWoWfehf "^^k^^nW 

will .cpfitifli^ to jaif/ft a ,c;fBifidg?j|j\^ .««»f?ftty 
twioe,a(^^iBK,%ff-or.^<i,l^^ <i5i/ 

two^ vcjy. r^cfe t^^^M ficy«:.j|jpre.-tl»a 


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four; (he continues to breed front one year of 
eighteen monthft) Untfl (he t^ fetrt^n years of 
age. -Tlii^^he»-^t Will l)i^pagate ^^"long, if 
prdt)#6ai^ ft^takdW^f fc&fi^, >9ut:*f^d6toftionly 
htttriSi^ iSAhfy ^t iV6\ltt fiir^l ' ff ^ is lOielr fent 
to fatferf ittion^ ififbltf ari# y^iiiit^ ittUff gokts 
ixfMdi' hil^e btiift cittrit^'^8 rthaferih^ir iftefli 
rto^jlficy ^^ %tMferi'^ Tkii^ are ^tfened 
witK g^t cjffcj'^lft tHfcfettJ^aiiiher as Adders, 
btii ftef *(^'nth^r ;fb^^o6^^^ 
iptota'- clfirtate;^ ^re*'niu^ 111* 

tafltoJ. The' ftrbng fittell 6f tfie goat '3064 
not proceed from his flefli but his (kin.' "Theiffe 
irfiiftJ^s "are not pei*hSt«ed to gtow'x)i&yOt 
pSrbtfpS ftey might live to ten or twetve years; 
biit^If'h' ufual to kill tliem as foon as they 
ceafc to muTriply, becaufc the^ldit they are the 
vro^c is' there flc(h. Both male^'atid female 4 
goats have horns, with a very ihw ^eptJons ; 
they vary very much In the colour of thch-halr : 
it IS faid that thofe whlfch are white, and hive 
no horns, give diemdfKnOk, arid thalf the Mack 
ones are the ftfongeft. Though they coft 
-very Kttle tot flieir fbbd llifey ptodtice a cbn- 
fldfertMe profit i their fidhj tellow, hait, and 
(kin, are all VMiteWe ci*mo*tics^ ' Their 
mHk i^inari^"wh<^(bn9e and better ^than^ that 
(tf 'the'^epj it b uictf-m medicirte) curdles 


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276 buffon's 

eafily,.-aiid makes very good cheefe. The fe-' 
noales will allow themfelves to be fuckled bf' 
young children, for whom their milk is ex- 
cellent nouriihment. Like cows and (beep 
they are fucked by the viper, and alfo by a 
bird, called in France, the Goat-fucker, which 
fiiftens to thtir teats during the night, and, as 
fome fay, makes cbemlofe their milk for ever 

Goats have no inciCve the upper 
jaw; thofe in the under fall out, and are re- 
placed in the bme lime and manner as thofe of 
Che fheep. Their age may be afcertained by 
the knobs in their horns, and their teeth. The 
number of teeth in the female goats is not 
always the fiunci Jbut they ufually. have fewer 
idian the mal6> whofe hair is alfo more rough^ 
and who has the beard and horns longer. 
Thefe animals, like the ox and fheep, have four 
ftomachs, and chew the cud. Th^ir ipecies is 
more generally diffufed than -that of iheep, and 
goats fimilar to ours are found in many parts 
•of the world; only in Guinea, and other warm 
climates they are (mailer, and in Mufcovjr and 
the more northern regions^ they are larger. 
The g09ts of Angora and Syria, with ears 
hanging down, are of the fame fpeci^ with 
ourS) as they intermix together, and will 


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produce in thefe climates t the males have horns 
almoft as long as the^ cotnftion kind, but their 
dire<S);bns are very.dif&i-€/it,,^they ^e extended' 
horizontally from . each fide of the head5 and^ 
form fpirals fomewhat like a fcrew. The horns 
of the female are fhort, they bend backwards, 
then turn down, and their points came forward 
fo as nearly to approach their eyes j bur the dl- 
regions of thefe fometimes vary. Thefe de- 
scriptions are from a male and female goat 
which I have feenv Lifee mpft Syrian jmimajs, 
their hair wJas very long and thicfe, and fo fTne 
that fluffs have been made of it almoft as hand-* 
fome and gloily as our iilk^ 


PONTOPPIDAN fays, that goats^ abound 
in Norway, and that more than 80,000 • raw 
hides are annually exported from Bergen "alone, - 
befides thofe w^ich are dreffed. But they 
feem peculiatljrcalculatcd for this country, as' 
they fewch for their food upon high and rugged 
YOL. v« B b * . mountains 

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a;^ BUFFON'd 

mountains, are very courageous, and fo far 
from fearing' the w^lf, will even affift the 
dogs in repelling their attacks upofa' the 


I SHALL tres^t .of^ thefe three at the fame 
time, becaufe they form but one fpecies. The 
one i$ wild, and the other two the fame animal 
only domeftic j and though they are different 
in fome external marks, and perhaps in fome 
of their habits, yet thefe differences are not 
very e&ntial, but relate Only to their condition 5 
they are not^much changed by their domeftic 
ftate ; as they will intermix and produce 
fertile individuals j the only charafter 
which conftitutes a diftin^t and permanent 

' ^ • ' .It 

.d by Google 


It is fingular in thefe animals that their fpe^ 
cies feems to be entirely diftiiKSt by itfelf, and 
not connedled with any other^ which may be 
coniidered as principal or accefTary, like that 
of the horfe with the afs, or the goat with the 
iheep ; nor is it fubjeft to a variety of races 
like the dog ; it participates of many fpecies, 
yet eflentially differs from all. Let thofe who 
would ci/cumfcribe the immeniity of nature 
into narrow fyftems attend to this animal, and 
they will find it furmounts their methodical ar- 
rangements. In its extremities it has no re- 
femblance to whole-hoofed animals, being 
rather cloven4ioofed, and yet it does not re« 
femble them fairly, becaufe thodgh it appears 
to have but two toes, yet it has four concealed 
within ; i^or does the hog refemble thofe which 
have the toes feparated, finte he he walks only 
on two toes, and the other two are neither fo - 
placed, nor extended fiiffidently, to be made 
ufe of in^that refpe6t. Shall yre confider this 
as an errors in nature, and that thefe two toes 
fo concealed ought not to be reckoned ? If fo 
it (hould be remembered that this error is con« 
flant ; that befides the pther bones of die feet 
do not refemble cloven^fopted. animals, and 
that there are flriking difF<^ences in many othec 
fcfpefb^ for thQ latter have, horns and no in-. 
B b a ciUve 

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#8o buffon's 

cifive teeth in the upper jaw, they have four 
ftomachs, chew the cud, &c« while the hogi» 
on the contrary, has no horns, but one ftomach, 
does liot chew the cud, and has cutting teeth 
both above and below ; thus It is evident, he 
neither belongs to the fpecies of hoofed or 
^loven- footed animals j, with as littlepropriet}^ 
can he be ranked among the web-footed animal$ 
iince he diflFers from them not only in the ex- 
tremiti^ of the feet, biitin the teeth) ftomach, in- 
teftlne6, and internal part^ of generation. All that 
can be bid is, that iaibme tetptSts he fofm$.thd 
ihade between the wholfi and doven-feoted ani* 
mals, and in. odiers between the cloveo^fodted) 
and digitated animals ; .fiai- j\e diiFers lefs ^om 
^e whok-hobfed quadrupeds in die form and 
number of his teeth than from others; :he alfo 
refembles them ia ihe Ipngth^pf his jaw, and; 
like them, has but ooft ftomach ;but by an appen^ 
d4ge anneiied.'to it^ as well at bytheppfitioa 
pf the inteftinesy hft.'!iiben9& i^earlyto approach 
idjie cloven-rfcoted atumals^or thbfe who chew 
the cud,'. He likevi^e reiirmbles them in tha 
•eternal parts of generation,, at die &xas time 
in the make of jts Jegs, fari)it$ of body, num" 
ber of young, it approach^ Very near td th« 
digitated qua^rupedsr 


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NAT«?llAt HISTORY. - ^I 

-- Ariftotle was the firft who diirided quadru*- 
peds into whole-hoofed, cloven-fciotcd, and 
digitated, and he allows, that the hog is of an 
inmbiguous fpecies ; but the only reafon he gives 
is, that in Illyria, and Tome other places there 
are hogs with whole hoofs* This animal is 
. alio a kind of exception to the two generd 
Tules of nature, . namely, that the larger the 
animals the le& , young they produce, and that 
. digitated animals are the moft prolific. The 
hog, though far above the middling fize pro- . 
duces more than any other quadruped. By 
this fertility,, as well as by the formation of 
.the ovary of the female, it even feems to form 
,the extremity of the viviparous fpecies, and to 
.approach the oviparous* In fhorty the hog 
feems to be of an equivocal nature, or rather 
appears fp to thofe who conOder the hypo- 
thetical order of their ideas conilitutes the 
.common order of Nature^ and who only per- 
ceive, in the infinite chain of beings, fome ap*- 
parent points to which thejr would refer every 
natjural occurrence. 

It is. not by circuhifcribing the fphere of N^ 

ture that we ^an become perfe<Sly acquainted 

.with her : we cannot juilge of her. bjf making 

,ber acSl with eur particular view§ 'y nor is it by 

• afchbing our ideas to her author that we can 

Bb 5 . penetrate 

Digjtized by VjOOQ IC 

penetrate . mtb his defigns. Inftead of eon* 
fining and limiting the powers of Nature wc 
ihould extend them to immenfity; we ought 
to look on nothing as tmpoffible^ but th^ 
every thing which maf be, really has exiftence. 
Ambiguous fpecies, and irregular produftions, 
would then ceafe tXTfufprik-^ and appear equally 
as neceflary as others in the infinite order of 
things ; they fill up the iiitervals, form die 
immediate points, and mark the extremities of 
the chain. Thefe beings prefent die human 
underftandiAg : curious examples, where Na- 
tune, appearing to ad: iefs conformable to her- 
felf) makes a. greater di^lay of her pow6rs> 
and enables us to (race -fingulajr chara£lers> 
which indicate that her defigns are more ge- 
neral than our confined riews, and that if (he 
does nothing in vain, neither is flife regulated 
by the defigns we attribute to hen 

Should we not refle£l on this fingular con- 
formation of the hog ? He appears not to 
have been formed .on an original and perfeflt 
plan, fince he is compofed of parts peculiar to 
other animals, and has evidendy parts of which 
he makes no ufe, particularly the t6es abpvc 
defcribed, notwithftanding the bones arc peiT- 
fedtly formed. Nature is for from being in- 
fluenced by final caufes in the conformation of 

beings i 

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NATUlt At ins^TORr. «ffj 

teingj; why, then, may Qie not {bmetimek 
give redundant party, fincc fhe (b often whte- 
iiolds thofe whieh^ are eflentfal? How many 
'animals are deficient both in fenfes and tncm- 
•1>cirs? Whyfhould we fuppbfe, that in each 
individual every part is ufeful to the others, and 
neceflary to the whole I I?i it not fufficient 
that they are found together, that they are not 
hurtful, can grow without hindrance, and urt- 
fbld without obliterating each other? All 
things^ which are not hoftile "enough to deftroy 
^ach other certainly can fubfift together ; anrf 
perhaps there are, in moft beings, fewer re- 
lative, ufeful, or neceflary parts, than thofe 
^ which are iiidifFerent, ufekfs, of fuperabundantf;. 
but as we would always bring things to ^ 
certain end when parts have no apparent ufei, 
we either fuppofe they have hidden orfes, or inv 
vent relations which have no foundation, and 
only ferve to lead us into erroirs. We do -not 
confider that we alter the - philofophyj and 
change the fenfe of the objefl:^ when inftead of 
enquiring how Nature afts we endeavour to 
divine the end and caufe of her aSing. This 
•general prejudice, which is too frequently 
adopted, ferves only to blind our ignorance, 
and is both ufelefs and oppofite to the 'eni- 
quiry after, and difcovery of, the cfkih of Ni- 

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flt84 BVFFON*» 

ture. Without quitting ourfubjefl .we can 
,give fome examples, where the intentions we (b 
• vainly afcribe to Nature are evidently con- 
tradicted. It is (aid the phalanges are formed 
merely to produce fingers or toes, yet in the 
hog they are ufelef^, fince they do not form 
toes which the animal Can make any advantage 
of 9 and in cl6ven*footed animals there are fmall 
bones which do not form phalanges. If then 
it was the defign of Nature to produce toes it 
is evident that in the bog fhe has not more 
than half executed her purpofe>. and in the 
others fhe has fcarcely began it. 

The allantois is a membrane which 'is found 
^with the foetus of die fow, mare, cow, and 
many other animals. This membrane- adheres 
to the bladder, and is faid to be placed .thece 
.for the purpofc of receiving the urine of the 
fcetus while it is in the bdly of the mother ; 
and at the inftant of birth an inconfiderable 
quantity of liquor is foupd in the allantois ^ in 
the cow, where perhaps it is, moil abundant, it 
never amounts to more than a few pines ^ and 
the extent of the .membrane is fo great, there is 
not any proportion between that and the liquor. 
This membrane, when filled with air, forms 
.a kind of double packet, in the fbape of a 
.crefcent, thirteen or fourteen feet lQng> and from 

V nine 

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nine to twelve inches broad. Csiii it require a 
veiTel capable of containing feveral cubic feet 
to receive three or four pints of water ? Thf 
bladder of the foetus, if not pierced at the 
bottom, would fuiHce to contain this liquor, as 
it does in mankind, and thofe animals wherft 
the allantois has not been difcovered; it is,, 
therefore, plain this membrarte is not defigned 
to receive Ae iirine of the foetus^ nor for any^ 
^rpofe we are capable of imagining, for ii it 
i/vas to be filled it woidd fonn a bulk as hrgt 
tw (h^body in which it wa& contained; befldes^ 
«B it burfts at the moment of birth, and is 
Aiovn away widi the other membranes w^ici^ 
enyelope .the fetus^ k i« <3eftauily as ufeleft 
Aea as it was before; ^ ' ^ ^ 

" The 'number of teats, it has been {aitf, iit 
every ^)ecies of animals, correfponds with= the 
number of young which the female can pro-^ 
duce and fuckle. Why then has &e male^ 
which never produces^ u(iially the iame num«* 
ber of teats as the female? and why fhould the 
fow, which fixnetimes produces eighteen ot 
twenty pigs, never have more than twelve teats> 
and fometimes lefs ? Does not this prove tiiat 
it is not by final caufes that we can judge d 
the works of Nature, and that we oug^t not 
to deterioine but by examiiiing how &s^ ^h 


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286 buffon's 

and by employing the phyfical reafohs which 
prefent themfelves in the imhienfe variety of her 
produ£tions. Allowing that this method, which 
is the only one .that can condu(^ us to real 
knowledge, is more difficult than the other, 
and that there are an infinity of fadks in Na- 
ture, which, like the preceding, cannot be ap- 
plied with fuccefs, inftead of fearching for the 
•UiC of this great capacity in the sdlantots, we 
ojght to enquire into thofc phyfical relations 
which may indicai^ the origin of its prodac-> 
tion; by obferving, for example, that in ani«> 
mals, whofe ftomachs and inteftines are, not 
very large, the allantois is either very fmall or- 
does not exift, and that confequently die pro- 
dudion of this membrane has fome connexion 
with the fize of the inteftines, &c. By con- 
fidering, in the fame manner, that the number 
pf teats is not equal to thoie of the young, 
admitting only that the moft. prolific animals 
baye the greateft number of teats, we may 
conceive that ^ this numerous production de- 
pends on the conformation of the interior parts* 
of generation, and the teats being alfo the ex- 
ternal de|)endencies of the fame parts, there is 
between the number ^jid arrangement of thofe. 
parts and that of the paps a phyiical relation^ 
which we ihould endeavour to invefttgate. 


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But I only here endeavour to point out the 
right path, without cntcKng into a difcufSon ; 
yet 1 mtift obferve, that numerous produfftions 
depend more upon the internal conftruftion of 
the parts of generation than any other caufe. 
It certainly does not depend upon the quantity 
of femen emitted, otherwife the horfe, flag, 
ram, and goat^ would be more prolific than the 
dog, cat, and other animals, who produce a gr^at 
number of young, though they hare but very 
little in proportion to their iize; neither does 
the number of young depend upon tlie fre- 
quency of coition, for once coupling of the 
hog and the dog is fufficient to produce a great 
many young ; the length of time occupied in 
the cmiffion has no effeft in this refpeft, for 
the dog remains long only becauie he is re* 
tained^ by an obftacle in the conformation of 
the parts; and though the boar has not this 
*obftacIe yet remains longer coupled than mod 
animals, no conclufions can be drawn from that 
in favour of the numerous produ£tions of the 
/0W9 fmce a cock requires not more than an 
inftant to fecundate all the eggs an hen will 
produce in a months I fhall have occafion to 
unfold the ideas I have accumulated, with a 
view to prove that pne fimple probability, or 
doubti when founded on phyfical relations, pro- 

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^88 buffon's 

duces more light and advantages than all the, 
^al caufes put together. 

To the Singularities already related we ibali 
«dd feme others. The fat of the hog differs 
from that of almoft every other quadruped^ 
not only in its confifience and quality. But its 
pofition in the body of the animal. The fat 
of man, and thofe animals which have no fuet) 
fuch, as the dog, horfe, &c. is pretty equally 
mixed with the fle(h^ the fuet c^ the Ikeepi 
gos(t, deer, &c« is found only at the extreniitie$ 
of the flelh; but the fat of the hog is neither 
«nixed with the flefh nor colle^ed at its ex^ 
tremities, but carers Jtlte animal all over, and 
forms a thick, diftin£i, and continued layer be- 
tween the Sefh and the ikiiu This peculiarity 
alfo attends the whale, and other cetaceous 
Animals. A ftill greater fingularity is, that the 
hog i)cven Iheds any of his cutting teeth, like 
man, the horfe, ox, (beep, &c. but they C(»i*- 
tinue to. grow during lifc. ]He has fix cutting 
teeth in the under jaw, and a correfpondlng 
number in the.ugper, but, by an irregularity, 
x>f which there is not another examj^ in Na* 
'tiire, the bottom onei arc c£ a very dtifferent 
'form from the upper, for inftead of being 
incifive and fliarp the latter are langy cyim- 
drical, blunt at the points, and fomi ao angie 


3itized by Google 


WIniott even witH die upper jaw, (o that their 
crxtremitJes apply to each other very obliquely. 
It is only the hog, and twa or three other 
l|)ecies- of animals, which have the canine^ 
teeth very long ; they differ from other teetk 
hy coming out df the mouth, and growing 
during their whole lives. In the elephant, and 
-fea-cow, they are cylindrical, and fom^ feet in 
length J in die Wild boar, and male hog, they 
are* pardy bent in -the form of a circle, and t 
have feen them fronri- nine to ten inches long ; 
they are deep in die focket, and, "like thofe of 
the elephant^ have a cavity at the fupcrior ex-* 
tremity; but the elephant and fea^ow have 
thefe tufks only in the. upper jaw, and are with- 
-but canine teeth in the under ; while the male 
hog, and wild boar, have them in both jawsj 
and thole nf the under are the moft ufeful td 
the animal ; they are aKb'the moft dangerous^ 
-as it is with the lower tufks the wild boa# 
■wounds thofc he attacks, . 

The fow, wild fow, and the hog which it 
cut, have thefe canine teeth in the under jawv 
tut they do not grow like thofe of the boar, 
and fcarceJy appear out of the moodi. Befide 
Jthefe fixtclen teedi," that is^ twelve incifive and 
Jour canine^ they hare twenty-eight grinders, 
vhtch make- ibrty*fouf in the whole. The 
VOL. v^ C c wild 

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wild boar, (fig, 19.) has die tufks larger, tbe 
(hout ftronger, and the head longer than the 
dosneftic hogj {fig. 28.) his feet are always 
larger, his toes more feparated, and his briftles 
always black. 

Of all quadrupeds the hogs appears die moft 
rough and brutal, and the imperfe£tions of his 
oiake feem to influencehis nature ; all his ways 
are uncouth, all his appetites unclean, alf his 
fsnfations are confined to [a furious luft and 
brutal gluttony ; he devours, without diftinc* 
tion, every thing that conies in his way, even 
his own young foon after their birth* His vo» 
racioufnefe feems to proceed from the continual 
wants of his ftomach, which Js immoderately 
large; and the coarfenefe of iiis appetite is, pro- 
bably owing to the dulnefs of his fenfes, both 
as to tafte and feeling. The roughnefi of the 
hair, hardnefs of the flcin, and'thicknefs of the 
fat, render tbefe animals infe^ifible to blows. 
Mice have been known to lodge on their backs, ^ 
and to eat their fkin and fat without their bxxDr 
ing fenfiblc of it Their other fenfes are good 
and it is weir known to huntfinen, that wild 
boars hear and fmell at a great diftance^ fince 
in order to f\irprife him they are obliged to 
watch in fdence during the nighty and to place 
themfelvcs oppoiite tp the wind, to prevent his 


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liM^^ fy i.SM*^ff,rd,? //. i/pz. 

d by Google ^ 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


having notice of them by the finell which in* 
variably makes theni change their road. 

The imperfedions in the fenfes of tafte and 
feeling is ftill more augmented by a leprous 
difeafe which renders him almoft abfolutely in- 
fenfible. This diforder proceeds perhaps left 
from die texture of the fkin and flelh of this 
animal than from his natural filth, and the cor- 
ruption which muft refult from the putrid food 
which he frequently-devours f for the wild boar / 
who ufually lives upon corn, fruits, acorns, and 
roots, is not fubjedl to this diftemper, nor is 
the pig while tt continiies to fuck. The dif^ 
order is only to be prevented in thedomeftic hog 
by keeping him in a clean ftable and feeding 
him with wholefome food : bis fiefli will become 
excellent and his &t firm and brittle,, if he is 
kept for a fortnight or three weeks before he 
IS killed in a clean ftable, without litter, giving 
him no other food than dry wheat, and letting 
him drink but little ; for this purpofe a hog of 
aboOt a year old and nearly fat fliould be fe« 
leaed. ' 

The ufual 'method of fattening hpgs, is to 
give them plenty of barley, acorns, cabbages, 
boiled peas, roots, and water mixed with bran. 
In two months they are fat j their lard is thick 
but neither firm nor whiter and their flefh) 
C c 2 though 

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4bough good,, is r^kther it»fi^<]». . They mxy h/s 
fattened at a lef^ «xpence io woody ^countrte;^ 
'by. cdn^u^ng thetn into foTJC&s during autumiu 
.vhen aQoniS) chdhutSy^ be^cb-maft^ muft quit 
jhe'ir huflcs and fall from the tiiccs.^ They eat 
:indikrim'm^tsiy.sdl wild fruits, and fatten in $i 
Oiqr% time^ eipeciaiiy if a. little wariii wator 
^xed with Vraa and peafe-meal i$ giveA ta 
tbem every nigbt oi) their return hoq}ei this 
drink makes tfaem fleep and augments their fat. 
to fuch a degree that they are iboietiaies uiy 
.able to Yfdik or> (carcelj p)ove.. They^Utep 
much the quickeft in aMtuov), both on accoui^t 
^f the plet)ty' pC food a^d faecaiif« -tbuey loj^ 
much Icfs by peripiratio|i i^an in the fi^aimep? 

It is^ffarjf 'm fajtcnji^: tt^^ bog, t^ 
9rait, as witb Ptber jcattle^^ unfeil Ig^js- fuitt 
grown,,. for .th9 old^r be is thie.mere diffcult ijt 
js to fatten hii|)>;^4his ffefli dea-ijafesan goodf* 
nefs .with age, Caflra^ion,. which &ould all 
ways, precedft faftenings i$. u&ially perfonned 
when they are fix months old, and either i^ 
^ring or autumn, ^ .botii bcsK Itfid cold are 
injurous to the hfalii^g, of the wound, . Wbe^ 
this opeiatJbDQ is perforiiied mi ih» fpiifigr Acj 
ftte generally fit for faUe&iog .the., folipwing 
^tmnn^ ^Tbt^ continue ^rojg^g Mlfff^lPf 

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five yeafsy and even to that period it is noe I- 
inttedy 36 boars Ipept for propagation fometimes : 
encreafe in (ize during the fiktfa^ and the wild • 
boar is always larger In proportion to the num- 
ber of his years: the life of which fometimes 
extends to 25 or 30. According to Ariftbtle . 
hogs live twenty years^ and both males and fe- 
males are fertile till the iiftjeentb. They can^. 
ceuple byfte age of htne^ or twelve months^ 
but it is better to keep them-ieparate until they 
are eighteen months or two years, Thefows 
have but few young at the (irff liuer, and thofe* 
are generalljr weak, even when a year old ; (he 
is at all times in feafon and folicits the male ; (he* 
goes four nlonths after copulation, and litters at 
the beginning of the fifth ; (he will .receive the 
male almoft immediately after and confequently 
bring forth, twice in the year.^ The wild fovr 
has but one littev in the year, and as (he pen» 
fe£Uy refembles the domefHc one in every other 
vefpeft, this difference may arife botlvfirom hee 
Bot having the (ame kind of nourishment^ and 
being obliged to fiickleher young much longer. 
In fifteen days pigs are fit ta kill; as many fe«* 
Biales are unne^eflary, and as caftfated hoga 
bring moft profit,, it is cuftomary not to leave 
with the mother, aftef that period, more than 
one or two females^. andfeven or. eightmales. . 
Ccj Th? 

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a diick bod/, radier ihort thaa long^ ^ lafge' 

h«ad| fhort fnoui, Icmg ears^^imalifierf eyes, » 

duck' neck, flat beHf^ broad thighs, fliciit thick 

legs, and ftrdng Mack, bjri^es^ ^ Black hog» 

ace always ' ftronger' than .white onGS^ The 

£>w> fhauM' bsKre. a<. large .body, (pactDus bellyr 

a&d.lar^'ilug%.aaAfenitt. attention ihsbuld be 

jVfld tD! hertet^ of ximld* difpiditi%; After 

CQocefition &e^&auidrhe taken from Ifie msiCjl 

aa he will ibmetknes dti hec an in^iiry:. fher 

ihottld be jdentifuliy ftd whenfEr Kttei^ atut 

watched left fte- defeoy* h^f youn^? and then 

naale muft titmUt carefulty kept aTnay, och«' 

will devour the wbUe^of M^m^ It i^ eommonD 

to let. the females' goi'wJtb the maks in- th«r 

fpring, that iHey may litter sti the &immer, and^ 

that the pigs may .acquire fhength. hcfotef 

wii^r^ u»]ej[§ WhM twb Ikters are reqctiredl 

in the yeary then fee i$ put tt> the male* in. 

November, smd^ain at tiEe beginning of May r. 

feme of riiem will reguferlytpfodttcc every five 

months*. The wiM fiiW generally goes with 

thi rad^m^JmjOLVji, andrbiing^ forth in June^ 

to& fuckleS'jher yo4ng three-^rfimr' months^ 

and tkoy^ never £^rate fi^om'-lier before the]^ 

are. tw!o«or three' years okl> asidP-icis not uiw 

ccnmaon tp fee^ ber ace^mpftnitd^kh^ two ot. 

'- ^ ' -' three 

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fftree different litters at a time. Tke doliiefticr. 

fow fe not permitted to fuckle her yourtg tWQ^ 

months; as early as A pee weeks they go wkliJ 

de mother to the fields, by way of beingt 

hftliituatdd to her mode of living, . and -fivet 

weeks; afterwavds they are weaned^ when, for: 

, firaie &^rt time they have a little milk, mtxedi 

with bra{% given them morning and tventngji 

Mog^ are pa^icularly fond of earth-worms, andi 

K)ots, for the piirpofi^ of procuring which it is* 

Aat'theytear u{> the ground. with thdr fnoiitsJi 

The ;W4ld boar, tWho has a fh'-oiiger ihom thanr 

the dofmeflic^' octet digs deeper,^ and nearly in a 

fttaight linfe, while the latter docsit very irre-> 


The wild boars do not feparate from theiF 

moth^s until the third year, and. to which »ge 

they are called by hunters ftock-beafts, front 

diat circumftance. They never go alone until 

Aey are ftrong enough to encounter the wolf; 

When they hav« young they -form theinfelves 

into flocks, aod if attacked the- largeil and 

• ftpongeft front the enemy, and by prelBng 

Againi^ t^e weak onts^ keep thefn in. the micb* 

die ; the domeftic- hogs foltew the fame method^ 

und ^xefiire require not to be -guarded with 

dbgs* They 4re very untnuSbble, and 6nt 

• cannot mgnage (n^Cvthanfifty of ^them at 

^ a time. 

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29^ buffonV 

a time^ They procure a number of wiU 
fruits in autumn and winter by being taken to : 
the woods, as they do woi^ms and roots in . 
moift lands ia fummer,^^ both of which* are good 
for them; and they may be allowed to go* 
into wafte and fallow lands during the fpring* 
From March to Odober tbey are taken* out as> 
toon as the dew is off ^he ground^ and kept to 
feed to ten oclock ; at about two they are fuffered ' 
to go out again, and continue till the evening* 
In the winter they are only let out when the 
weather is fine, as dew, (how, and rain, are 
very injurious to them. When a- heavy rain! 
or ftorm coipes on^ it is not uncommon to (e&. 
them defert the flock one after another, and 
run and cry until they arrive at the ftable»door; 
and it is the youngeft which cry the loudeft ^ 
this cry is dii&rent from their ofual gruntingt 
and refembles that which they make when tied 
up for flaughter. The male cries lefs than the 
female; and the wild boar feldom cries but 
when he is wounded in lighting w^th pother ^ 
the wild fow cries more often, and when fud- 
denly furprifed will blow with fuch violence as 
to be heard at a great diftance. 

Although theie animals are gr^t .gluttons^ 
yet they do not attack or devour other animals; 
ibmetime?) however, they eat corrupted fleOv 


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.Wil(^ boars hsiire been feento eat hof fe-flefli) 
and the fkin.of the deer^ and the ^laws of 
birds h^vc been found. in their flomach; but 
.thi$ isy perhaps> more fromneceifity than«ij>- 
ftin£l» It canopt^ neverthele{s> be denied that 
jthey are. very fond ofhlojpd, and of frcfli and 
^ifk^&f^l^}W^^^yf'l^:m. theijr pwn youiig, 
and even children in the cradle. Whenever 
|hfy» f|Q4.«nyj (Wng. fuqCuli^iH ^ humid .they 
fitft Uck ai>cl .tJio(^ :fwalk)jiy jf^ Jt Jjs ooiflmon 
for a whole hei^d !of thefe anin}als tp flop 
ground a h<s^ of n^w-^v% t}ay, ^ though it 
#s b«K.K^ liAtl^ 5luai4qii$;tfMJy yriil all lipl^Jfc 
fnfii^ fpmjs^^pl ii^§^ (Wallovv^ ^r^at qi^nti^ie^ 

; :Tfaf^^tQQiXiB^^ £ro& ^s their n»tu^«^ is 
jH'ut^.:. jthfjy /have fcarcely any diftin<£l &ntir 
#ne|ttsi.-^^ youQg, op^g,^har5Uy know their 
m^tbenb ^or, they are v^ry apt to mift^ke hei^ 
j^nd to fu<:k ^q ^fit fow that will pernut thenv 
f^ aQd pQ(;e^ty feem to give more* iiiftin£k 
fLod fef^timei^t .to wild hogs, for die young ar^ 
piQr? attached tp their mother, who alio ap^ 
pi^rs more: attentive to them than does the do^ 
meftic Q>y/, In the rutting feafon the niale 
fqllows.the.femalejt and geperaUy.;ftays abou^ 
9 month with, her in the thickeft and mof^ 
^iita^y part^ pf the foreft : he if i then m(Xf 
fierce than ^er^ and becomes perfe^tiy furioul 

^ 'if 

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if another male endeavours to occupy his place; 
in that cafe they fight^ wound, and fometime$ 
kill each other. The wild fow is never furious 
but whien her young is in danger 5 and it may 
be remarked in general, that in almoft all wild 
animals the males are more ferocious in the 
xiltting feafbn, and the females when they have 

The wild boar is hunted by dogs, or takett 
by furprife in die nigi^t, by the light ef the 
moon. As he flies flowly, leaves a ftrong odour 
behind him, defends himfelf agaibft the dogs> 
and wounds them dai^foufiy, he ibould not 
he bunted by dogs' dcffigned fbt thb^ ftag, &c. as 
it will ^il their (cent, and give' diem the habit 
of moving flowly. Maftiffs will ^rve the 
purpofc) and are eaftly trained to it. . . The 
oldefl: only (hould be attacked^ and they are 
eafily known by the tracks of their feet; a 
young boar of three years old is difficult tp 
take, becaufe he runs a great way without 
Hopping; but the old boar does not run far, 
fuiFers himfelf to be clofe hunted, and has no 
great fear of the dogs. In the day he ufually 
hides himfelf in the moft unfrequented part of 
the wood, and comes out* in die night in queft 
of food. In fummer it is very eafy to furprife 
him, eipecially in die cultivated fields> where 

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the grain is ripe, which he will frequent every 
Bight« As Coon as he is killed the hunters cut 
off his tefticles, for their odour is fo ftrong 
that in five or fix hours the whole of his fleih 
would beinfe£led. Of an old wild boar the 
head only is good to eat, while every part of 
the young one, of not more than one year old, 
is extremely delicate. The flefli of. the do- 
meftic boar is fttU worfe than that of the wild 
one, and it is only by caftradon and fattening, 
that they are rendered fit to eat The ancients 
caftrated the young wild boars, which they 
could get from their mothers, and then re- 
turned them again into the woods, where they 
foon gi-ew fat, and their fleih was much better ' 
than that of domeftic hogs. 

No one who lives in the country is ignonint 
of the profits arifing from the hog; his flefli 
fells for more than that of the ox, and his lard 
fof nearly double; the blood) inteftines, feet^ 
and tongue, are all prepared and ufed as food* 
The dung of the hog is colder than that of 
other animals, and flipuld not be ufed for any 
but hot and dry lands. The fat of the in« 
tefl:ines and web^ which differs from the com* 
mon lard, is employed for greafing wheels, and 
many other purpofes» Sieves are 'made of the 


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ikin, anci brulhes arid pencil-lmifces are mad^ 
of -the hair and briftles. The flefh of thiy 
ammal- takes^ felt better, and will keep longer' 
than that of any other. 

This fpecies, though very abundant, and 
gready^lpread over Europe, Afia, and Africa, 
were not found on the new continent till 
they were thmlported thither by the Spaniards,* 
and who dfo took brge black hogs to almoflf 
a31 the ifiands of America. - They have be- 
come wild, and' multiplied greatly in many 
places: they refemble our wild' boars, an<f 
their bodies aredhorter, their heads larger, an* 
Aeir flcins thicker, than the domeftic hogs,' 
which in warm climates are all bFack, like die 
wild boar. 

- By one of thofe prejudices which fuper- 
ftition alone could produce and fuppor^ At 
M^ometans are deprived of this animal ; hav- 
ing been told bogs are unclean they do not 
either touch or feed on them. The Chfne(e) 
on the contrary, are very fond of their flelh ; 
they raife numerous herds of them, and pork 
is their principal food ; and this circumftancc 
is faid to have prevented them from receiving 
the law of Mahomet. The hogs of Ghiiia, 
-Siam, and India, 4ffer_from thofe of Europe; 
i ^ - they 

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' tfccy are fcnalter, have ihorter legs, and their 
flelh id^much more white and delicate. Some 
of them have been reared in France, and they 
will intermix and produce with the common 
hogs* > The Negroes raife great numbers of 
hogs, aqd thoug^i tiiere are but few among the 
Moors, or in the countries inhabited by the . 
Mahometans, yet wild boars are as plenty in 
Africa and in Aiia as in Europe. 

Thus thefc animals are not confined to any 
j)articalar climates ; it is only obfervable, that 
$iks bo^, by becoining domcftic, degenerates 
;mon? in cdd than in .warm -climaites. A degree ) 
of tempQfifture i» ittfficient to change tiicir 
frolour. iiogs .are obnamonly white ^ in the 
siordiem pants of Fr^ance, as they are' in 
Vivafais, whik ta. Diatq)hiny, which is not far 
4tft»it, diey are sdi black ; thofe of Languedoc, 
Provence, Spain, Italy, {ndia^ China, and 
Amjsrtca, are .alfe of tbe fatne oajour. The 
hog of 8ia«i has a gr efdber refemblance to the 
^omefttc hog than to the wild boar« One of 
Ihe inoft evident marks of degeneration is fur*- 
nilhed by the ears, which beocmies more ikpple 
iand pendant as the aninftal chaitges into a do- 
''flftdiic ftate ;, in. fliort, thle ears of the domeftic 
hog are not ib flifi^ are mudi Jonger, and more 
VM. V* P d pendant 

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penclant than tfaofe of the wild boar, whtch 
ought to be regarded as the model of the 
ipetie^. ' 


IT is neiAerthe^feirgen€6of toafce, dfegance 
of form, ftrcngth of body, freedom of motions, 
nor all the exterior qualities) whidi conflitute 
the noblefl: properties in an animated being; 
in mankind genius is preferred to figure,x:ourage 
to ftrength, and fentiment to beaUty; fo we 
confider ithe interior qualities in an afriimal as 
the moftrcftimaWe; for it is by thofehe dhfilrs 
from the automaton, cifes above the vegetable 
fpecies, and approaches nearer to 4tian. ' It is 
ientimeht which ennobles, regulate^, and en- 
livens his 'being, which gives aSlivigr to all his 
organs^ and birth to defire and motion. The 
perfeflion df an animal defjehds, then^ upon 
fentiment alone, and the more this is extended 
die more are his faculties and refources aug^^ 
jnented, and the greater are his relations with 

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the reft of the uni^erfe. When th« fentiment 
i& delicate, and improved by^inftru£tion, the 
animal becomes worthy to affociate with man ; 
be knows how to concur with his Uefigns, to 
watch fori his fafety, to defendv and to flatter 
him with careffes; by,Tepeated performances 
of thefe fcirvices he conciliates the afFecSlion of 
his mafter, and froth his tyrant makes him his* 

The dog,, independent of bis beauty, ftrengtby 

vivacity, and nimblenefs,^. has all the interior 

•cpialities which can attrad the reg^d of man. 

A paffionate and ferocious temper make$ the 

wild dog dreaded by taoik animal%. as much as 

the paeigc difpbficion of the dom^ftic dog 

senders hiiiei si^cQ^hle;. to his maftci:.. he.. flies 

with daciity, and fubmiiSvely lays at .bis f^C 

all his courage, ftrcng^h, .ax?d taJi^nts i ^hejeems^ 

to confiik,. interrogate, and iuf^licate for orders^ 

wbtch^ he is Iblicitous to ^aeecute ^ a glance ot 

the eye iS iiifficient, . for he^ underftands the 

finaUeft'iigns of his .will.. Without having. 

like many the faculty of thought, he^ all the 

ardour of: fentiment, with fidelity and - con^ 

ftancy in his afib&ions;. neither ambition,an-r 

tereft, nor defirex)£ revenge, can corrupt him,. 

and he hks no fear but that of difpleafing^ he 

is all zealy warq^th, arid > obediener^ more jiii^ 

Dd 2 clined 

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dined (o.nemeaftber b^iefk^ than injuries r bir 
ibon forgets ilUufage^ ^or at leaft only recoU 
ItQs it. to ma^e his attachmait dae ftronger*. 
Ifiilead of in-katdng or mosiing away, he ex* 
po£bs hisifdf lo the feverity of his mafter, and 
licks the hand ivfaicb caufes. his pain ^ he only- 
oppofes by his cries, and in the end (iibdues by 
patience ami fidimiffion. 

More docile and traftaUe than axt^ other 
acumal), tiie dog is not oniy.inftrudled }n a very 
ftoct time ibot he: even amibrms himldf tof 
the jnarnites^ znotiBns, and habksy of liiefe ynbm 
comntand hiu^ He-affixnes all t)ac modes d^ 
the bxxaiy ia^:which Jie lives; like the other 
4oniefties he: is hau^^ wiih: thereat aiwk 
Mftic wkh .the peafimt.' - AbMqrs inentive «► 
his^nntftelv mi^ defir^^ <»f pktffing klft^endsi 
ke tfr totjiBy indifferenfi'^ ^raitgersyr abd op^ 
yofts begg;a«t,njriiOBi be knows by tbtir di^, 
taicc^'ind geAioreiy and. |faeveal8 liieir ap» 
proaoBu : When the Gare.ttf.a huiSt Is eoai<« 
mittedr to >him 4iirixig the. night he bBcamei 
mcre4)aM^ andfemetimes pcr&^yierociotis ; 
he igrafidiesy goes« his rounds^ foents finugera 
at a UStMOcoy mdisS Aktj ftop^ or attonpt to 
'break in,, he flies ;to cxppcife AeA^ and by re^ 
iterated barkings^ and other efforts of paffioni^ 
he giyfisr the siuM to .die laoaiilj^ He is equalljg 
J furioua 

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lurtous againft thieves asrapadotrs ahitnals ; he 
attacks, wounds, and- forces from ttiem what- 
they were cndea-vouring to take away; but 
contented with having conquered, he will lie 
down upon the fpoil, nor even touch it to fa- 
tisfy.his api^tite ; giving at once an example of 
cowage, temperance, and fidelity. 

To determine of the importance of this fpe- 
ctes in the order of Nature, let us fuppofe it 
never had cxifted* Without the. aflliftance of 
the dog how could man have been able to tame 
and reduce other animals into flavery? How 
could he di&over, hunt, and deftroy noxious 
and &vage beafts i To preferve his own fafety, , 
and to render himielf inafter of the animated 
worldr'it-.Wis neoeflfary to make friends among 
thoie aiiimals whom h&fbund capable of attach* 
.n^nttooppoiethemtoothers, therefore the train* 
ii^of dogsfeems to have been the firft art invent- - 
ed by many and the fruit of that aft was the 
conqueft and peaceable pofTeffion of the earth. 

Almoft all aninuls .have4nore agility,^-fwifo 
nefs,. ftrength, apd evem courage than man« 
I^ature has fjurniihed.tbem-better^ their fenfes, ^ 
but above all that of fmdling, . is mor& perfe6l. 
To have gained over a tractable and courageous 
fpecies like the dog, was acquiring new fenfes 
.and -feculties. - The inachines .and>^ inftrumenis 
D-d 3^ W-hich^ 

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which we hare invented to^mpro^'e or €9ieefWI 
our other (evics^ do not come msuTj. for utiiity^ 
thole nature has pntiemed to Vis r which by fop-^ 
I^yrng the def?6ls of our ftneUkigy^ have furniih*' 
ed us whb the ^eat and permanem means of 
eonqueft and domkikm. The dc^^ fiiiyui tO» 
naan, will always prefemse a portion of his ein<«^ 
ptre, aiid'ft degree of fiiperion^ over other ani- 
m'Ah ; be reigni at the hsadv o£ a Sock, amd 
makes himfeif better onderftooddian^^ vokrt ^ 
«£ the fhej^ri^fbt^^or^yvand 'difcipiixie are 
tile fruits of his>vigitsuioe:)aiid aiiSi>fit^; they. are 
a. people Aibmitted to his numageix^nt, . i^iiom 
becondbfb and (zroteds, and tigaiiift whom he 
never emi^s forcb,.. but &r the prafervs^ofi 
of peaee aoi' good dnder^ Bat iprwar againit 
his en^mtea^ 'Or wild antmate^ J»s couiage ftines 
ibrthf his tioderfian^ing:: is .di^ayec^. and bh 
jiatural. and acquired tdorits are-Biited.' As 
foon at he heai^a. tbe nQife*eri9Qi5y;as.foon as 
the horn,^ or ^e hyntiaDaa^' i^oo gbrea ;tho 
alarm, fiHedvith a .new anber the dog ex- 
4preffea jihis joy hf the moft luir^ txsulfpcrti, 
suidibows. by^bis.emotjpn.atid^^ his im- 
patiffiee for. -combat iu»it Ms dcAre >to conquer* 
Sometiioes fae natives: along" widi <»nioous 
filence to ctifcovrr and furprife his. en^my; a^ 
#diers he tsaces the anknal ilep-^y ftep^ and 

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fey ififereat tones iodicatts tbe difbhce, fpe-^ 
ties, and evm age of wiHtfaeis inpariuit o^ 
Fufhedy inCiimdated, and de^ring of fafliej m* 
fii^t alone^ animals make ufe of all their fa«- 
eulties and oppde craft to fagacft^r. la na in^ 
fiance are 'the refonrces of inMuSk mom- admi^ 
laUe ; in drder to make it difi^t for ^ dog ^ 
ID trace him, die animaf dooiUas,* goes over its 
ewn fteps agnn,- by a iingJe .fpring will ckaT 
a* hedge or btghway^.^and fwinis over brooks and 
riyjers.; but being- MI parfoed and unable to 
annthil^Uie him&l^ he endeavours to put anedier 
m hii place ; for diis he &As ^an unexperienced 
ineigU»oar,< With iwdiomheJce^ps dbife'until (he' 
^ppofes. their fteps are Efficiently intermiifed 
aocolilbiiiidtfae,fce8tofhiSv^i^heii he foddeiw 
dy hv/ms Urn to lieconie a vi£Hmtto4iifrdeceive(i 
eikrmy*. flue the dog^by the^perjority Wbi<;h 
^cxercife^d education ha^e given hins glid by 
die opcetlence <if his fatfatimsi does nst i^ 
;llie ofajeA of bis ^uMtmH}. by Jiis-fcent he 'finds 
-mit fldltbe ^wisidings^ofilbe ia^rrimh,. afl'the 
bik means adoptiedixiimake bim, go aftray ; mi 
far fn)m«abando]»ng tbeoittlbe-iiiasai^piirfui^ 
. of foot aacid»f> he xedoubles hia ar^kur, at 
ienglfa Qvertakes^^/attadcs, and puts him' tb 
death ; thus dreivchti^ in his blood both hia 

•teredindroven^ge^ .. 4- 


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3©^ BUrFONV 

Tber inclinatlon'for Uiintingor war znSansii 
fo&& in conunon with .us. Maoy- in a favago 
fiat6> knows only how. to fight and to hunt. 'All 
oaroivorous animals, which have: ftrength and 
weapons. huQtl natoraUjr*. :Tfae iio&and. tha 
tigefj\great~ diat they are 
iure to conqUer> hunt aloney^and without, art^ 
Wolves^ foxesy »id:^i dogsi huntin-packs^ 
uSBA each other and diidde A&prey, and when 
education in the domeftic dog has Improved 
this natural taletit^>whea he is taught to xeprefs 
his* ardour and t(>jregulit^ehis motions, he hunts 
wi& Mk and knowledge^ > and, always with &ic* 
ce(s.w In deferts ,and depopulated countries^, 
there ar^iwild dogs which differ ixx their marw 
ners froiu wolves, in. no oafe but ia the faipility 
with which they- are taoied*. They unite in 
lar^e .tropps^ to hiiat,^ and will- attack wild 
boars, bulls,, and even lions and tigers». In 
America the wild dogs fpiing from a domeftic 
race ai»d wereotrai^fportedxhithGr from £urc^&i . 
fom&.:Of lh<W having been forgotten or abanr 
donedJA thofe^deierts,., have..mLdtiplied in fiich 
a degree ^ that. they. go. in : troops to inhabit 
. placcsy.where they. attack: the cattle^and will 
fometimes event iofuk the inhabitants,, who ace 
obliged to drive, them away by force and kill 
them like other ferocious animaK..J2Qgs how- 


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ever continue in this ftate only while fliey re-^ 
' main unacquainted with man, for if we ap«« 
proach wild ones with getptknefs, they tooO^ 
grow pmCy become f^snitj^-, and reniab (aith« 
fully attached to their maftorCi ; but die wolf 
diou{^ taJcen young and brought up in th^^ 
hoafe, is only gentle in his yootb, never lofes, 
bis tafte for prey^ and iboneir or laxef givea 
hitafelf jip to his fixndoefc for mpine and de«« 

.Thedog.iniqr^e (aid :td ibe die ^y aninnt 
wbole fidelity wittftaod tfaje^jpro^i who almy% 
lumms his mafter^ and.ereii his mafter'a 
feiends } who'points oijic a ftr&Bger as ifben as Ito 
Graves I who underflands his own n«ix>e| . ami 
knows* die moss of the domefticsr who bat 
MK cMfldence in himTellf alone ; :whb,t#bflb ho 
has ]i6ftjki» tnafitx, will eoN Bpotrfaiift by hie 
cries-andkunentatioVisi whift in ksagjowracpp 
and ^kklie^may have trsifcW&i butonc^ will 
remWDber his wigt, and iftktbut the "roadir;. ttt 
fine, (he A)g is ^the ctnly aiaiin^l wtidfe talents 
atte etfridtnt, and whoTe edocatbn is ialways fkci 
cef^k Of ^ miianals lue is alfe the inoft 
ifufceptibie of .ffii{»*cffi6i^s^ moft eafdy modified 
by nioiral caufes, and mo# hhjfeGt to ilferatibrta 
caufed by phylicai itifiuences. Ttte t^oiperaiu 
inen^ fiicultiesj iand babks of l&is body vai^ 


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prodigioufly, and even his form is not uniforms 
In the fame country one dog is very different 
from anqther) and the fpectes feems quite 
changed in different climates j. from thence 
fpring the mixture and vSsiriety of races whidv 
are fo great that it is impoffible to enumerate or 
defcribe them. From the fame caufes arife that 
great variety fo viable in the height, figurcr 
kngtk ef the, fnout, form -of the -head^ length 
and diPQ^Uon of the ears and tail, goIqw^. qua^ 
Kty a»d'€|[uaiitity of baifi Afcfo-thac there 
ftems 19 remaiB nojtkifigrcoiiffant, in ^thefeani* 
mals but the confimnicy-of rtheiriiaternalargaff 
iiization, and the faculty, 'ofprocr/QaltH^tqg^ 
ther.tAnd as thofe which dilfer'HiiQftit^Mk 
•ach otheroan intexmix^aod pr4>d4ic^/ei^-ii;M^ 
dividu^lsy^it is evident that dog$i|.. Jiowev^t 
^gcieatly $i^ may vary9<neyer^^..(;9i#itute 
but one fpecies^ But what is m9& 4i%|uU to 
afcertainin this iiumerousi vari^HQ^-lf^^is 
the chara£ler. of the prismtiv^^ock, <,Hp]^ are 
we.tpdiftirjgui^h.^he qffe4ls,iprod*fced-by th<e 
iafluencq of Xhei^limatej^.fpotl^ &q, ?..,HQ5V.dif«f 
cover the changes .which havp ielultfid from au - 
intfitmi^ture . an;on& tbemfclvcsv cither, in. a 
.wiW,Qridomcfticj(late? all,tl3y5fe caijfeSy.wiU, 
in time,, al^ter tlie moft permanent fprms> and 
•the. image of Q^tui:Q.dfic$ not p](eferve.i£s purity 


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in thpfe obje£ts of which mankind have had the 
management. Thofc animals which arc inde- 
pendent aijtd can chufe for themfelves both their 
food and climate^ arc thofe which beft preferve 
their original impreffions, and we may believe 
the moft ancient of ihtir fpecies are the moft 
faithfully reprcfented by their defcendants. Bat 
thofe whfch mankind have fobdued, tranfported 
from climate to climate, whofe food, cuftoins, 
and manners of living he has changed, may 
jsHh be thofe whidi have changed moft ift their 
forms; and it is a h& that there are more 
irarieties among domeftic than wild animals; 
aiid as among domeftic animals the dog is moft 
attached to man, lives alfo the moft irregularly, 
andwhopoffefles fentiments to render him do- 
cile, obedient, fufceptible of ail; impr^ffion^j 
and fubmiffive to all reftraints, it Is not aftonifh- 
tng that he fliould be that in which we find the 
, greateft variety not only in figure, height, 8(nd 
colour, but in every other quality. 

There are alfo other circiimftiances 'which 
contribute to this change. The life of the 
dog is fhort, his produce is frequent, and iti 
pretty large numbers; he is perpetually be- 
neath the eye of man, and whenever, by chance 
or accident, which is not uncommon in na- 
ture, thcr« may have appeared any individual 


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3rt BUFroN*s 


pofieffing -fihgvlar charaScrs, or aj^arent ya-f 

rietics, they hSwre been perpetuated by unitmg 
together thoie indivi<iua]s, and not permitting 
them to intermix with any others; as is done 
in the prc&nt time, when we want to procure 
a new .-breed of dogs, or ddie/ animafe. B^ 
Ades, diou^ ail die Ipecies were equally an« 
cient yet the number of geqefatixms being na 
ceflkrily the greateft iir^hofe whofe Jives are 
fliort, their Varieties, dianges, and even de- 
generations, moil: have become more fenftble, 
fined tfaey muft bei&rth^ removed from dieir 
origtttal ftocir tfaaui thofe whofe lives arc 
longer* Man i< at prefent ^ight. times nearer 
ro Adam than is the dog to the firft of his 
race^ b«esidb man Hvesto fooHcore years, and 
the dog t6 not'more dian^ test. I^ therefore, 
ftom att]^ caufe thefef two ipecies ei^ualiy de^ 
generate, the idteradcm would be etgbt times 
more conlpicitous in the dog thian in man^ 
"Thofe whole. lives are & fltort Aattthey are fiic« 
, ceeded every year by a new generation, are in- 
finitely variations of every kind 
dian thofe wkich 6ave longer lives. It is the 
fame with annual plaals (feme of which may be 
laid to be actificyi or fadiadous), when com* 
pared with other vegctahkSi Wheat, for ex- 
ample, J»s bee& £> jgneacly chained bf me« 


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^at it IS not at prefent to be any where found 
in a ftate of nature. It certainly has fome rc- 
fcmblance to- darnel, ; dog-grafs, and feveral 
•dther herbs of the field, but we are ignorant to 
'V^hich its origin ought to Be referred j and as 
it is renewed every year, ^ and ferves for tht^ 
Common food of man, fo it has expeHended 
more cultivation than any other plant, and 
•confequently undergone a greater variety of 
<*hanges. Man can, therefore, not only make- 
^very individud in the univerfe ufeful to his^ 
wants, but, with the aid of time, change, 
modify, and ittiprove their ipecies ; -and this is 
the greateft power he has over Nature. Tp 
have transformed a barpeti herb into wheat is 
a kind of creation, on which, however, he hjL& 
no reafon to pride himfelf^ lince it is only by 
the fweat of his brow, and reiterated culture, 
^at he is enabled to obtain from the bofom o( 
the earth this, ^d ibmetimes bitter, fubfiftence. 
Thus tliofe fpecics, as well among vegetables 
as animals, which have been the moft cul- 
tivated by man, are thofe which have under- 
gone the greateft changes; and as we are 
fometimes, as in tlies example of the wheat^ 
finable to know their primitive form, it is not 
impoffible that among the numerous; varietici 
cf dogs which exift at prefent there may not 
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be one like the firft animal of this /pedes, al- 
though the whole of thefe. breeds from hiiu 
muft virtuajly have proceeded. Nature, not- 
withftanding, never faijs to refume her 
rights when left at liberty to a£l. Wheat, if 
fown in uncultivated land, Regenerates the firft 
year ^. if that is likewife fown it will be more 
degenerated m the.fecpnd generation, and if 
continued for a fu4:ceflio^ of ages the original 
plant of |:he wheat woi^ld appear ; and, by an 
experiment of this kind, it might be difcovered 
how much time Nature requires to reinftate 
herfelf, and deftroy the elFedts of art, ^ which 
• r.eftrained her. This experiment might eafily 
be "made on corn an3 pl^ts, but it would b9 
in vain to ^ttempt it op animals,, becaufe they 
would not only be di^icMlt to couple and unfte, 
but even to p^anage, and to furmount that in- 
vincible repugnance they have to every thing 
which is contrary to their difpofitions or habits. 
We need ^ot, therefore, expefl to find out, by 
this method, whiph^ is the primitive race of 
dogs, or any other animals, which are fubjed^ 
to permanent varieties. But in default of the 
knowledge of thefe fa<3s, which cannot be ac* 
quired, we may aflimilate particuluar indica-» 
tions, and from thojie draw probable conjee-* 


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Thofe domeftic dogs which were abandoned 
Jri the dcferts of America, and have livecTwild 
for 150 or 200 years, though then changed 
frorri their original breed, muff, notwithftand- 
ing, in this long fpace of time, have approached, 
at leaft in part, to their primitive form. Travel- 
lers fay that they refemble our greyhounds, and 
they fay the fame of the wild dogs at Congo, 
which, like thpfe in America, affemble in packs 
to make war with lions, tigers, &c. But 
others, without comparing the wild dogs of 
St. Domingo to greyhounds, only (ay that ,they 
have long flat head^, thin mus^zles, a ferocious 
air, and thin meagre bodies; that they are ex- 
ceedingly fwift in the chace, hunt In perfection, 
and are ^afily taken and tamed when young ; 
thus thefe wild dogs are extremely thin and 
light ; and as the common greyhound differs 
but little from the curj or Irifh greyhound, or 
from that which is Called the fliepherd's dog, 
it is not improbable that thefe wild dogs are 
rather of thofe fpecics than real greyhounds; 
becaufe, on the other hand, more ancient travel- 
lers have faid that the dogs of Canada have 
ears eredl, and refcmbled our middle-fized 
ihepherds dogs 5 that thofe of the Antille Ifles 
had very long heads and ears^ and had very 
much the appearance of foxes j that the Indians * 
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of Peru had only two kinds, a large and x 
fmaH one, which they callad Alcd; that thofe 
of the ifthmus of America were very ugly,, 
and that their hair was rough and coarfe> 
which likewi& ^ixnpiies. they bad earst ere£L 
We cnmnot, th^elbre, have any doubt that the 
original dogs of Americai before they had any 
communication tvith thofe of Europe^ were all 
of the fame r^e> an^ thajK. they approached 
iiearfift to thofe dogs which, h^ve thin mu:^]es9 
ere(5b e^rs^. and ><ioaj^ hair» lik/e thp il^epjierds. 
dogs; and wl)kt leacik me Aether jtg brieve 
that the wild Jogs of St. Domingo are not 
rpal greyhounds is the latter beipgfo fparce irv 
France* that they are brought ibr the king 
from .Cohftantinoplq, and oth^r p^urtS: of the^ 
Levant) smd becaufe I m^^t l^newof any 
X being hf ought from St^Domin^^o, ojt ^y of 
"^ our American miomes^ Beftdes, in feafcbin|; 
what travellers have faid of dog^ of diil^en^ 
colonies, we finsl that tfaie dogs, of cold climates 
have long musx^les and ere6l ears ; that thoie 
of Lapland are fmall, have ece^ ears> and 
pointed muzziest that die Siberian> or wol£ 
dogs,, are bigger dian thofe of L^land, but 
they alfo have ere^ 'ear5, coarfe hair, and (harp 
muzzles, and that thofe of Iceland have a^ 
ilrong refembiance tp the Siberian dogs i and> 


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NATUHAt ttlStORY. 317 

* in the feme manner, the native dogs of the 
■ Gape of Good Hope and other warm <:oun- 

• tries, haVe fharp -maiTales,' ered ears, long 
trailing tailsi'ldng hsttr, bttt-fcining. and'rottgh; 

' that thl^ ddgs afe eieceltent imv guardmg of 
flocks; 'Md fconfeqittently not t)rily refemble in 
figure but evtnla ia&itiA rfurifhepherds^ dogs. 
In difnat^$ Ml warmei-; fdich as vMadaga&ar, 
•Madura, Galfcut^ and- Mtfabar, the^ native 
dog^hiv* ill ftiarp ni'tkztks, ^re6t ears, and 
in alm'oft ^v^ry pefpe^ refemblfe our fihephcrds 
dogs; hay that even when tnaftiffe^ fpanicfe, 
water *dogs,* btill^dogs, beagles, Wood4iounds, 
&c. have been trartfported thither they dege- 
nerated at the fecond or third^ generation. 
In countries extremely hot^ like Guij^ea, the 
diBgeneration is ftBl more quick, fince by the 
end of three or four y^rs they lofe their voice, • 
can no longer barfc^ but only make an hdwling 
noife, ^nd their immediate offspring have ere£t 
ears- like foxess The* native dogs of thefe 
regions' arevery irglyv they have' iharp muz- 
zles, -^Iddg ereft eav»^' a»id"iong:p(Jinted: toils; 
they have no' hair &ti didr bodies^ their (kin 
h uiixallyipoitted, diough fometunea it is of an 
uniform colour ; in. (hort they are difagreeable 
to the eye airdi ftill more to the touch* 

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We Biay prdume, tiiereforey and with iomcr 
degree of probability, that the fhepherd's dog: 
is ihat which approaches nearcft to the pri- 
mitive race, fince in all countries inhabited by 
layages, or men half civilized, die dogs re« 
femble this breed more than any other. On 
the whole continent of the New world, they 
had but diefe and no variety ; nor is there any 
others to be found on the fouth and north eX" 
tremities of our own continent ; and even in 
France and other temperate dimates^^ they are 
fiill very numerous, though greatear* attention 
has been paid to multiplying^ and rearing the' 
more beautiful, than the prefervatton of tbok 
which are moft ufeful,- and which^ has been 
totally abandoned to the peafants. who have the 
care of our ilocks* It we alfo ooia&der that 
this dog, iiotwitbftandtng his mgliners^ and his 
wild and melancholy look,> is^ fiiU fiiperior in 
inftiiK^ to all (Mhers, that he has a decided- 
character : in« which education has no. fbare^* 
that he is the only thing born perfafUy jtrained|B 
that guided by natural powers aloncy he ap<« 
plies himfelf to the care of our flocks, which 
he executes v^ith flngular affidutty, vigilance^, 
and fidelity, that, he conduiSb them with an^ 
admirable intelligence which has not beeif 
communicated to him i that bis talents aftoniib 


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-at thiefamc tune they give rcpofe to his mafter^ 
whilft it requires much time and trouble to 
inftru£t other dogs for die purpofes to which 
tiiey are deftinedf if we^vefledbofi^hefe fa<Sb». 
we fliall be confirmed ia the opinion that the 
fliepher<l's dog is; the true dog- of Nature; the 
dog that has been beftowed upoa us for the 
extent of his utility ;. that he. has * fuperior re- 
lation to the general order of- animated heings 
who h^ve mutual occafton for the affiftance of 
each othffl:; andy. ia ihort, the one we ought 
to look upon- as th^ flock and modd of the 
whole fpecies. 

The human fpedes af^ear clowi^fiib^ de^ 
formed and diminutive in the frozen climated 
ef the North* In Lapland> Greenland,, and 
in all countries where the cold is exceffive, we 
find none but finall and ugly men ; h\^ in the 
jieighbouring countries wheare the cold is lefs 
intenfe, we all at once meet with the Fin.« 
landers, Danes,. &c« who for figure, com* 
pledbqn and ftature^ ^re perhaps the hand- 
fomeft of all mankind. .^It is the iame witii 
the ipecks of dc^s^ the Lapland dogs are 
very ugly, and fo fmall that they fcarcely eveir 
exceed a foot ia length. Thofe of Siberiaf 
though lefs ugly^ ,have ears creStj with a wil4 
wi fev^ge looJfiy while in the neighbouring 


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3W buffon's 

, climates, where w6 find thofe handfome mfti- 
juft mentioned, are alfo the largeft and moft 
beautiful dogs. The dogs of Tartar/, Al- 
bania, the northern parts-of Greece, Denmark 
and Ireland, arc the largeft and moft power- 
ful, and are made «fe of for drawing carriages. 
The Irifh Greyhounds (Jig, 30. J are of very, 
ancient race and ftill exift, though in fmall 
numbers In their original climate. They were 
called by the ancients, dogs of Epirus and 
Albanian dogs; Pliny has recorded in tenWs 
as energetic as elegant, a-cohibat' of one of 
thefe dogs, firft with a lion ani afterwards 
with an elephant. Thefe dogs are much 
larger than the maftiff*; they are fo rare iA 
France that I never faw but one of them, and 
he appeared as' he fat to be about five feet high^ 
and in form refembfed the large Danifh dog'; 
but exceeded him very much in his fize. He 
was quite white, and his manner was perfeftly 
gentle and peaceable. In all temperate cli^ 
mates, as in England, France, . Spain, Ger- 
many .and Italy, we find men and dogs of 
all kinds^. This variety proceeds partly froraf 
the influence of the climate, and partly fronl 
the concourfe and intermixture ot foreigners* 
On the former we fhall not -enlarge here, but 
with i:erpe<a: tQ th^ dogs, wc fliall obferve, 


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^. * 

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With as much' attention ^$ poffible, the refeni- 
blances and differeaces whidh care, foo4 ^nd 
xliinate h«ve produced among thefe animals* ' 
Tl^.e large Dane, (J^. ^u) the Irifli grey- 
hound,^ and the common greyhound/^^. 32./ 
though they appeardiiFerent at the htik tight, are 
never thele& the fame dog^ the lar^e Dane is no 
fidore thsm aplumplrilh greyhound ; and the coth-^ 
inon Irifli greyhound, ren- 
i^red awre thin and delicate by care ; for there b 
not more difference hetawecn thefe three, dog* 
^an beween a Dutchman, a Frenchman, and 
m Italian* . Infuppofing the IriflLgrcybound td 
have been a native of France, he would have 
produced the Daniih: dog in a ooldcf climate^ 
ftnd the grtybouiyi in a war pier ; and this 
fiippofitifin (Jsems to be^pporedby^the fad: of 
the Dmi&L dogs odmingJtq iis^om the ncn-th^ 
and the greyhound from Conftantinople -and 
die • Levant; The fliepl^erd's dog Cfg. ^3.^ 
tiie wolf dog (fig. 34.^ and the Siberian dog 

(fig* 25*) ^^^ ^* ^h® ^*^^ ^gj ^^^ ^^ vi^ich 
indeed might be added the Lapland^ the Ca^ 
sadian, tbe^ Hottentotir and all thofe dogs 
,which have crefl: ^rs ^ in fliort they only differ 
from the (hjepberd*s dog in their height, ill 
being m€»re or lefe covered with hair, and ia* 
that being moire <u: le& kmg, coarfe or buihy^ 


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The hound (fig. 36.> the harrier C^g. 37 J tlilr 
turnfpit^^. 38./ the water dcg (^fj^. 39 J and 
even the fpaniel ([fig. 40.^ may like wife be re- 
garded as the feme dog ; the greateft difference 
between jhem, being the length of their legSf 
and the iize of their ears which, in them all 
are long, foft and pendent. Thefe dogs ar^ 
natives of France i and I do not tiiink we 
£bould feplarate them from what is called the 
harrier of Bengal (Jig. /^i.) as ir only differt 
from our harf ier in its colour. I am fully fatif- 
tied that this dog is not originally from Bengal^ 
pr any other part of India, and that he is not, 
as fome have pretended, the Indian dog (poken 
of by the-aneientSy which they fay was the pro- 
duce of a dog and a tiger, for he has been 
known in Italy above 150 years, and ncvei? 
confidered as a dog come from India but as a;. 
common harrier. 

tngland, France,. Germany, &c. appear M 
have produced, the hound, the barrier, and 
the turnfpit, for thefe dogs almoft immediatel)f 
begin to degenerate on being carried into Per 4 
fia,. Turkey, and fuch^ warm climates. But 
the fpaniels and water • dogs are natives of 
Spain and Barbaryj wher^ the- temperature 
of the air occafions the hair to be longer and 
finer than in any other country. The bull-dog 


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Ii^nved Ar immr JliMm. . 

J^Mihkd irJ^Ji^JffUiMm. 

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HMJuifyJiXBarrOtttc ijfi* . 

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JiMkfAtdfyZJiB^un JSmmfv.ju;;^. 

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which is improperly called the lltttle D^ne, 
fincc he has no refemblance whatever to the 
large Dane except in having the hair 
fliortithe Turkifla dog and the Iceland dog 
(fig* 42. J are but the fame race, which being 
tranfported into a very cold climate has taken 
a ftrong covering, and in the warmer climates" 
of Africa and India has loft its hair. The dog" 
yithout hairy known by the name of th6 
Turkifh dog [fig, 43.) is improperly called,- 
lince it is not in the temperate climates of 
Turkey that dogs lofe their hair, but irt 
Guinea, and in the hotteft climates of the 
Indies that . this change happens ; and the 
Turkifh dog is no other than the fmall Dane^ 
which had been traufported into fome very 
warm climate, ajc^d having loft its hair was 
afterwards brought into Turkey, where, from 
its fingularityj care has been taken toinultiply 
tjie breed. The firft i>i them that was ft en 
ill Europe, according to Aldrovandus, were 
taken in his time into Italy, where they could 
not multiply upon account of the climate being 
too cold for them. But as he gives not any 
defcription of thefe naked dogs, we cannot de- 
termine whether they were like thofe which 
are iiow called Turkiih dogs, or whether we 
ijiould compare them to the finall Dane, fince 


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^4 BvrroN's 

dogs of every breed lofe their hair in very 
warm climates; and as already obferved,- their 
voices aHb. In fome countries they become 
4juite mute ; in others they only lofe the power 
of barking) and howl like wolves, or yelp 
like foxes; and by this ^tjcration they feem to* 
approach their naturat.-flsitev'fof they change 
alfo in tl>feir /ornri and inftirt9:s>i they become^ 
ugly and invariably have ihcit ears aflfume an 
erefl: and pointed fdrm. 

It is only ift temperate climatefe tihat dogs* 
preferv^ t\ieir ardour, courage, fagacity, and' 
other natur^ t^nts, the ^qtrbole of which they 
lofe when • taken Snto veiy v^s^m dimates. 
But, as if Nature never made any thing per- 
£B<SUy ufelefs^ in thofe countries • where they 
cannot Jerve the pur^)ofes for' which we em- 
ploy them, they are in great eftimation for* 
fiofod, and die Negroes prefer their fleflh to that* 
of any other animal. Dogs are* fold in theif 
markets at as dear a rate as^ mutton, venifpHi 
or g^me of any fort; a roafted dog being the 
moft delicious feaflr among the Negroes. If 
i« poiEble that their fondnefs for the flefli c/ 
this animal may be oocafioned by an alteration 
in its quality by the heat of their country, and' 
that although extremely bad in our temperate" 
climates it may receive^ a fupcrior .flavour by* 


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the warmth of theirs. But I rather think this 
appetite depends irtore on the nature of man 
than on the change in die fleOi of the dog, for 
the favages of Canada have the fame partiality 
for dogs flefii as* the N^vods ; and even our 
miffionarii^ ibmetimes oat of them vt^ithout 
difgdJ. «« Dogsj fays Father P. Sabard 
Theodat, ferve in the room of mutton at feafts. 
I have beea feveral times at thefe dog-feafts, 
and I own that at firft they excited in me a 
degroe of hcn'ror, but after tafting them twice 
I found the Havour to be good, and not unlike 

In our climates the fox and wolf are the 
wild animals which approach neareft the dog, 
particularly the fhepherd's dog, which I look 
upon as the ftock and type of the fpeeies; and 
as their inteuial conformation is whdily die 
iame, and thmr external differences very trifling, 
i had an ii^clination to try whether they would v 
breed together: I hoped at leaft to make 
them couple, and diat if they did not produce 
fertile ifidividiials tfae^ would bring forth a 
fpeeies of muli^ which might participate of 
the nature of i>o(}u For this purpofe I pro* 
cured a £he wolf, of about diree months oldJi 
from die woods, and rased her with a (hep« 
herd's- dog of nearly the (ame age* They 
VOL. V. F f , were 

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326 buffon's 

were (hut up together in a pretty large yard^ 

where no other beaft co^ld get accefs, apd 

where they were p'royi/ipd w^|i a^flici^ for their 

retirement; they^ neithe^ of thpip ^l^^ysr^^^ny 








fecoria year they beg^n , to jiM^^r§l,jj^V%feJ&^f 

/oo(J, thougVthey ^yere alway^^^jTuppJ^p^ji^i^ 

mc^e than they could eaf. Thfj , ^ojjf ^fxYfffXi 

begaii the diipute. ^. T^^)f .J?^^ W^fo^^ ^J?9F'? 

carjrie^ to them, on a wppdeji^trgrip^ijr^^.iyy^ga 

the; wolf^; inhe^, W feizipg^.tb^i tj^^t^^^^ 

dexterti^fly'^b^tvifeep ^rj( Jo 4pt flQtljiiJg 

^'he ^all of the^^rd.^it^ i^.j^M ^SH.^^HjW}^ 
<?niy ft<>P,t<? take^ bfe^^ ^^joyx^t^.^pt^^ 
'^ttapl^ the dog i/^ h^^cai^cpe^. iuT^i;4^ IK^ 
'ftronger than^^he wojf^^buLa^ he^^^^^ 
rociqi^s we began to haife iomp fear for hjs,life^ 
and therefore put him on .a collar/ ,Aftef the 
fccond year their quwrels were marpcr, and 


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their combats more frequent, when a collar was 

a!fo put on the wolf, , whom the dog began t;^ 

freat more roughly. During ihefe tvyo years 

there visas' not the leaft appearance of defire in 

either 6( t^i'ehi'; towar Js me'eiid of the third 

th^y b^gan' to dlfcover (ome 'marlcs of it, bat 

it Veas' without any figiis of love, and inftead 

of rendering tliem more gentle when they ap- 

proadiededch other, they became ferocious 

ami ungoverh^l^; Nothing was .how heard 

imt fflfm^'howlirigs mixed with cries of anger j 

in tibbat thr^e Wei^ks they both grew very thin, 

and" itever .canie near each other without indi- 

Catibnis of mutu^ d^ruflion. At length' they 

^cw^ fo'etiraged ^d fought fo dreadfully, that 

.theffog killed the wolf}, and I was obliged to 

have'the dog killed a few days after, becaufc as 

jfoon a^'hb was fet at liberty^ he (priing with 

fury oil the ptodltry, dogs, and even men. 

. At therfame time I had three young foxes, 

two m?d€^'and a female, "Svhictl had been taken 

whh fnares and kejtt in feparate places.' . 1 had 

one of theie fafteiied With a long light chain, 

and teid an hut built to flielter him. I kept 

him ill this manner feveral months, and though 

he feemed penfive ancl had his eyes' conftantly 

fixed on the country, which he could fee from 

his hut, yet he had conftatitly good health and 

F f 2 appetite. 

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3^8 - ' 4l>r?^#9 ' 

but as (he would not remait^'il^-^^fiKt,^^ 
ivas dboih^njli fik^^«iMe^^^I^e«^'#» ^^7 of 

rehiaiiiednu^^fllQ^ <»«i^'W^^'hoi('tl^ iB^Mt 
^ianral 'beMt^h ^i^i' fkifiieF^|{^ bFi»)^ 
nor t9terv4i)iejr>fid K^' b#'<$l^^ ^pf^cKifl li^^ 

niott, • A«'«ghi^ df defJte Mifij^»Wp ^'f^. 
tuttneiln^'bebticA^ hoafirlA i^^l1if%i¥;^ Wl 
AoimerOMrfe took plic^/ 'Wfi#i^ llft^ aiiieUr 
Of thit bittli iirai gone, aflbfliler^^^^vi^H'i 
third and foorthx^refbt toVM^^^"^'!^ 
maiitief J he l^eat^ttem i^llifitiilMS^fi^ gin* 
tfeiieft 4Uid #iib; the ^me^mmiSk^ i'iSS^yt 

iheft^orr^draMhe ivas kq^'K|fiFii^^ift^A 
hid c«)«il^Kng, I had ^ Urmafe (if Hi^ 'b^h'^i* 
cieabrotightt6' hid' Which he cS^tetWl iifo!re 

lisrirfcW^iredc^ after^fd^' W6 fotihrfft*''^ 
iffifpregiiatci*, ati* wenjlif hitYe'^'j^bi^i^f<Mt 
yb&hg' cnte*. The ©th* mite ftbf' Wis'!fiicbe& 
fiyety prefentted with fir^eraHlHfches'm'lcafen) 
VhowfcreflKitup \^th hJm lA a clofe court- 
yard, htrt he difcovered neithci:' Hatred^ noJ- Ibvc 
tethem^ Ibcjrtad neither combats nor ca^efTes, 


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and lie die^ ^^^S^WirttKaptte itfl^'^itherof dif- 

-^ J^^^ilH* %'>*^ fpQpiesf^f ffti d^Aii^iASilo 
P»!!Kflt ^Ur)int^TOixture, a^Jjiaft .tm^gijc dU 
xmf^cf ^a^nCQ^feiW^ntly the d9eAdi€B tfectfid^ 
dY? 'iH^i >9fi»gfft; frflW^ th^ W<ri#|o^ J^,nart* that 

n^^fljs np^^IJ^^lpv•€^<teB Wili'dc}gs,,0r,«rhQ 

&i??SiK 2fl^ si^ff* ^ ^ j^hre^cio #«»inoniitbc 
napi^jf iPggj.Jii^«5deceiv;«l th^ifuftivft^ kftiH 

tjfg^ia a;^9qp»8i,awfla^ iv^ic^ i$ il^^itfe-: 

tl^^^^.W^w4^ ^ j?gFfcilt,hps,t>eefit 

^y^£^^9^Srflf WrWW fffveUfrs, ,T<^y.^e: 

apd 4^^ abpfft |>ibifp^^^ lyiouat, Cjftttr/ 

this aiii^ ,i^ coj9ili[4^i:^..byi ttje pa^fj»s,,^w^Si. 
he, is, fow(}^ a^ ^ wijdi <>f)g,^ Y^^m%\ir^^y<' 
doubtful., v^ixq^ei:, |)^j;.jr>t9rnjix,) wg^^lialjf tne^t:. 
of him ast a^fcparalje. ij^ck^a^^yr^^ xfee^ fij3| i 
Ff3 ^ and 

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Mim *Wi m^udtJfcm atto4eR:wa*.b«ft 

tlf4?lp,,b«fWifcth!P tiger, i^of ft^^fitkiBvay 
£Km:i^me.di£^imtifrG|in >«bei4^^^^ 6thi^ 

If^m dog Hgf^c^ed&i^ftom ;iu)^^ivtid« betA^^iaA* 
r&mbUngj^t wolf .9r'i^o<.f«i»j Ji^rsAetwaedar 

from a -tigec anda bit^ or irooi 'mjAj^ itsi st 
t folely 

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iiAifta |Bbti{ile 'ti%ethdn Airtffts* i&e!ri» tod 

<ieirvi$;^h)t 'credit i foi*^Hie'^n«ff«'wfe bMfeivcthe 
«iftil»'tolFj»nfe«a*i ifce' merer We perceive* that 
{toiftifaatioif^ 4Sf iflftiiia i^ ^ d«>itf certaifi 
iwajr ltd Jftdge of cheat. By the nwA attentive 
mamiiift^ian' of the'imsbrior pikrts We only-clil^ 
tsDiscii.ifligh^ xBfieireiices. The horfe and .af^ 
liiM^ tfaey love a m6& ptrfkSt refentUanc^ 
^n-'tfieiiiitefBahpartSy afe) nevcffthelefe, smiiMts' 
ofcverf dififereift hatdrey, Theb^, rant, ahd 
fttit; differ Hut Httfe in their internal ^for- 
ftmtiol^ i&ougfar they form thl*ee fpeticn mbre 
diftaiic^thaifiMdie horfe and the s^ ;'ant] the feme 
i*fafvari6» holds? 'With refpeftftd^'tlwetfeg? thte 
fo/snd the wc4f.- -Th* ilir|y«a}Dii<bf the ex- 
^tentt) ibrnr giv«9 us mdrc iniSghHnt& it* Asr 
in' many lpecies> however, efpeciaHy thbfe the 
kaft diftant, there is even in the'exsaior much- 
more reiemUance than difi^fence, this in(^- 
tionis noifaSxikaxto M^fttfdM whether they^ 


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33^ buffon's 

are of the (ame or diiFerent fpecles; and wheir 
the (hades are dill lefe we can only combine 
them with the agreements they have with in- 
- AinSt. It is from the difpofitlons of animals 
that we ihould judge of their natures ; if we 
fuppofe two animals quite the fame in their, 
forms, yet different in their difpoiitions, they 
would not copulate ncr brefed together, and 
however much alike they would therefore be 
two diftinft fpecies. 

. The fame means to which we are obliged 
to have recourfe to judge of the difference of 
neighbouring fpecies, are thofe we ought to 
employ when we would diftinguiih the nu- 
merous varieties which take place in the fame 
^cies. We know of thirty varieties in the 
dog, and yet it is certain that we are not ac- 
quainted with them all. Of thefe thirty there 
are feventeen which may be faid to be owing 
to the influence of climate, namely, the fhep- 
herd's dog, the wolf dog, the Siberian dog, 
the Iceland dog, the Lapland dog, the Iriih 
greyhound, the common greyhound, the maftiiF> 
the great Dane, the hound, the harrier, 
the terrier, the fpaniel, the water-dog, the 
fmall Dane, the Turkifh dog, and the bulU 
dog. The thirteen others, which are the 
mongrel Turkiih dog, the greyhound with 



3^iidrno3 vlao ii^D aw ?l5l ilift 3i£ ^sbAJifl ;; 
-ni fliiw ovxifi yarij ?Jnorr*^'3i^ii aril duw iriv .' 
^lEfrH^B ^o Hnobiloqlib arij rnoi) 8^ jI .iiti; 
3w \i ^8Diu}£n liarb Ho 9gbjj[ bliiodi aw in,. 
ibrfj ni ornLl ariJ simp ekmine ov/j ^'i-Ajf.: 
>(5rij fRnojlTHMJlil) iui13 ill ^*^e>^2Tllb 2^^ ,^1x1:1. 
hilt. -'.o,;rri.o7 ty^nd i:n '^jr.luvjo:- loa biLo 

o.i J^^i-'O :>v ■-...;•: :> ,, . ■^..' piinuorid^:!..- 
..LCJ*. zir>: I ■ ''.'.■ ■] ■ ■ • ■ . ,. -^^ .. / iij;tj> • 

i~^-- " '' 'V ' ■• ■ .- -* ■■ ' '• / ••■• '-J 

^', .\- ti-j. . .n.< J. It -^ ; ,..^ A ,, ^^ •'. /■ ! 

.^i.-i fill, ^.-^t 1 ij..>' ,. .] .,: . -:^,L L..!.ji .. 

, •■•■i.j.>;'v ' 

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hair like a wolf, the (hock dog, (fig, 44.) or 
lap dog," the pug dog> the baftard pug dog, the 
Calabria^, Burgos, and Alicant dogs, the lion 
dog, (fig. 45,) the fmall water dog, the Artois 
dog, and the King Charles*s dog, (fig, 46.) 
are nothiog but mongrels which proceed from 
idle iirii: feventeea races; and by tracing the& 
ihongrels back to the two races from which 
they iflue their natures will be eafdy known ; 
l>tit with refpe£l to the flrft feventeen races^ if 
lire wdt^ld know what relations ^ere is among 
litem we muft attend to their inftin^ hna$f 
$ai manyr odier drcamftaiKcs^ f have put 
together the (bepherd^s dogy the wolf dog5 th9 
Siberian, &e Lapland, and the Iceland dk^s, 
becaufe there i^ a mcn-e ftriking refemblance 
between them dian afiy others, in their Ibrmt 
sod coats, and becauie they have all pointed 
noTeSy fomewhat like the fooc, erefb ears> and 
whofe inftinds lead them to watch and foQdw 
' our flocks. The Irifih greyhoim^ the targ<^ 
pane, and the comittoi^ greyiioitnd, have, be«» 
iides^ the reiemblance of form and long fn<^ty 
the fame cKfpofitions ; they love to courfe aikl 
to follow horfesj they have bift indifferenc 
nofes, and bant rather from their fight than 
their fcent. The real hunting dogs are the 
hounds, harrierS), terriers^ fpanidls, and. water- 

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334 ' buffon's 

dogs, and notwithftanding they differ in figure 
yet they have all thick muzzles, the fame in- 
ftindls, and therefore ought to be clafled to<* 
gether j the only difference between the water- 
dog and the fpaniel is, that thofe with Ipng 
bufhy hair take to the water with more facility 
than thofe whofe hair is fhort and ftraight. The 
fmall Dane and Turk ifli* dog muft be ranked 
together, fince they are in h& the fame ; the 
latter having only loft his hair by the effeds of 
heat. Laftly, the. bull-dog, (/j'. 47.) feems 
to form a particular variety, and even to belong 
toaparticular climate ; he isanative of England, 
wd it is difHcult to prefer ve the breed .ever in 
France. The pug-dog, (yff . 48. ) and mafliiF 
(fii* 49- ) are mongrels from him, and they fuc- 
ceed much better > they all have (hort muzzles 
and but little fcent. The acutenefs of the (cent, 
however, feems in general to depend more on 
thelargcnefs than the length of the muzzle, for 
the greyhound, large Dane, and the Irifh grey- 
bound, have their fccnt very inferior to the 
hound, harrier, terrier, fpaniel, and water- 
dog, although their muzzles are more than pro- 
portionally longer. 

Thcfe animals have all a greater or lefs per- 
foftion of the fenfes, and thefe differences^ 
which in noan occafioos not any eminent or re- 

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(t; ■;>/.,.,! -i'j/y:K- I- 

, j: cJLu^yjp^ 

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markable quality, gives to animals all their 
merits and produces as a caufe all their talents 
of which their natures are fufceptible. I fliall 
not here take upon myfelf to enumerate all the 
qualities of the fp.orting dogs, it is well known 
how much the excellence of their fenfe offmel- 
Kng, together with their education given ^tljem, 
the fuperiority over other animals ; but thefe 
details belong only to a diftant part of Natural 
Hiftory. Beftdes the tricks and dexterity, 
though proceeding from nature alone, made ufe 
of by wild animals to elude the refearches, or 
to avoid the purfuit of the dogs, are perhaps 
more wonderful than the moft refined methods, 
praAifed in the art. of hunting. 

The dog, as well as all animals which pro- 
duce more than., one or two at a time, is not 
perfe<a:ly formed at the time of its birth. 
Dogs are commonly whelped with their eyes 
fhut; the two eyelids are not only, clofed 
together, but adhere by a membrane which 
breaks away as foon as the mufcles of the upper 
eye-lid acquires fufficient ftrength to raife itfelf 
and overcome this obftacle, which commonly 
happens about the tenth or twelfth day. At 
this time the bones of the fcuU are not finiflied, 
the body and fnout fwelled, and the whole form 
incomplete J but in lefs than two months they 


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336 tvrros^s 

learn to mateufeof all tfaeirfenfes, begin to liave 
ftrength, and their growth is very raj^d. In 
the fourth month they lore feme of ffaeir teeth^ 
wluch as 'in other animals, are fi>on replaced 
hy others that do not ifall out. They nave in 
all 42 teeth, namely fix incitivie, and two canine 
at top and at bottom, fourteen grinders in the 
upper, and twelve in the under-jaw; butthtefe 
latter are not always the fattie, as ibme dogs 
have more grinders than others. When very 
young, males and females bend down to avoid 
their water; about the ninth or tenth month, the 
males and feme femdes, begin Coliftnp their legs 
for that purpose, and at which time iiUsy begin to 
be 'capable of engendering; The male can 
couple at all' times, but the females only at 
ilated feaibns, which are ufually twice a year, 
^nd liiore frequently in winter than in fixmmer; 
this inclination lafts ten, twelve, and femetimes 
fifteen day% and {hews itfelf by exterior figns ; 
the male is apprized of her fituation by his 
fmell, although Ihe feldom confents to his ap* 
'proaching her for the firft fix or feven days^ 
Once coupling is fometimes fuiEcient'for her 
to produce a great number of young, but if left 
atliberty (he will adnnit almoft every dog that 
pre&ms himiein It has been obierved, that 
when allowed tochoole for hprielf^ (be generally 

, prefers 

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prefers the largeft, mthout attcading cither to 
his form or beauty ; and it frequently happens 
that fmall bitches who have received large . 
itiaftiffs die in bringing forth their yoiing. In 
<oupling^, from a iingular confortliation, thefc 
animals cannot feparate after confummationy 
but are obliged to remain united as long as the 
fwellingfdbfifts. The dog, llke^ fcveral other 
^mals, has not only a bone in its member, but 
alfo an hollow ring, which- is very apparent, 
and fwells* confiderably during the time of 
Population. The females have poffibly the largeffc 
clitoris of any ahioial, and while x:ompreffed 
^ fwelling arifes which perhaps lafts longer than 
that of the male, and forces l»m to remain.; for 
when the z£t is &liihed he changes his pofition, 
to reft on his four legs s he has atfo a meian* 
cholyair, and the efforts for fcparation are never 
made on the female fide. Bitches go nine 
weeks with young,, that is 63 days, 'but never 
Ifefs than 6o* Thofe of the largeft an<f 
ftrongeft make are the moft prolific, and thofe 
will fometimes produce ten or twelve puppies 
at a litter ; while thofe of a fmall kind do not 
bring forth more than four or five, and fre- 
quently but one or two; efpecially the firfif 
time, which is always the leaft numerous in 
dl animals^ 
VOL. v, • G g Though 

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338 . buffon'« 

Though dogs are very ardent in their amoar^ 
it docs not prevent their duration, for they con- 
tinue to propagate during life, whidi is ufualljr 
limitted to fourteen or fifteen yearsj- though 
fome have been knov^n to live rill twenty. 
Length of- life in dogs is> like that cf other 
animals, proportioned to the time of his 
growth : for as they are ahout. two-years in 
coming to maturity, fo they lire to twice feven. 
The dog'is age may be known by hTs te6th, 
wjilch, when Jie is young, are mhite^ Ih'arp, and 
ppinted, and which, in proportion as he advances 
inagci become black, blunt, and Unequal; it 
is aifo to be known by the hair, for' it turns 
grey about the nofe, forehpad, and round the. 
eyes. Thefe animals, though naturally vigt- 
lantj adivqv ^ formed for exerci% by being 
over fed in our houfes become fo heavy arid idle 
that th€;y p^s their lives in fleeping and eating. 
This fl6ep, v^ich is almoft' continuafl, is ac- 
companied I^ ^r<;ams^ vrfiich js perhaps a ttnU 
manner* of exifting; and notwithftandihg they 
are naturally voracious, yet they can fubfift 
without eating a confiderable time. In the 
Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences,, there 
is an account of a bitch, who having bo?n ac- 
cidental]/ left in a country-houie> fiibfii^ 40 
days ^tithoiut'^any bthei^ nduriihmcnt'tiw the 
'\ ■" '' fluff 

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ftufF on the wool of a matrafs, which (he had 
torn to]ipieces. Water feems to be more nc- 
ceflary.for thsm-than food, for they drink fre- 
quently, and very abundandy 5 and it is even 
a vulgar opinioii that if tjiey want water for a 
lengt^i of time they become mad. It is a 
circumftance peculiar to them that they feerrt 
to make great efforts, and fulrer pain in voiding 
their excremefnts. This rs not occafioned, as 
AriftotJe allcdges^ from their, inteftines be- 
coming narrower in approaching the amis ; 
foTj on the contrary, it is certain^ that in the 
dog, as- in other animals, the great inteftines 
grow bigger as they proceed downwards, and 
that the re<Sum is larger than the colon: the 
drynefs of tb^ temperament of this animal is 
fujfScient of itfelf to produce this effefl:. 

To give a clear idea of the difEjrent kiiyis 
of dogs, of their degeneration in .different cli- 
mates, and of the mixture of their breed, I 
fubjoin a kind ofgen^jogical tree^ in which 
all the diflferent' varieties may eafily be dif- 
tinguifljed. ^ITie Ihtpberd*^ dog is the ftock 
or body of the tree.. This dogj, when tranf- 
ported into the rigoFous climates of the north,- 
fuch 51$^ to Lapland, b^-bccomes ugly and 'fmall, 
but in Riiffia, Iceland, and Siberia, where the 
climate is rather lefs rigorousj and the people 
G g 2 more 

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J40 buffon's 

more civilized, he is not only preferved btit 
even brought to greater per^(S:idtiu*ftl1iefe 
changes are occafioned by the itifiilS^' of 
thofe cKmates, Which produce iio ^ikt'^ti^i-a- 
tion in his form, for in each of tli^ie ^li^aites 
this dog has ereft ears> long anrf^^'thick* hair^ 
and a wild look j he tarks alfo lels 'frequently> 
and in a difFerent manner^ thdn* in more fa- 
vourable regions^ where he lis brought to 
greater perfedlion. The ' Iceland dog 'is the 
only one that has not his eari'fentirejy'ereft, 
but which beiid or fold^ a little at theiir 'ix^ 
treniities ; aiid Iceland is, of; all the noi'thern 
countries, diat which has been moft anciently 
inhabited by hdf civilized men. 

The feme fhepherd's do^, trarifported &Ca 
temperate climates, and among people pcr- 
fe<5Hy civilia&ed, as thofe of England, Fr^ce, 
or Germany, lofe their favage air, cre£l eafs> 
their long, thick, and rougli hair, a^ take th^ 
form of the hound, bull-dog, and^riih grey- 
houndr Gf the two latter the ^rs are iftiU 
partly ere£l:, or only half pendent; s^nd in their 
manners and finguinary difpoiStions very much 
f^femble the dog from which they drew their 
origin. The hound is the moft diftant oT the 
three, his ears are long and pandeht, and the 
gentleneis,. dccility and» we may %, the 


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tfeidity of this dog, are fo many proofs of the 
great degcneratl^n^or, inore properly, the great 
perfeiftion he has ac^iripd by a long ftate of 
doipefiicity,^ a careful . education bcftowed 

• Th«:hQund>,,the harrier, aad the terrier, are 
only,Qa9 jace^ ioi it has been remarked that iill 
the.fa;ne Uttpr thepe have, been harriers, terriers, 
and hound% thpugb the female hound had beeil, 
only 4JOY^jred,by.,()ine of the three dogs* I 
h^c.?Quple4,.th5i Bengal ^larrier with a com- 
nion barrier, becaufe thpy differ; only by, the 
number of,fpot6„upon jtheir coats. I have alfo, 
CQyjj)led tl^e turnipit, .qr terrier with crogJked., 
legs, with the commoq terrier, ))ecau(e;tl>erde-,. 
fe<3;^ ^ihe.legs.of this^dogptilj^vpriiv;^^^ 
a difeafe foqi^what Jike the rick;etf ^ - witby;Whic|l , 
fome injdividuafs hav-^ bpen^attackcdi ^nd triff-. 
mitted <the effefls to their defcetidaqt^. - j 1 / 

.Th(^ Jipijnd, if' trWpc^te^ iit^o Spai^. an4 
Barbaryji w^^^, all,,^ifna|fs have, the hair, finej . 
lopg,"and thick, .wp\4d becopi^ thet fpani^ apciL ^ 
water-dog. The gre^t ^4 fofi^l fpaniel, which, 
diflFcr. only in fize, when brought | into, , !j^ng-j„ 
land change their cojour from >yhite;to Jjl^,. 
and, by the^ influence pf the climate^ Aave,bQ?^. 
come the largje and. (mall |Cing'^ Cjiarles's dog^ 
and the .beagle^ which i?,' in fa^\tbc fam^eas the . 
Gg 3' others. 

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^ers, but widi linfr-^^nlqoaeiluiQirks o^ 
four feet^o^er the eys8)afid4>ii^dttiinfiu: . . 

Tb& Irifli gTBtfhoxptd^ fiiut^rtBd!>tjil ?tfac 
north, is beooma the large Oanc^iandJltt tlnr 
foutb chsmges into a comHiofi grejdioiiift^t.Tfai 
large gr^yhoinds €ORie:lrotnlkBL]Le;«my''.tfaofer 
of a mtddlkig fize Cifom itail;iv'-m4itii£ Jaittty 
being taken into £iig}anA hafet^bdsocm fliil 
finaller. :Tbe iti^ Datney tttefportiui'nt^^ 
Ireland^^the Ukraine Tarta»)s>£pbws,:.dnS 
Albania, have become die hi^ I#ifli^4»g4 
which in fixe (wrpsA ali th« .reft ^dfr;thi^iQ)^Mu 
The, tranfpoFted' fionfr Erijgttod iiH^ 
Denmarky Is become the final! Sane, >ai{il tb|i 
fmall Dane taken inco t^mfdimaiet ^faangibd' 
into the Turkiih dog. All thefe racesy vAix- 
their varietits, bave beea produced ibld^. by 
the infliieiicG o( clknate, Jdned toidis effiifia- 
of food and education } tbq other dogs-jate:'iiot 
pure r4QQ8^bi|t proceed fr^m a^ouiitiiiw oFidiofe 
abbvc* . ■ ; .,.-... • • ■ . . ; 

Xbe r^greyhoond sai fli^pheid^ deg iiave 
producod. the mbngrd greyhound,. v4iieh is^ 
called the gi«j(houiid with the wotf's cloathkig*^ 
The xtofe'Of this mongrel H tiot to diin as^ 
that of the Turkiibh gteyhottmK which is very 
rare in Francci. The lar^e'Dane and the hrgp- 
fpamel have produced tbt d^ .o£< Calabna,. 


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NATCfRAt mSTOkV. ifj 

wKch is St'httndfiwi«R Jog, -with long tfcitk haSv 
and highieraa 'ftrtute ^» Ac . laqgeft; tnaffiffi 
The ^aifid aqd Jlflrri^'proctectB vAat: is-Called 
die Butgun^i^fAradt;^ ana feom. thtf fpdrrid 
aikl^rinaUi J3d^e*^>^afocx»BSK'dsr'lbn dog^ vvlndi 
fs.Jibw,Tti^fcante.'noTh)rA3gs';OT fine 

euried Mrt^^whiQ& are'eaiied the Botifib dogs^, 
and whit^'i aco l>igga> : tlma the waterlogs,, 
come^jfcw dte yatSBrido^-and large ^ahkL 
Tbe.:]Wi^ :wa|«t&)4 eomcs from thc.fmaB 
fym^i:^ d»e ^tet*-dogi. Thf bull-dog tod 
riia.JUiiftilgiieyhtmad pRQduce a mongrel xaHed. 
tbf.i|iaftiffi Ivlwh iji larger ; than the. bidl-Jogy 
y0t ikppro^i^h^ 'him m<?re. tha» the Qifacr;:.ahd 
ibq^p^ comes fromJhe IwiU-dog and (He Xbali 

' J>anO.-r ^ - - •.;. . .•■'':•. i •^;^ •-: 

M jdiefe.race$ »® fimple uKAigi^s, ^a)M 
coiiie &tm the/mlxtuiie of two pare i^G€s;s 

. but 'dicre -^e other dogs which^ may be called 
dcrtible iijiongoels, becaufe the/' pfioceed from a 
pure race and one already mixed. The baft^d 
pug .is: a -doxAlQ mongrel,. and: comes £^m a 

.'mtK^uzie of die pt^ -with the £aiall} Dane.. ^ The 

. Alicant ddg 19 alfo ^ doui)4e moagrel J; be pro- , 
.ceed^ from the pug and the fiiiall fp^ioL. The 
Malteie,{Hlog) is a doublar mongtiely and 
cotn^^from .^ fn^^l fpanlel afidiitfle water- 

, dogi- An\ finr, th« aiaB\da^; M^nch may be • 


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3^ j»ffon'5* • 

called trq>Ie inongrd%,b^i|fe..(hrey piioce^J 
from the mbrture. o| fMjp,r:^c^.)¥^h have 
already been - mixed jj^ as tl\e 4^^9i^jfjp^.^;ind 
what is calle4 the j^r^rt ^«^^^^^\d^^i?^ i:efe»W^ 
all dogs in general, .buti.ijp^;^f^^p^f^<;wl}^^ 
fmcethejr procee^ fro^n^ races ^^ji:i^,^Y^^- 
veral times been mixed. ,. ,,^ . ^^ -^. y ^rir- 

THE following curious fail I^^hadi/rjQjOg. • 
M. de Maillyj <^^thc Acadpiny^.of .I^yQi^,; • 
*<The curate of NpjTges^. near I)i^9/i^..liAS a. 
bitch which has \iad , all ..thjj fegptpo^f of '■ 
pre^nanc^j^ and having. puppies, without^ haviiig^. 
been in either ftate. She was-^roudj^ but ¥^. 
not fufFered to go with a dogi^ jet at th^ .en4 
of the ufual term her paps were filled with • 
milk, and fhe brought upjome yoi^ig pijpple^ > 
that were taken to her% with as much care and . 
tendernefs as if they had really bee^i hej ownj 
and what is more lingular, this l^c bitch^ , 
about three years fince, fuclded two yojung; 
kittensi one of which has imbibed 'fo much of 
the iwture of heriiurfe that hfex cries iplinltely , 


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more refemble the tones of a dog than thpfe of 
a cat,** This is certainly a rare phenomenon, 
and was this produSion of milk without im-* 
pregnation more freqaent,it would render female 
am'mals more analogous to female birds whopro** 
dute eggs' without connexion with the male. 

The Ruflians have brought feveral dogs to 
Paris, as Siberians^ a verjr different race front 
tiiofc wftteh weliare defcriBed ; one in parti- 
cular, both male and female, were about the . 
iize of a common greyhound^ with pointed 
nofes, ears half erig3^.ju»l;iong t^iU; diey 
were entirely black, excepting a fpot of .white 
which the fefhale had upon the top of .tjie head^ 
and one which the male had ujpon his tail i 
thdy Mrerc v^ry fond, but exceedingly dirty and 
voracious, and it was aliiioft impoffible to fa- 
tisfy them with food 5 upon the whole, they 
ivere evidently' of the lame race as we have 
treated of under the dienominatlon of Iceland 
dogs; . ; 

Mr, Colinfon, wjio had made various re-« 
fearches concerning the Siberian dogs, inform-^ 
ed nie thjit their. riofes. were pointed, and their 
ears long, tbi^ fome of them carried their tails 
like the wolf, odiers in the fame manner as the 
fox, and that they certainly engendered with 
hoilti tiiofe animals s that he liad himfelf feen 


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dogs and wolves couple iii England, and zV^ 
though he knew oP no one ^ho could fay the 
(kme with regard to dbgs and foxes, from the 
kind wiell khown Aef e by the name of the fox- 
dogs, he did not think there eooM be any doubt 
of the fsift* 

The Greenland ddgs are moftly white^ 
Aough fotne fwv are blacky and have very thfclc 
eoate J they eHtpk>y them for drawing their 
fledges, by putt?ng four or fix of tfieni together.;/ 
theyalfo eat their flcffi; and toake clothes of 
their (kins*- The Kamtfoatka^dgs are alfo either 
black or* lyhke, -and are tifed for dfavvirig 
Hedges-; they a?e-fuffcred to run at large during 
the fummer, and tn winter they are fed with a 
fort bf pafte' made w5* fifli. '"Thefe dogs oF 
Gre^iiand »nd Kam^fchatka,- as well as the 
Ruffian dogs juft mentroned, have ^ ftrong re-- 
ieciiblands <?» At I^etand dogs, and are mbft 
probaWy of thef fame rate.- ^ ' • ^ ' 

Notwithftandfng the varieties Thave defcrib^ 
ed^ there .arer'fti)! .dthers' remaiiirhg, which I 
hav3C hot been able to procdre ; I hav6 myfelf 
feen two indhridiials df a Wild* race, but could 
not get a fuffictent opportunity even t« defcribe 
them. M. Aubry, curate, of St. Louis, infornl-^ 
ed. us that a few years fince be (aw a dog about . 
the.iiaK of a ^aniel, wkh long hair and a very 


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large beard on his chin. Louis XIV. had 

ifome of thcfe dogs ient to him by M. le Comte de 
Touloufe 'y and Comte de Laflai had feme of 
die fame breed, but there is not any of them 

to be found at preffnt 

I have little to add with refpe£): to tlie wild 

^ogs, of which there are different races, to 
what is contained in my original work ; and 
the following, acgount of the wild dog found 
>near the Cape .of Gopd Hope, I had from 
M. ie Vicomte de Querhoent; he lays, there 
arc a great number of packs of wild dogs at 
the Cape i their (kins are fpotted with various 
colours, and fome of xhem are very larger 
their ears are ere<5t, nin extremely faft, and 
have no conftant place .of abode. They kill the 
lieer in great numbers, are feldom deftroyed 
themfelves, and are .very di^ult to be caught 
in fnares, from carefully avoiding every thing 
that has been touched by man. Several of their 
young have bttui taken in the woo4s) and fome 
of thofe it has been ^tf mpted tx> render domef- 
tic, but they grow up fo large and fo ferocious 
that the attempt has been given up as in vain. 


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